Abstract

Selective excitation of spheroidal whispering gallery modes and bottle modes in a robust bottle microresonator fabricated straightforwardly from a short section of optical fiber is demonstrated. Characteristic resonance spectra of long-cavity bottle modes were obtained by using a tapered fiber to excite evanescently bottle microresonator at different points along its axis. Compared to bare-fiber cylindrical resonators, the bottle microresonator results in a 35x increase of the observed Q factor.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
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2009 (1)

E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, G. Senthil Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Manipulating Spheres That Sink: Assembly of Micrometer Sized Glass Spheres for Optical Coupling," Langmuir 25, 1872-1880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

F. Warken, A. Rauschenbeutel, and T. Bartholomaus, "Fiber pulling profits from precise positioning," Photonics Spectra 42, 73 (2008).

2006 (3)

A. A. Savchenkov, A. A. Matsko, and L. Maleki, "White-light whispering gallery mode resonators," Opt. Lett. 31, 92-94 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Gorodetsky and A. E. Fomin, "Geometrical theory of whispering-gallery modes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 33-39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ward, D. G. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. G. Nic Chormaic, "Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature 424, 839-846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Yen Chao and L. Jay Guo, "Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527-1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

J.-P. Laine, B. E. Little, D. R. Lim, H. C. Tapalian, L. C. Kimerling, and H. A. Haus, "Microsphere resonator mode characterization by pedestal anti-resonant reflecting waveguide coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1004-1006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, "Fiber-coupled microsphere laser," Opt. Lett. 25, 1430-1432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and Th. J. A. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, "Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators," Opt. Lett. 21, 453-455 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chen, Md. M. Mazumder, R. K. Chang, J. C. Swindalt, and W. P. Ackert, "Laser diagnostics for droplet characterization: application of morphology-dependent resonances," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 22, 163-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartholomaus, T.

F. Warken, A. Rauschenbeutel, and T. Bartholomaus, "Fiber pulling profits from precise positioning," Photonics Spectra 42, 73 (2008).

Bartlett, P. N.

E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, G. Senthil Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Manipulating Spheres That Sink: Assembly of Micrometer Sized Glass Spheres for Optical Coupling," Langmuir 25, 1872-1880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

Blom, F. C.

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and Th. J. A. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

Chen, G.

G. Chen, Md. M. Mazumder, R. K. Chang, J. C. Swindalt, and W. P. Ackert, "Laser diagnostics for droplet characterization: application of morphology-dependent resonances," Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 22, 163-188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deasy, K.

J. M. Ward, D. G. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. G. Nic Chormaic, "Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dimmick, T. E.

Driessen, A.

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and Th. J. A. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fomin, A. E.

M. L. Gorodetsky and A. E. Fomin, "Geometrical theory of whispering-gallery modes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 33-39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

M. L. Gorodetsky and A. E. Fomin, "Geometrical theory of whispering-gallery modes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 33-39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, "Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators," Opt. Lett. 21, 453-455 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greene, W.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

Haus, H. A.

J.-P. Laine, B. E. Little, D. R. Lim, H. C. Tapalian, L. C. Kimerling, and H. A. Haus, "Microsphere resonator mode characterization by pedestal anti-resonant reflecting waveguide coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1004-1006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and Th. J. A. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Ippen, E. P.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. R.

Kakaranzas, G.

Kimerling, L. C.

J.-P. Laine, B. E. Little, D. R. Lim, H. C. Tapalian, L. C. Kimerling, and H. A. Haus, "Microsphere resonator mode characterization by pedestal anti-resonant reflecting waveguide coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1004-1006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klitzing, W.

Laine, J.-P.

J.-P. Laine, B. E. Little, D. R. Lim, H. C. Tapalian, L. C. Kimerling, and H. A. Haus, "Microsphere resonator mode characterization by pedestal anti-resonant reflecting waveguide coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1004-1006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Le Roux, R.

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

Lim, D. R.

J.-P. Laine, B. E. Little, D. R. Lim, H. C. Tapalian, L. C. Kimerling, and H. A. Haus, "Microsphere resonator mode characterization by pedestal anti-resonant reflecting waveguide coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1004-1006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

J.-P. Laine, B. E. Little, D. R. Lim, H. C. Tapalian, L. C. Kimerling, and H. A. Haus, "Microsphere resonator mode characterization by pedestal anti-resonant reflecting waveguide coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1004-1006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Long, R.

Maleki, L.

Matsko, A. A.

Morrissey, M. J.

J. M. Ward, D. G. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. G. Nic Chormaic, "Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nic Chormaic, S. G.

J. M. Ward, D. G. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. G. Nic Chormaic, "Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, D. G.

J. M. Ward, D. G. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. G. Nic Chormaic, "Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Popma, Th. J. A.

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and Th. J. A. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

F. Warken, A. Rauschenbeutel, and T. Bartholomaus, "Fiber pulling profits from precise positioning," Photonics Spectra 42, 73 (2008).

Russell, P. St. J.

Savchenkov, A. A.

Senthil Murugan, G.

E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, G. Senthil Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Manipulating Spheres That Sink: Assembly of Micrometer Sized Glass Spheres for Optical Coupling," Langmuir 25, 1872-1880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sercel, P. C.

Shortt, B. J.

J. M. Ward, D. G. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. G. Nic Chormaic, "Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

Tapalian, H. C.

J.-P. Laine, B. E. Little, D. R. Lim, H. C. Tapalian, L. C. Kimerling, and H. A. Haus, "Microsphere resonator mode characterization by pedestal anti-resonant reflecting waveguide coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1004-1006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tull, E. J.

E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, G. Senthil Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Manipulating Spheres That Sink: Assembly of Micrometer Sized Glass Spheres for Optical Coupling," Langmuir 25, 1872-1880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature 424, 839-846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, and P. C. Sercel, "Fiber-coupled microsphere laser," Opt. Lett. 25, 1430-1432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Dijk, D. R.

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and Th. J. A. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J. M.

J. M. Ward, D. G. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. G. Nic Chormaic, "Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Warken, F.

F. Warken, A. Rauschenbeutel, and T. Bartholomaus, "Fiber pulling profits from precise positioning," Photonics Spectra 42, 73 (2008).

Wilkinson, J. S.

E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, G. Senthil Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Manipulating Spheres That Sink: Assembly of Micrometer Sized Glass Spheres for Optical Coupling," Langmuir 25, 1872-1880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C.-Yen Chao and L. Jay Guo, "Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527-1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and Th. J. A. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky and A. E. Fomin, "Geometrical theory of whispering-gallery modes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 33-39 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Laine, B. E. Little, D. R. Lim, H. C. Tapalian, L. C. Kimerling, and H. A. Haus, "Microsphere resonator mode characterization by pedestal anti-resonant reflecting waveguide coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1004-1006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Langmuir (1)

E. J. Tull, P. N. Bartlett, G. Senthil Murugan, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Manipulating Spheres That Sink: Assembly of Micrometer Sized Glass Spheres for Optical Coupling," Langmuir 25, 1872-1880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature 424, 839-846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Optical micrograph of the bottle microresonator coupled to a tapered optical fiber (focus on the bottle), (b) Image of the bottle resonator when the light was coupled through the tapered fiber at the centre (focus on the tapered fiber), (c-g) Image of the bottle resonator when the light was coupled through the tapered fiber at about 52, 100, 150, 200 and 250 µm away from the centre on one side respectively, (h) Image of the bottle resonator when the tapered fiber was at 150 µm on the other side and (i) Image of the tapered fiber coupling to a normal stripped fiber with a cladding diameter of about 125 µm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a-f) The resonance spectra for the bottle resonator excited using the tapered fiber at the positions shown in Fig 1. (g) The resonance spectrum for a normal stripped fiber with a diameter of 125 µm excited by a tapered fiber normal to it.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a-f) Individual transmission resonances and fitted Lorentzians used for the determination of Q factors of the bottle microresonator, for excitation at the positions shown in Fig. 1. (g) transmission resonance and fitted Lorentzian for bare normal fiber. Transmission is normalized to the local off-resonance transmission.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Q-factors and (b) average maximum transmission as a function of the fiber taper position.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Harmonic oscillator and parabolic profiles for parameters similar to the experiment. The inset shows a magnified version to visualize the profile differences. (b) The microbottle resonator shown in Fig. 1(a) fitted with truncated harmonic oscillator profile, with Db=185 µm, D s=125 µm and Δk=0.00545 µm-1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The potential (solid) and the total energy (dashed) of the b-WGMs corresponding to turning points 50µm (red), 150µm (green) and 200µm (blue).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Azimuthal and axial mode numbers corresponding to different turning points along the bottle axis. The resonant wavelength is around 1550nm and the radial mode number p=1.

Equations (3)

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D ( z ) = D b [ 1 + ( Δ k z ) 2 ] 1 2 z L b 2 D s z > L b 2
λ mq = 2 π n 0 [ ( m R b ) 2 + ( q + 1 2 ) Δ E m ] 1 2
z c = [ 4 Δ E m ( q + 1 2 ) ] 1 2

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