Abstract

Photorefractive materials are dynamic holographic storage media that are highly sensitive to coherent light fields and relatively insensitive to a uniform light background. This can be exploited to effectively separate ballistic light from multiply-scattered light when imaging through turbid media. We developed a highly sensitive photorefractive polymer composite and incorporated it into a holographic optical coherence imaging system. This approach combines the advantages of coherence-domain imaging with the benefits of holography to form a high-speed wide-field imaging technique. By using coherence-gated holography, image-bearing ballistic light can be captured in real-time without computed tomography. We analyzed the implications of Fourier-domain and image-domain holography on the field of view and image resolution for a transmission recording geometry, and demonstrate holographic depth-resolved imaging of tumor spheroids with 12 μm axial and 10 μm lateral resolution, achieving a data acquisition speed of 8×105 voxels/s.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

M. Salvador, J. Prauzner, S. Kober, K. Meerholz, K. Jeong, and D. D. Nolte, "Depth-resolved holographic optical coherence imaging using a high-sensitivity photorefractive polymer device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Watanabe and M. Sato, "Three-dimensional wide-field optical coherence tomography using an ultrahigh-speed CMOS camera," Opt. Commun. 281, 1889-1895 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. Salvador, F. Gallego-Gomez, S. Kober, and K. Meerholz, "Bipolar charge transport in an organic photorefractive composite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 154102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Jeong, J. J. Turek, and D. D. Nolte, "Volumetric motility-contrast imaging of tissue response to cytoskeletal anti-cancer drugs," Opt. Express 15, 14,057-14,064 (2007).

K. Jeong, J. J. Turek, and D. D. Nolte, "Fourier-domain digital holographic optical coherence imaging of living tissue," Appl. Opt. 46, 4999-5008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. J. Keller, F. Pampaloni, and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Life sciences require the third dimension," Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18, 117-124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

P. Yu,M. Mustata, L. L. Peng, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, P. M.W. French, and D. D. Nolte, "Holographic optical coherence imaging of rat osteogenic sarcoma tumor spheroids," Appl. Opt. 43, 4862-4873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, M. R. Dickinson, and D. P. West, "Full-field coherence-gated holographic imaging through scattering media using a photorefractive polymer composite device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 363-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Jeong, L. L. Peng, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Fourier-domain holography in photorefractive quantumwell films," Appl.Opt. 43, 3802-3811 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M.W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu,M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "High-speed depthsectioned wide-field imaging using low-coherence photorefractive holographic microscopy," Opt. Commun. 219, 87-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, M. Mustata, J. J. Turek, P. M.W. French, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "Holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575-577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, "Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging," J Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 36, R207-R227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. Mecher, F. Gallego-Gomez, H. Tillmann, H. H. Horhold, J. C. Hummelen, and K. Meerholz, "Near-infrared sensitivity enhancement of photorefractive polymer composites by pre-illumination," Nature (London) 418, 959-964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

1998 (3)

D. D. Steele, B. L. Volodin, O. Savina, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, H. Rockel, and S. R. Marder, "Transillumination imaging through scattering media by use of photorefractive polymers," Opt. Lett. 23, 153-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Kunz-Schughart, M. Kreutz, and R. Knuechel, "Multicellular spheroids: a three-dimensional in vitro culture system to study tumour biology," Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 79, 1-23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Hamilton, "Multicellular spheroids as an in vitro tumor model," Cancer Lett. 131, 29-34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

P. Hargrave, P.W. Nicholson, D. T. Delpy, and M. Firbank, "Optical properties of multicellular tumour spheroids," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1067-1072 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Jones, S. C. W. Hyde, M. J. Lynn, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Holographic storage and high background imaging using photorefractive multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1837-1839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (2)

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, and G. C. Bjorklund, "Orientationally Enhanced Photorefractive Effect in Polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 320-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "A Photorefractive Polymer with High Optical Gain and Diffraction Efficiency near 100-Percent," Nature (London) 371, 497-500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

1981 (1)

J. A. Parrish, "New Concepts in Therapeutic Photomedicine - Photochemistry, Optical Targeting and the Therapeutic Window," J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 45-50 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1971 (1)

Sutherla . Rm, J. A. Mccredie, and W. R. Inch, "Growth of Multicell Spheroids in Tissue Culture as a Model of Nodular Carcinomas," J. NATL. CANCER I. 46, 113-120 (1971).

Abramson, N.

Acioli, L. H.

Ansari, Z.

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M.W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu,M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "High-speed depthsectioned wide-field imaging using low-coherence photorefractive holographic microscopy," Opt. Commun. 219, 87-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ansari, Y. Gu, M. Tziraki, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Elimination of beam walk-off in low-coherence off-axis photorefractive holography," Opt. Lett. 26, 334-336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barry, N. P.

Bjorklund, G. C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. S.

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Croningolomb, M.

Dainty, J. C.

Dean, P.

P. Dean, M. R. Dickinson, and D. P. West, "Full-field coherence-gated holographic imaging through scattering media using a photorefractive polymer composite device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 363-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

P. Hargrave, P.W. Nicholson, D. T. Delpy, and M. Firbank, "Optical properties of multicellular tumour spheroids," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1067-1072 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, M. R.

P. Dean, M. R. Dickinson, and D. P. West, "Full-field coherence-gated holographic imaging through scattering media using a photorefractive polymer composite device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 363-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dilworth, D.

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dunsby, C.

C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, "Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging," J Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 36, R207-R227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M.W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu,M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "High-speed depthsectioned wide-field imaging using low-coherence photorefractive holographic microscopy," Opt. Commun. 219, 87-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Firbank, M.

P. Hargrave, P.W. Nicholson, D. T. Delpy, and M. Firbank, "Optical properties of multicellular tumour spheroids," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1067-1072 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

French, P. M. W.

French, P. M.W.

P. Yu,M. Mustata, L. L. Peng, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, P. M.W. French, and D. D. Nolte, "Holographic optical coherence imaging of rat osteogenic sarcoma tumor spheroids," Appl. Opt. 43, 4862-4873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M.W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu,M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "High-speed depthsectioned wide-field imaging using low-coherence photorefractive holographic microscopy," Opt. Commun. 219, 87-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, M. Mustata, J. J. Turek, P. M.W. French, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "Holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575-577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Acioli, M. Ulman, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Kong, B. S. Chen, and M. Croningolomb, "Femtosecond Temporal Encoding in Barium-Titanate," Opt. Lett. 16, 1984-1986 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gallego-Gomez, F.

M. Salvador, F. Gallego-Gomez, S. Kober, and K. Meerholz, "Bipolar charge transport in an organic photorefractive composite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 154102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Mecher, F. Gallego-Gomez, H. Tillmann, H. H. Horhold, J. C. Hummelen, and K. Meerholz, "Near-infrared sensitivity enhancement of photorefractive polymer composites by pre-illumination," Nature (London) 418, 959-964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M.W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu,M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "High-speed depthsectioned wide-field imaging using low-coherence photorefractive holographic microscopy," Opt. Commun. 219, 87-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ansari, Y. Gu, M. Tziraki, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Elimination of beam walk-off in low-coherence off-axis photorefractive holography," Opt. Lett. 26, 334-336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

Hamilton, G.

G. Hamilton, "Multicellular spheroids as an in vitro tumor model," Cancer Lett. 131, 29-34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hargrave, P.

P. Hargrave, P.W. Nicholson, D. T. Delpy, and M. Firbank, "Optical properties of multicellular tumour spheroids," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1067-1072 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Horhold, H. H.

E. Mecher, F. Gallego-Gomez, H. Tillmann, H. H. Horhold, J. C. Hummelen, and K. Meerholz, "Near-infrared sensitivity enhancement of photorefractive polymer composites by pre-illumination," Nature (London) 418, 959-964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hummelen, J. C.

E. Mecher, F. Gallego-Gomez, H. Tillmann, H. H. Horhold, J. C. Hummelen, and K. Meerholz, "Near-infrared sensitivity enhancement of photorefractive polymer composites by pre-illumination," Nature (London) 418, 959-964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, S. C. W.

Inch, W. R.

Sutherla . Rm, J. A. Mccredie, and W. R. Inch, "Growth of Multicell Spheroids in Tissue Culture as a Model of Nodular Carcinomas," J. NATL. CANCER I. 46, 113-120 (1971).

Ippen, E. P.

Jeong, K.

M. Salvador, J. Prauzner, S. Kober, K. Meerholz, K. Jeong, and D. D. Nolte, "Depth-resolved holographic optical coherence imaging using a high-sensitivity photorefractive polymer device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Jeong, J. J. Turek, and D. D. Nolte, "Volumetric motility-contrast imaging of tissue response to cytoskeletal anti-cancer drugs," Opt. Express 15, 14,057-14,064 (2007).

K. Jeong, J. J. Turek, and D. D. Nolte, "Fourier-domain digital holographic optical coherence imaging of living tissue," Appl. Opt. 46, 4999-5008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Jeong, L. L. Peng, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "Fourier-domain holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids and mouse eye," Appl. Opt. 44, 1798-1805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Jeong, L. L. Peng, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Fourier-domain holography in photorefractive quantumwell films," Appl.Opt. 43, 3802-3811 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Keller, P. J.

P. J. Keller, F. Pampaloni, and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Life sciences require the third dimension," Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18, 117-124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. K.

Kippelen, B.

D. D. Steele, B. L. Volodin, O. Savina, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, H. Rockel, and S. R. Marder, "Transillumination imaging through scattering media by use of photorefractive polymers," Opt. Lett. 23, 153-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "A Photorefractive Polymer with High Optical Gain and Diffraction Efficiency near 100-Percent," Nature (London) 371, 497-500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

Knuechel, R.

L. A. Kunz-Schughart, M. Kreutz, and R. Knuechel, "Multicellular spheroids: a three-dimensional in vitro culture system to study tumour biology," Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 79, 1-23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kober, S.

M. Salvador, J. Prauzner, S. Kober, K. Meerholz, K. Jeong, and D. D. Nolte, "Depth-resolved holographic optical coherence imaging using a high-sensitivity photorefractive polymer device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Salvador, F. Gallego-Gomez, S. Kober, and K. Meerholz, "Bipolar charge transport in an organic photorefractive composite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 154102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, H.

Kreutz, M.

L. A. Kunz-Schughart, M. Kreutz, and R. Knuechel, "Multicellular spheroids: a three-dimensional in vitro culture system to study tumour biology," Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 79, 1-23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kunz-Schughart, L. A.

L. A. Kunz-Schughart, M. Kreutz, and R. Knuechel, "Multicellular spheroids: a three-dimensional in vitro culture system to study tumour biology," Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 79, 1-23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kwolek, K. M.

D. D. Nolte, K. M. Kwolek, C. Lenox, and B. Streetman, "Dynamic holography in a broad-area optically pumped vertical GaAs microcavity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 257-263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Jones, S. C. W. Hyde, M. J. Lynn, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Holographic storage and high background imaging using photorefractive multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1837-1839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E.

Lenox, C.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, J.

Lynn, M. J.

R. Jones, S. C. W. Hyde, M. J. Lynn, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Holographic storage and high background imaging using photorefractive multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1837-1839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

Mccredie, J. A.

Sutherla . Rm, J. A. Mccredie, and W. R. Inch, "Growth of Multicell Spheroids in Tissue Culture as a Model of Nodular Carcinomas," J. NATL. CANCER I. 46, 113-120 (1971).

Mecher, E.

E. Mecher, F. Gallego-Gomez, H. Tillmann, H. H. Horhold, J. C. Hummelen, and K. Meerholz, "Near-infrared sensitivity enhancement of photorefractive polymer composites by pre-illumination," Nature (London) 418, 959-964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

M. Salvador, J. Prauzner, S. Kober, K. Meerholz, K. Jeong, and D. D. Nolte, "Depth-resolved holographic optical coherence imaging using a high-sensitivity photorefractive polymer device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Salvador, F. Gallego-Gomez, S. Kober, and K. Meerholz, "Bipolar charge transport in an organic photorefractive composite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 154102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Mecher, F. Gallego-Gomez, H. Tillmann, H. H. Horhold, J. C. Hummelen, and K. Meerholz, "Near-infrared sensitivity enhancement of photorefractive polymer composites by pre-illumination," Nature (London) 418, 959-964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "A Photorefractive Polymer with High Optical Gain and Diffraction Efficiency near 100-Percent," Nature (London) 371, 497-500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Melloch, M. R.

K. Jeong, L. L. Peng, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "Fourier-domain holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids and mouse eye," Appl. Opt. 44, 1798-1805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu,M. Mustata, L. L. Peng, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, P. M.W. French, and D. D. Nolte, "Holographic optical coherence imaging of rat osteogenic sarcoma tumor spheroids," Appl. Opt. 43, 4862-4873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Jeong, L. L. Peng, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Fourier-domain holography in photorefractive quantumwell films," Appl.Opt. 43, 3802-3811 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M.W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu,M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "High-speed depthsectioned wide-field imaging using low-coherence photorefractive holographic microscopy," Opt. Commun. 219, 87-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, M. Mustata, J. J. Turek, P. M.W. French, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "Holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575-577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ansari, Y. Gu, M. Tziraki, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Elimination of beam walk-off in low-coherence off-axis photorefractive holography," Opt. Lett. 26, 334-336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Jones, S. C. W. Hyde, M. J. Lynn, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Holographic storage and high background imaging using photorefractive multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1837-1839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

Mustata, M.

P. Yu,M. Mustata, L. L. Peng, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, P. M.W. French, and D. D. Nolte, "Holographic optical coherence imaging of rat osteogenic sarcoma tumor spheroids," Appl. Opt. 43, 4862-4873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, M. Mustata, J. J. Turek, P. M.W. French, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "Holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575-577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, P.W.

P. Hargrave, P.W. Nicholson, D. T. Delpy, and M. Firbank, "Optical properties of multicellular tumour spheroids," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1067-1072 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, D. D.

M. Salvador, J. Prauzner, S. Kober, K. Meerholz, K. Jeong, and D. D. Nolte, "Depth-resolved holographic optical coherence imaging using a high-sensitivity photorefractive polymer device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Jeong, J. J. Turek, and D. D. Nolte, "Volumetric motility-contrast imaging of tissue response to cytoskeletal anti-cancer drugs," Opt. Express 15, 14,057-14,064 (2007).

K. Jeong, J. J. Turek, and D. D. Nolte, "Fourier-domain digital holographic optical coherence imaging of living tissue," Appl. Opt. 46, 4999-5008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Jeong, L. L. Peng, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "Fourier-domain holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids and mouse eye," Appl. Opt. 44, 1798-1805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu,M. Mustata, L. L. Peng, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, P. M.W. French, and D. D. Nolte, "Holographic optical coherence imaging of rat osteogenic sarcoma tumor spheroids," Appl. Opt. 43, 4862-4873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Jeong, L. L. Peng, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Fourier-domain holography in photorefractive quantumwell films," Appl.Opt. 43, 3802-3811 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M.W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu,M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "High-speed depthsectioned wide-field imaging using low-coherence photorefractive holographic microscopy," Opt. Commun. 219, 87-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, M. Mustata, J. J. Turek, P. M.W. French, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "Holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575-577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ansari, Y. Gu, M. Tziraki, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Elimination of beam walk-off in low-coherence off-axis photorefractive holography," Opt. Lett. 26, 334-336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nolte, K. M. Kwolek, C. Lenox, and B. Streetman, "Dynamic holography in a broad-area optically pumped vertical GaAs microcavity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 257-263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Jones, S. C. W. Hyde, M. J. Lynn, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Holographic storage and high background imaging using photorefractive multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1837-1839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pampaloni, F.

P. J. Keller, F. Pampaloni, and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Life sciences require the third dimension," Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18, 117-124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Parrish, J. A.

J. A. Parrish, "New Concepts in Therapeutic Photomedicine - Photochemistry, Optical Targeting and the Therapeutic Window," J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 45-50 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L.

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M.W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu,M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "High-speed depthsectioned wide-field imaging using low-coherence photorefractive holographic microscopy," Opt. Commun. 219, 87-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. L.

Peyghambarian, N.

D. D. Steele, B. L. Volodin, O. Savina, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, H. Rockel, and S. R. Marder, "Transillumination imaging through scattering media by use of photorefractive polymers," Opt. Lett. 23, 153-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "A Photorefractive Polymer with High Optical Gain and Diffraction Efficiency near 100-Percent," Nature (London) 371, 497-500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prauzner, J.

M. Salvador, J. Prauzner, S. Kober, K. Meerholz, K. Jeong, and D. D. Nolte, "Depth-resolved holographic optical coherence imaging using a high-sensitivity photorefractive polymer device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rm, Sutherla

Sutherla . Rm, J. A. Mccredie, and W. R. Inch, "Growth of Multicell Spheroids in Tissue Culture as a Model of Nodular Carcinomas," J. NATL. CANCER I. 46, 113-120 (1971).

Rockel, H.

Salvador, M.

M. Salvador, J. Prauzner, S. Kober, K. Meerholz, K. Jeong, and D. D. Nolte, "Depth-resolved holographic optical coherence imaging using a high-sensitivity photorefractive polymer device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Salvador, F. Gallego-Gomez, S. Kober, and K. Meerholz, "Bipolar charge transport in an organic photorefractive composite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 154102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon, B. L.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "A Photorefractive Polymer with High Optical Gain and Diffraction Efficiency near 100-Percent," Nature (London) 371, 497-500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

Y. Watanabe and M. Sato, "Three-dimensional wide-field optical coherence tomography using an ultrahigh-speed CMOS camera," Opt. Commun. 281, 1889-1895 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Savina, O.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Silence, S. M.

Steele, D. D.

Stelzer, E. H. K.

P. J. Keller, F. Pampaloni, and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Life sciences require the third dimension," Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18, 117-124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Streetman, B.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tillmann, H.

E. Mecher, F. Gallego-Gomez, H. Tillmann, H. H. Horhold, J. C. Hummelen, and K. Meerholz, "Near-infrared sensitivity enhancement of photorefractive polymer composites by pre-illumination," Nature (London) 418, 959-964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Turek, J. J.

Tziraki, M.

Ulman, M.

Valdmanis, J.

Volodin, B. L.

D. D. Steele, B. L. Volodin, O. Savina, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, H. Rockel, and S. R. Marder, "Transillumination imaging through scattering media by use of photorefractive polymers," Opt. Lett. 23, 153-155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "A Photorefractive Polymer with High Optical Gain and Diffraction Efficiency near 100-Percent," Nature (London) 371, 497-500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

Y. Watanabe and M. Sato, "Three-dimensional wide-field optical coherence tomography using an ultrahigh-speed CMOS camera," Opt. Commun. 281, 1889-1895 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wechsler, B. A.

West, D. P.

P. Dean, M. R. Dickinson, and D. P. West, "Full-field coherence-gated holographic imaging through scattering media using a photorefractive polymer composite device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 363-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L. F.

Yu, P.

P. Yu,M. Mustata, L. L. Peng, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, P. M.W. French, and D. D. Nolte, "Holographic optical coherence imaging of rat osteogenic sarcoma tumor spheroids," Appl. Opt. 43, 4862-4873 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M.W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu,M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "High-speed depthsectioned wide-field imaging using low-coherence photorefractive holographic microscopy," Opt. Commun. 219, 87-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, M. Mustata, J. J. Turek, P. M.W. French, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "Holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575-577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. Jones, S. C. W. Hyde, M. J. Lynn, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Holographic storage and high background imaging using photorefractive multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1837-1839 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, M. Mustata, J. J. Turek, P. M.W. French, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "Holographic optical coherence imaging of tumor spheroids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575-577 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, M. R. Dickinson, and D. P. West, "Full-field coherence-gated holographic imaging through scattering media using a photorefractive polymer composite device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 363-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Salvador, J. Prauzner, S. Kober, K. Meerholz, K. Jeong, and D. D. Nolte, "Depth-resolved holographic optical coherence imaging using a high-sensitivity photorefractive polymer device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Salvador, F. Gallego-Gomez, S. Kober, and K. Meerholz, "Bipolar charge transport in an organic photorefractive composite," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 154102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl.Opt. (1)

K. Jeong, L. L. Peng, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, "Fourier-domain holography in photorefractive quantumwell films," Appl.Opt. 43, 3802-3811 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cancer Lett. (1)

G. Hamilton, "Multicellular spheroids as an in vitro tumor model," Cancer Lett. 131, 29-34 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (1)

P. J. Keller, F. Pampaloni, and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Life sciences require the third dimension," Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18, 117-124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Exp. Pathol. (1)

L. A. Kunz-Schughart, M. Kreutz, and R. Knuechel, "Multicellular spheroids: a three-dimensional in vitro culture system to study tumour biology," Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 79, 1-23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J Phys. D-Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, "Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging," J Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 36, R207-R227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

J. A. Parrish, "New Concepts in Therapeutic Photomedicine - Photochemistry, Optical Targeting and the Therapeutic Window," J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 45-50 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. NATL. CANCER I. (1)

Sutherla . Rm, J. A. Mccredie, and W. R. Inch, "Growth of Multicell Spheroids in Tissue Culture as a Model of Nodular Carcinomas," J. NATL. CANCER I. 46, 113-120 (1971).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (London) (2)

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, "A Photorefractive Polymer with High Optical Gain and Diffraction Efficiency near 100-Percent," Nature (London) 371, 497-500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Mecher, F. Gallego-Gomez, H. Tillmann, H. H. Horhold, J. C. Hummelen, and K. Meerholz, "Near-infrared sensitivity enhancement of photorefractive polymer composites by pre-illumination," Nature (London) 418, 959-964 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Y. Watanabe and M. Sato, "Three-dimensional wide-field optical coherence tomography using an ultrahigh-speed CMOS camera," Opt. Commun. 281, 1889-1895 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M.W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu,M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, "High-speed depthsectioned wide-field imaging using low-coherence photorefractive holographic microscopy," Opt. Commun. 219, 87-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

L. F. Yu and M. K. Kim, "Wavelength scanning digital interference holography for variable tomographic scanning," Opt. Express 13, 5621-5627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Jeong, J. J. Turek, and D. D. Nolte, "Volumetric motility-contrast imaging of tissue response to cytoskeletal anti-cancer drugs," Opt. Express 15, 14,057-14,064 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

P. Hargrave, P.W. Nicholson, D. T. Delpy, and M. Firbank, "Optical properties of multicellular tumour spheroids," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1067-1072 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

A. V. Mamaev, L. I. Ivleva, N.M. Polozkov, and S. V. V., "Photorefractive visualization through opaque scattering media," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, vol. 11 of Technical Digest Series, pp. 632-633 (Optical Society of America, 1993).

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography (Springer, Berlin, 2004).

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