Abstract

We present an extended optical characterization of an adaptive microfluidic silicone-membrane lens at a wavelength of 633 nm, respectively 660 nm. Two different membrane variations; one with a homogeneous membrane thickness, and one with a shaped cross section, have been realized. This paper includes the theoretical predictions of the optical performance via FEM simulation and ray tracing, and a subsequent orientation dependent experimental analysis of the lens quality which is measured with an MTF setup and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The influence of the fabrication process on the optical performance is also characterized by the membrane deformation in the non-deflected state. The lens with the homogeneous membrane of 5 mm in diameter and an aperture of 2.5 mm indicates an almost orientation independent image quality of 117 linepairs/mm at a contrast of 50%. The shaped membrane lenses show a minimum wave front error of WFERMS = 24 nm, and the lenses with a planar membrane of WFERMS = 31 nm at an aperture of 2.125 mm.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Optotune, “Electrical focus tunable lens EL-6-22,“ Datasheet, (2008).
  3. H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8031–8036 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Schneider, C. Müller, and U. Wallrabe, “A low cost adaptive silicone membrane lens,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Schneider, J. Draheim, C. Müller and U. Wallrabe, “Optimization of an adaptive PDMS-membrane lens with an integrated actuator,” Sens. Actuators A: Phys., doi:10.1016/j.sna.2008.07.006 (2008).
  6. Q. Yang, P. Kobrin, C. Seabury, S. Narayanaswamy, and W. Christian, “Mechanical modeling of fluid-driven polymer lenses,” Appl. Opt. 47(20), 3658–3668 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Werber and H. Zappe, “Tunable, microfluidic microlenses,” Appl. Opt . 44,3238-3245 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S Bhattacharya, A Datta, J. M. Berg, and S Gangopadhyay, “Studies on surface wettability of poly(dimethyl) siloxane (PDMS) and glass under oxygen-plasma treatment and correlation with bond strength,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14, 590–597 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Schneider, T. Fellner, J. Wilde, and U. Wallrabe, “Mechanical properties of silicones for MEMS,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(6), 065008 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Pergamon Press, New York, 1959).
  11. S. Reichelt and H. Zappe, “Combined Twyman-Green and Mach-Zehnder interferometer for microlens testing,” Appl. Opt. 44(27), 5786–5792 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008

F. Schneider, C. Müller, and U. Wallrabe, “A low cost adaptive silicone membrane lens,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Schneider, T. Fellner, J. Wilde, and U. Wallrabe, “Mechanical properties of silicones for MEMS,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(6), 065008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yang, P. Kobrin, C. Seabury, S. Narayanaswamy, and W. Christian, “Mechanical modeling of fluid-driven polymer lenses,” Appl. Opt. 47(20), 3658–3668 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

S. Reichelt and H. Zappe, “Combined Twyman-Green and Mach-Zehnder interferometer for microlens testing,” Appl. Opt. 44(27), 5786–5792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Werber and H. Zappe, “Tunable, microfluidic microlenses,” Appl. Opt . 44,3238-3245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S Bhattacharya, A Datta, J. M. Berg, and S Gangopadhyay, “Studies on surface wettability of poly(dimethyl) siloxane (PDMS) and glass under oxygen-plasma treatment and correlation with bond strength,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14, 590–597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P. A.

Berg, J. M.

S Bhattacharya, A Datta, J. M. Berg, and S Gangopadhyay, “Studies on surface wettability of poly(dimethyl) siloxane (PDMS) and glass under oxygen-plasma treatment and correlation with bond strength,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14, 590–597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berge, B.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, S

S Bhattacharya, A Datta, J. M. Berg, and S Gangopadhyay, “Studies on surface wettability of poly(dimethyl) siloxane (PDMS) and glass under oxygen-plasma treatment and correlation with bond strength,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14, 590–597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Christian, W.

Datta, A

S Bhattacharya, A Datta, J. M. Berg, and S Gangopadhyay, “Studies on surface wettability of poly(dimethyl) siloxane (PDMS) and glass under oxygen-plasma treatment and correlation with bond strength,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14, 590–597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fellner, T.

F. Schneider, T. Fellner, J. Wilde, and U. Wallrabe, “Mechanical properties of silicones for MEMS,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(6), 065008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fox, D.

Gangopadhyay, S

S Bhattacharya, A Datta, J. M. Berg, and S Gangopadhyay, “Studies on surface wettability of poly(dimethyl) siloxane (PDMS) and glass under oxygen-plasma treatment and correlation with bond strength,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14, 590–597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kobrin, P.

Müller, C.

F. Schneider, C. Müller, and U. Wallrabe, “A low cost adaptive silicone membrane lens,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Narayanaswamy, S.

Peseux, J.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reichelt, S.

Ren, H.

Schneider, F.

F. Schneider, T. Fellner, J. Wilde, and U. Wallrabe, “Mechanical properties of silicones for MEMS,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(6), 065008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Schneider, C. Müller, and U. Wallrabe, “A low cost adaptive silicone membrane lens,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seabury, C.

Wallrabe, U.

F. Schneider, C. Müller, and U. Wallrabe, “A low cost adaptive silicone membrane lens,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Schneider, T. Fellner, J. Wilde, and U. Wallrabe, “Mechanical properties of silicones for MEMS,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(6), 065008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Werber, A.

A. Werber and H. Zappe, “Tunable, microfluidic microlenses,” Appl. Opt . 44,3238-3245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilde, J.

F. Schneider, T. Fellner, J. Wilde, and U. Wallrabe, “Mechanical properties of silicones for MEMS,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(6), 065008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

Wu, S.-T.

Yang, Q.

Zappe, H.

Appl. Opt

A. Werber and H. Zappe, “Tunable, microfluidic microlenses,” Appl. Opt . 44,3238-3245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Eur. Phys. J. E

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst.

S Bhattacharya, A Datta, J. M. Berg, and S Gangopadhyay, “Studies on surface wettability of poly(dimethyl) siloxane (PDMS) and glass under oxygen-plasma treatment and correlation with bond strength,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14, 590–597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

F. Schneider, T. Fellner, J. Wilde, and U. Wallrabe, “Mechanical properties of silicones for MEMS,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(6), 065008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

F. Schneider, C. Müller, and U. Wallrabe, “A low cost adaptive silicone membrane lens,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, C. Müller and U. Wallrabe, “Optimization of an adaptive PDMS-membrane lens with an integrated actuator,” Sens. Actuators A: Phys., doi:10.1016/j.sna.2008.07.006 (2008).

Optotune, “Electrical focus tunable lens EL-6-22,“ Datasheet, (2008).

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Pergamon Press, New York, 1959).

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