Abstract

A CW interstitial diffuse optical tomography has been developed to characterize the in-vivo optical properties of prostate gland during photodynamic therapy. The spatial distributions of light fluence rate can be described by the diffusion equation. Optical properties of the prostate are reconstructed by solving the inverse problem with an adjoint method. The 3D reconstructed in-vivo optical properties for a human prostate is illustrated and compared with the results generated by a well-established point-by-point method. Moreover, the calculated fluence rate using the reconstructed optical properties matches the measured data.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Dehgani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Near infrared optical tomogrophy using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction," Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25, 711-732 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2008," Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 58, 71-96 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Axelsson, J. Swartling, and S. Andersson-Engels, "In vivo photosensitizer tomography inside the human prostate," Opt. Lett. 34, 232-234 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Pantong, J. Su, H. Shan, M. V. Klibanov, and H. Liu, "Globally accelerated reconstruction algorithm for diffusion tomography with continuous-wave source in an arbitrary convex shape domain," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 26, 456-472 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, and S. M. Hahn, "Determination of the distribution of light, optical properties, drug concentration, and tissue oxygenation in-vivo in human prostate during motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 231-241 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Zhou, and T. C. Zhu, "Interstitial diffuse optical tomography using an adjoint model with linear sources," Proc. SPIE 6846, 68450C (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. K.-H. Wang, and T. C. Zhu, "Reconstruction of optical properties using a diffusion model for interestitial diffuse optical tomography," Proc. SPIE 7164, 71640P (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, and T. C. Zhu, "A method for determination of the absorption and scattering properties interstitially in turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2291-2311 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Li, T. C. Zhu, and J. C. Finlay, "Study of light fluence rate distribution in photodynamic therapy using finite-element method," Proc. SPIE 6139, 61390M (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Li, and T. C. Zhu, "Determination of in vivo light fluence distribution in a heterogeneous prostate during photodynamic therapy," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 2103-2114 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Li, M. D. Altschuler, S. M. Hahn, and T. C. Zhu, "Optimization of light source parameters in the photodynamic therapy of heterogeneous prostate," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 4107-4121 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. Xu, J. W. Ritchey, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and S. Kransinski, "Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, Part II: Experimental demonstration," Opt. Express 16, 17505-17520 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Xu, D. Piao, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, and H. Dehgani, "Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, Part I: Simulation," Opt. Express 16, 17484-17504 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

J. Axelsson, J. Swartling, and S. Andersson-Engels, "In vivo photosensitizer tomography inside the human prostate," Opt. Lett. 34, 232-234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Pantong, J. Su, H. Shan, M. V. Klibanov, and H. Liu, "Globally accelerated reconstruction algorithm for diffusion tomography with continuous-wave source in an arbitrary convex shape domain," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 26, 456-472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. K.-H. Wang, and T. C. Zhu, "Reconstruction of optical properties using a diffusion model for interestitial diffuse optical tomography," Proc. SPIE 7164, 71640P (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

H. Dehgani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Near infrared optical tomogrophy using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction," Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25, 711-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2008," Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 58, 71-96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, and T. C. Zhu, "Determination of in vivo light fluence distribution in a heterogeneous prostate during photodynamic therapy," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 2103-2114 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, M. D. Altschuler, S. M. Hahn, and T. C. Zhu, "Optimization of light source parameters in the photodynamic therapy of heterogeneous prostate," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 4107-4121 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, D. Piao, G. Xu, J. W. Ritchey, G. R. Holyoak, K. E. Bartels, C. F. Bunting, G. Slobodov, and S. Kransinski, "Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, Part II: Experimental demonstration," Opt. Express 16, 17505-17520 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Xu, D. Piao, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, and H. Dehgani, "Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, Part I: Simulation," Opt. Express 16, 17484-17504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, and T. C. Zhu, "Interstitial diffuse optical tomography using an adjoint model with linear sources," Proc. SPIE 6846, 68450C (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Li, T. C. Zhu, and J. C. Finlay, "Study of light fluence rate distribution in photodynamic therapy using finite-element method," Proc. SPIE 6139, 61390M (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, and T. C. Zhu, "A method for determination of the absorption and scattering properties interstitially in turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2291-2311 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, and S. M. Hahn, "Determination of the distribution of light, optical properties, drug concentration, and tissue oxygenation in-vivo in human prostate during motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 231-241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Altschuler, M. D.

J. Li, M. D. Altschuler, S. M. Hahn, and T. C. Zhu, "Optimization of light source parameters in the photodynamic therapy of heterogeneous prostate," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 4107-4121 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Axelsson, J.

Bartels, K. E.

Bunting, C. F.

Busch, T.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, C. M.

H. Dehgani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Near infrared optical tomogrophy using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction," Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25, 711-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. C.

H. Dehgani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Near infrared optical tomogrophy using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction," Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25, 711-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dehgani, H.

H. Dehgani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Near infrared optical tomogrophy using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction," Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25, 711-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Xu, D. Piao, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, and H. Dehgani, "Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, Part I: Simulation," Opt. Express 16, 17484-17504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimofte, A.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, and T. C. Zhu, "A method for determination of the absorption and scattering properties interstitially in turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2291-2311 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eames, M. E.

H. Dehgani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Near infrared optical tomogrophy using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction," Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25, 711-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, J. C.

J. Li, T. C. Zhu, and J. C. Finlay, "Study of light fluence rate distribution in photodynamic therapy using finite-element method," Proc. SPIE 6139, 61390M (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, and T. C. Zhu, "A method for determination of the absorption and scattering properties interstitially in turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2291-2311 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, and S. M. Hahn, "Determination of the distribution of light, optical properties, drug concentration, and tissue oxygenation in-vivo in human prostate during motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 231-241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glatstein, E.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, S. M.

J. Li, M. D. Altschuler, S. M. Hahn, and T. C. Zhu, "Optimization of light source parameters in the photodynamic therapy of heterogeneous prostate," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 4107-4121 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, and S. M. Hahn, "Determination of the distribution of light, optical properties, drug concentration, and tissue oxygenation in-vivo in human prostate during motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 231-241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Y.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2008," Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 58, 71-96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holyoak, G. R.

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2008," Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 58, 71-96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.

Klibanov, M. V.

N. Pantong, J. Su, H. Shan, M. V. Klibanov, and H. Liu, "Globally accelerated reconstruction algorithm for diffusion tomography with continuous-wave source in an arbitrary convex shape domain," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 26, 456-472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kransinski, S.

Li, J.

J. Li, and T. C. Zhu, "Determination of in vivo light fluence distribution in a heterogeneous prostate during photodynamic therapy," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 2103-2114 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, M. D. Altschuler, S. M. Hahn, and T. C. Zhu, "Optimization of light source parameters in the photodynamic therapy of heterogeneous prostate," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 4107-4121 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, T. C. Zhu, and J. C. Finlay, "Study of light fluence rate distribution in photodynamic therapy using finite-element method," Proc. SPIE 6139, 61390M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

N. Pantong, J. Su, H. Shan, M. V. Klibanov, and H. Liu, "Globally accelerated reconstruction algorithm for diffusion tomography with continuous-wave source in an arbitrary convex shape domain," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 26, 456-472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malkowicz, S. B.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miles, J.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murray, T.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2008," Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 58, 71-96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musgrove, C. H.

Pantong, N.

N. Pantong, J. Su, H. Shan, M. V. Klibanov, and H. Liu, "Globally accelerated reconstruction algorithm for diffusion tomography with continuous-wave source in an arbitrary convex shape domain," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 26, 456-472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paulsen, K. D.

H. Dehgani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Near infrared optical tomogrophy using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction," Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25, 711-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piao, D.

Pogue, B. W.

H. Dehgani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Near infrared optical tomogrophy using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction," Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25, 711-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ritchey, J. W.

Shan, H.

N. Pantong, J. Su, H. Shan, M. V. Klibanov, and H. Liu, "Globally accelerated reconstruction algorithm for diffusion tomography with continuous-wave source in an arbitrary convex shape domain," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 26, 456-472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, R.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2008," Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 58, 71-96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slobodov, G.

Srinivasan, S.

H. Dehgani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Near infrared optical tomogrophy using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction," Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25, 711-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stripp, D.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

N. Pantong, J. Su, H. Shan, M. V. Klibanov, and H. Liu, "Globally accelerated reconstruction algorithm for diffusion tomography with continuous-wave source in an arbitrary convex shape domain," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 26, 456-472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swartling, J.

Thun, M. J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2008," Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 58, 71-96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tochner, Z.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. K.-H.

K. K.-H. Wang, and T. C. Zhu, "Reconstruction of optical properties using a diffusion model for interestitial diffuse optical tomography," Proc. SPIE 7164, 71640P (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ward, E.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2008," Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 58, 71-96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whittington, R.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

Xu, J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2008," Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 58, 71-96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yalavarthy, P. K.

H. Dehgani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Near infrared optical tomogrophy using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction," Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25, 711-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, and T. C. Zhu, "Interstitial diffuse optical tomography using an adjoint model with linear sources," Proc. SPIE 6846, 68450C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T. C.

K. K.-H. Wang, and T. C. Zhu, "Reconstruction of optical properties using a diffusion model for interestitial diffuse optical tomography," Proc. SPIE 7164, 71640P (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, M. D. Altschuler, S. M. Hahn, and T. C. Zhu, "Optimization of light source parameters in the photodynamic therapy of heterogeneous prostate," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 4107-4121 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, and T. C. Zhu, "Determination of in vivo light fluence distribution in a heterogeneous prostate during photodynamic therapy," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 2103-2114 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, and T. C. Zhu, "Interstitial diffuse optical tomography using an adjoint model with linear sources," Proc. SPIE 6846, 68450C (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. C. Zhu, and J. C. Finlay, "Study of light fluence rate distribution in photodynamic therapy using finite-element method," Proc. SPIE 6139, 61390M (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, and S. M. Hahn, "Determination of the distribution of light, optical properties, drug concentration, and tissue oxygenation in-vivo in human prostate during motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 231-241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, and T. C. Zhu, "A method for determination of the absorption and scattering properties interstitially in turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2291-2311 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ca-Cancer J. Clin. (1)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2008," Ca-Cancer J. Clin. 58, 71-96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. (1)

H. Dehgani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Near infrared optical tomogrophy using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction," Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. 25, 711-732 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. (1)

N. Pantong, J. Su, H. Shan, M. V. Klibanov, and H. Liu, "Globally accelerated reconstruction algorithm for diffusion tomography with continuous-wave source in an arbitrary convex shape domain," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 26, 456-472 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, and S. M. Hahn, "Determination of the distribution of light, optical properties, drug concentration, and tissue oxygenation in-vivo in human prostate during motexafin lutetium-mediated photodynamic therapy," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79, 231-241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, and T. C. Zhu, "A method for determination of the absorption and scattering properties interstitially in turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2291-2311 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, and T. C. Zhu, "Determination of in vivo light fluence distribution in a heterogeneous prostate during photodynamic therapy," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 2103-2114 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, M. D. Altschuler, S. M. Hahn, and T. C. Zhu, "Optimization of light source parameters in the photodynamic therapy of heterogeneous prostate," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 4107-4121 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (3)

J. Li, T. C. Zhu, and J. C. Finlay, "Study of light fluence rate distribution in photodynamic therapy using finite-element method," Proc. SPIE 6139, 61390M (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, and T. C. Zhu, "Interstitial diffuse optical tomography using an adjoint model with linear sources," Proc. SPIE 6846, 68450C (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. K.-H. Wang, and T. C. Zhu, "Reconstruction of optical properties using a diffusion model for interestitial diffuse optical tomography," Proc. SPIE 7164, 71640P (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(A) 2D orientation of prostate, urethra, and rectum contours for one cut of the patient prostate. Cross and circle are the locations of point sources and isotropic detectors, respectively. The actual sources and detectors are numbered. (B) Extension of the 2D case (A) in a 3D geometry: The prostate contour in (A) is extended 1 cm in z-axis direction. Circles are the detector locations used in the 3D reconstruction calculation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(A) Schematics of the mathematical phantom for one slide of prostate contour. Two anomalies are inserted into the prostate, and an extra outer medium is applied to enclose the prostate. (B) Corresponding COMSOL-generated mesh used in the forward calculation for the reconstruction procedures.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Known distributions for (A1) µa and (A2) µs ’ at z=0.5 cm and the corresponding reconstructed result for the distribution of (B1) µa and (B2) µs ’ at the same plane for the 3D mathematical phantom.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Results of in vivo map of µa using point-by-point (A) and DOT (B) methods for patient prostate at z=0.5 cm plane. (C) The corresponding comparison of µa between the two methods along x-axis (blue dash line in (A) and (B)) at z=0.5 and y=1.75 cm. The solid line and circle represent the results of the DOT and point-by-point method, respectively. (D), (E) and (F) are the corresponding plots for µS ’.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(A) Forward calculated fluence rate using the reconstructed optical properties from Fig. 4 (B) and (E) for z=0.5 cm plane, compared to the measured data at different virtual detector (scanning position) locations. (B) Two extra detectors 13 and 14 (green triangle) replacing the detector 6 and 7 with respect to source 1 and 3. Detector 13 and 14 are 0.3 and 0.4 cm closer to the source than the detector 6 and 7. (C) is the comparison result after correcting the source and detector separation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Volumetric distributions of (A) µa and (B) µs’, respectively, for an in-vivo prostate. The prostate contours (red lines) at different z planes are shown in both cases.

Equations (3)

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μaϕ·(Dϕ)=S,
J=[lnϕ1D1lnϕ1DN;lnϕ1μa1lnϕ1μaN;lnϕMD1lnϕMDN;lnϕMμallnϕMμaN]
ϕ(r) S=3μs4πreμeffr

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