Abstract

A simple analytical expression for threshold pump power in an end-pumped quasi-three-level solid-state laser, which takes into account the influence of energy-transfer-upconversion (ETU), is derived. This expression indicates that threshold pump power can be increased dramatically by ETU, especially in low gain lasers and lasers with pronounced three-level character due to the need for high excitation densities in the upper manifold to reach threshold. The analysis has been applied to an Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 nm in-band pumped by an Er,Yb fiber laser at 1532 nm. Predicted values for threshold pump power as a function of erbium doping concentration are in very good agreement with measured values. The results indicate that very low erbium doping levels (~0.25 at.% or less) are required to avoid degradation in performance due to ETU even under continuous-wave lasing conditions in Er:YAG.

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  1. W. A. Clarkson, R. Koch, and D. C. Hanna, “Room-temperature diode-bar-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 946nm,” Opt. Lett. 21(10), 737–739 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(9), 1592–1600 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. A. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid state lasers,” J. Phys. D. 34(16), 2381–2395 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power in-band pumped Er:YAG laser at 1617 nm,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5807–5812 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58(24), 16076–16092 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Influence of energy-transfer-upconversion on the performance of high-power diode-end-pumped cw lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 615–619 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, and T. Catunda, “Energy transfer upconversion determination by thermal-lens and Z-scan techniques in Nd3+-doped laser materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(5), 1002–1007 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. García Sole’, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(23), 235111 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Spariosu, M. Birnbaum, and B. Viana, “Er3+:Y3A15012 laser dynamics: effects of upconversion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(5), 894–900 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Bjurshagen and R. Koch, “Modeling of energy-transfer upconversion and thermal effects in end-pumped quasi-three-level lasers,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4753–4767 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1645–1656 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. O. White, M. Dubinskii, L. D. Merkle, I. Kudryashov, and D. Garbuzov, “Resonant pumping and upconversion in 1.6 μm Er3+ lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2454–2460 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Modeling of diode-end-pumped Q-switched solid-state lasers: influence of energy-transfer upconversion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(7), 1558–1563 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Kubodera and K. Otsuka, “Single-transverse-mode LiNdP4O12 slab waveguide laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 50(2), 653–659 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Georgescu and O. Toma, “Er:YAG three-micron laser: performances and limits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 682–689 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Taira, W. M. Tulloch, and R. L. Byer, “Modeling of quasi-three-level lasers and operation of cw Yb:YAG lasers,” Appl. Opt. 36(9), 1867–1874 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient Er,Yb-doped fiber laser with 188W free-running and > 100W tunable output power,” Opt. Express 13(13), 4916–4921 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Georgescu, V. Lupei, A. Lupei, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, and M. I. Studenikin, “Concentration effects on the up-conversion from the 4I13/2 level of Er3+ in YAG,” Opt. Commun. 81(3-4), 186–192 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. O. Iskandarov, A. A. Nikitichev, and A. I. Stepanov, “Quasi-two-level Er:Y3Al5O12 laser for the 1.6 μm range,” J. Opt. Technol. 68, 885–888 (2001).
  22. M. Eichhorn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+:YAG at 300-550K and their effects on the 1.6mm laser transition,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 249–256 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power in-band pumped Er:YAG laser at 1617 nm,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5807–5812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichhorn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+:YAG at 300-550K and their effects on the 1.6mm laser transition,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 249–256 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (4)

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient Er,Yb-doped fiber laser with 188W free-running and > 100W tunable output power,” Opt. Express 13(13), 4916–4921 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Georgescu and O. Toma, “Er:YAG three-micron laser: performances and limits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 682–689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. García Sole’, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(23), 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

M. O. Iskandarov, A. A. Nikitichev, and A. I. Stepanov, “Quasi-two-level Er:Y3Al5O12 laser for the 1.6 μm range,” J. Opt. Technol. 68, 885–888 (2001).

W. A. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid state lasers,” J. Phys. D. 34(16), 2381–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Influence of energy-transfer-upconversion on the performance of high-power diode-end-pumped cw lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 615–619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58(24), 16076–16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(9), 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Taira, W. M. Tulloch, and R. L. Byer, “Modeling of quasi-three-level lasers and operation of cw Yb:YAG lasers,” Appl. Opt. 36(9), 1867–1874 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

W. A. Clarkson, R. Koch, and D. C. Hanna, “Room-temperature diode-bar-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 946nm,” Opt. Lett. 21(10), 737–739 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1645–1656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

S. Georgescu, V. Lupei, A. Lupei, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, and M. I. Studenikin, “Concentration effects on the up-conversion from the 4I13/2 level of Er3+ in YAG,” Opt. Commun. 81(3-4), 186–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

K. Kubodera and K. Otsuka, “Single-transverse-mode LiNdP4O12 slab waveguide laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 50(2), 653–659 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Andrade, A. A.

Beach, R. J.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(9), 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, M.

Bjurshagen, S.

Byer, R. L.

Catunda, T.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, and T. Catunda, “Energy transfer upconversion determination by thermal-lens and Z-scan techniques in Nd3+-doped laser materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(5), 1002–1007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. García Sole’, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(23), 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Modeling of diode-end-pumped Q-switched solid-state lasers: influence of energy-transfer upconversion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(7), 1558–1563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Influence of energy-transfer-upconversion on the performance of high-power diode-end-pumped cw lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 615–619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chicklis, E. P.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power in-band pumped Er:YAG laser at 1617 nm,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5807–5812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient Er,Yb-doped fiber laser with 188W free-running and > 100W tunable output power,” Opt. Express 13(13), 4916–4921 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid state lasers,” J. Phys. D. 34(16), 2381–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58(24), 16076–16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Clarkson, R. Koch, and D. C. Hanna, “Room-temperature diode-bar-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 946nm,” Opt. Lett. 21(10), 737–739 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dubinskii, M.

Eichhorn, M.

M. Eichhorn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+:YAG at 300-550K and their effects on the 1.6mm laser transition,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 249–256 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Emanuel, M. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(9), 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Francis, M. P.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fredrich-Thornton, S. T.

M. Eichhorn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+:YAG at 300-550K and their effects on the 1.6mm laser transition,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 249–256 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Friel, G.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D.

García Sole’, J.

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. García Sole’, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(23), 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Georgescu, S.

S. Georgescu and O. Toma, “Er:YAG three-micron laser: performances and limits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 682–689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Georgescu, V. Lupei, A. Lupei, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, and M. I. Studenikin, “Concentration effects on the up-conversion from the 4I13/2 level of Er3+ in YAG,” Opt. Commun. 81(3-4), 186–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58(24), 16076–16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Clarkson, R. Koch, and D. C. Hanna, “Room-temperature diode-bar-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 946nm,” Opt. Lett. 21(10), 737–739 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hardman, P. J.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58(24), 16076–16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heumann, E.

M. Eichhorn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+:YAG at 300-550K and their effects on the 1.6mm laser transition,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 249–256 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Honea, E. C.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(9), 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

M. Eichhorn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+:YAG at 300-550K and their effects on the 1.6mm laser transition,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 249–256 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iskandarov, M. O.

Jacinto, C.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, and T. Catunda, “Energy transfer upconversion determination by thermal-lens and Z-scan techniques in Nd3+-doped laser materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(5), 1002–1007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. García Sole’, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(23), 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. García Sole’, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(23), 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kern, M. A.

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58(24), 16076–16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

Koch, R.

Konves, J. R.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kubodera, K.

K. Kubodera and K. Otsuka, “Single-transverse-mode LiNdP4O12 slab waveguide laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 50(2), 653–659 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kudryashov, I.

Lan, Y. P.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Modeling of diode-end-pumped Q-switched solid-state lasers: influence of energy-transfer upconversion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(7), 1558–1563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Influence of energy-transfer-upconversion on the performance of high-power diode-end-pumped cw lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 615–619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, A.

S. Georgescu, V. Lupei, A. Lupei, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, and M. I. Studenikin, “Concentration effects on the up-conversion from the 4I13/2 level of Er3+ in YAG,” Opt. Commun. 81(3-4), 186–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, V.

S. Georgescu, V. Lupei, A. Lupei, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, and M. I. Studenikin, “Concentration effects on the up-conversion from the 4I13/2 level of Er3+ in YAG,” Opt. Commun. 81(3-4), 186–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Merkle, L. D.

Messias, D. N.

Mitchell, S. C.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(9), 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murina, T. M.

S. Georgescu, V. Lupei, A. Lupei, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, and M. I. Studenikin, “Concentration effects on the up-conversion from the 4I13/2 level of Er3+ in YAG,” Opt. Commun. 81(3-4), 186–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nikitichev, A. A.

Otsuka, K.

K. Kubodera and K. Otsuka, “Single-transverse-mode LiNdP4O12 slab waveguide laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 50(2), 653–659 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(9), 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58(24), 16076–16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rustad, G.

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1645–1656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

Setzler, S. D.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Y.

Skidmore, J. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(9), 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spariosu, K.

Speth, J. A.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(9), 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stenersen, K.

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1645–1656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. I.

Studenikin, M. I.

S. Georgescu, V. Lupei, A. Lupei, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, and M. I. Studenikin, “Concentration effects on the up-conversion from the 4I13/2 level of Er3+ in YAG,” Opt. Commun. 81(3-4), 186–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, S. B.

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(9), 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Toma, O.

S. Georgescu and O. Toma, “Er:YAG three-micron laser: performances and limits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 682–689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tulloch, W. M.

Viana, B.

Wang, S. C.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Modeling of diode-end-pumped Q-switched solid-state lasers: influence of energy-transfer upconversion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(7), 1558–1563 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Influence of energy-transfer-upconversion on the performance of high-power diode-end-pumped cw lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 615–619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

White, J. O.

Young, Y. E.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhekov, V. I.

S. Georgescu, V. Lupei, A. Lupei, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, and M. I. Studenikin, “Concentration effects on the up-conversion from the 4I13/2 level of Er3+ in YAG,” Opt. Commun. 81(3-4), 186–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Eichhorn, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+:YAG at 300-550K and their effects on the 1.6mm laser transition,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 249–256 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

E. C. Honea, R. J. Beach, S. B. Sutton, J. A. Speth, S. C. Mitchell, J. A. Skidmore, M. A. Emanuel, and S. A. Payne, “115-W Tm:YAG diode-pumped solid-state laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(9), 1592–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, and S. C. Wang, “Influence of energy-transfer-upconversion on the performance of high-power diode-end-pumped cw lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 615–619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, “Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(9), 1645–1656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Georgescu and O. Toma, “Er:YAG three-micron laser: performances and limits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 682–689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Kubodera and K. Otsuka, “Single-transverse-mode LiNdP4O12 slab waveguide laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 50(2), 653–659 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. Phys. D. (1)

W. A. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid state lasers,” J. Phys. D. 34(16), 2381–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Georgescu, V. Lupei, A. Lupei, V. I. Zhekov, T. M. Murina, and M. I. Studenikin, “Concentration effects on the up-conversion from the 4I13/2 level of Er3+ in YAG,” Opt. Commun. 81(3-4), 186–192 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58(24), 16076–16092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. García Sole’, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(23), 235111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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