Abstract

High-contrast adaptive optics systems, such as those needed to image extrasolar planets, are known to require excellent wavefront control and diffraction suppression. The Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at UC Santa Cruz is investigating limits to high-contrast imaging in support of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). In this paper we examine the effect of heat sources in the testbed on point-spread-function (PSF) stability. Introducing a heat source primarily introduces image motion. The GPI error budget requires image motion to be less than 0.1 λ/D. Systematic motion of the PSF core is typically 0.01λ/D rms and with a 20 watt heat source introduced near the pupil plane image motion is increased to 0.02λ/D rms. Therefore, even a heat source as large as 20 watts near the pupil plane causes errors below the GPI requirement, but the combination of the heat source and additional air turbulence on the system introduced by changes to the enclosure or the fan of other components can produce significantly more motion. Heat also can affect the speckle pattern in the high-contrast region, but in the final instrument other sources of error should be more significant.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman,  et al., "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes rendus-Physique 8, 365-373 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Wildi, J. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, A. Baruffolo, J. Charton, J. Antichi, P. Baudoz,  et al., "The SPHERE exoplanet imager: status report at PDR," Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910L (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Trauger and W. Traub, "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet." Nature 446, 771-3 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, "Effect of Wavefront Error on 10−7 Contrast Measurements," Opt Lett. 31, 565-567 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, "Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Bifano, P. Bierden, and J. Perreault, "Micromachined Deformable Mirrors for Dynamic Wavefront Control," Proc. SPIE 5553, 1-16 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. W. Evans, B. A. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, S. Thomas, and B. Macintosh, "Laboratory demonstration of accurate and efficient nanometer-level wavefront control for extreme adaptive optics," Appl. Opt. 47, 1317-1326 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, "Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodizedpupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs," Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-61 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Belikov, J. Beall, M. Carr, A. Give’on, J. Kay, T. Kolade, M. Littman, F. Mycroft, L. Pueyo, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Towards 10−10 Contrast for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission: Demonstration of High Contrast in a Shaped-Pupil Coronagraph at Princeton," Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 1(C200), 415-420 (2006).
  11. K. Balasubramanian, P. Echternach, M. Dickie, R. Muller, V. White, D. Hoppe, S. Shaklan, R. Belikov, N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Fabrication and characteristics of free-standing shaped pupil masks for TPF-coronagraph," Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653N (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Soummer, C. Aime, and P. E. Falloon, "Prolate apodized coronagraphy: numerical simulations for circular apertures," EAS Publications Series, Volume 8, 2003, Astronomy with High Contrast Imaging, Proceedings of the conference held 13-16 May, 2002 in Nice, France. Edited by C. Aime and R. Soummer, pp.93-105. 8, 93-105 (2003).
  13. C. Aime, R. Soummer, and A. Ferrari, "Interferometric apodization of rectangular apertures. Application to stellar coronagraphy," A&A 379, 697-707 (2001).
  14. S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. R. Dillon, B. A. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. T. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and C. Marois, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed, " Proc. SPIE 7015, 7015-238 (2008).
  15. J. W. Evans, S. J. Thomas, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. A. Macintosh, "Contrast analysis and stability on the ExAO testbed," in Adaptive Optics Systems, Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156K-70156K (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, S. Thomas, and B. Macintosh, "Laboratory demonstration of accurate and efficient nanometer-level wavefront control for extreme adaptive optics," Appl. Opt. 47, 1317-1326 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. R. Dillon, B. A. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. T. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and C. Marois, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed, " Proc. SPIE 7015, 7015-238 (2008).

J. W. Evans, S. J. Thomas, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. A. Macintosh, "Contrast analysis and stability on the ExAO testbed," in Adaptive Optics Systems, Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156K-70156K (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

J. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, "Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman,  et al., "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes rendus-Physique 8, 365-373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Wildi, J. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, A. Baruffolo, J. Charton, J. Antichi, P. Baudoz,  et al., "The SPHERE exoplanet imager: status report at PDR," Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910L (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Trauger and W. Traub, "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet." Nature 446, 771-3 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, "Effect of Wavefront Error on 10−7 Contrast Measurements," Opt Lett. 31, 565-567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Belikov, J. Beall, M. Carr, A. Give’on, J. Kay, T. Kolade, M. Littman, F. Mycroft, L. Pueyo, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Towards 10−10 Contrast for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission: Demonstration of High Contrast in a Shaped-Pupil Coronagraph at Princeton," Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 1(C200), 415-420 (2006).

K. Balasubramanian, P. Echternach, M. Dickie, R. Muller, V. White, D. Hoppe, S. Shaklan, R. Belikov, N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Fabrication and characteristics of free-standing shaped pupil masks for TPF-coronagraph," Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653N (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. A. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, and J. Perreault, "Micromachined Deformable Mirrors for Dynamic Wavefront Control," Proc. SPIE 5553, 1-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, "Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodizedpupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs," Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aime, C.

C. Aime, R. Soummer, and A. Ferrari, "Interferometric apodization of rectangular apertures. Application to stellar coronagraphy," A&A 379, 697-707 (2001).

Antichi, J.

F. Wildi, J. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, A. Baruffolo, J. Charton, J. Antichi, P. Baudoz,  et al., "The SPHERE exoplanet imager: status report at PDR," Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, K.

K. Balasubramanian, P. Echternach, M. Dickie, R. Muller, V. White, D. Hoppe, S. Shaklan, R. Belikov, N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Fabrication and characteristics of free-standing shaped pupil masks for TPF-coronagraph," Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baruffolo, A.

F. Wildi, J. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, A. Baruffolo, J. Charton, J. Antichi, P. Baudoz,  et al., "The SPHERE exoplanet imager: status report at PDR," Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baudoz, P.

F. Wildi, J. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, A. Baruffolo, J. Charton, J. Antichi, P. Baudoz,  et al., "The SPHERE exoplanet imager: status report at PDR," Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman,  et al., "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes rendus-Physique 8, 365-373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beall, J.

R. Belikov, J. Beall, M. Carr, A. Give’on, J. Kay, T. Kolade, M. Littman, F. Mycroft, L. Pueyo, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Towards 10−10 Contrast for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission: Demonstration of High Contrast in a Shaped-Pupil Coronagraph at Princeton," Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 1(C200), 415-420 (2006).

Belikov, R.

K. Balasubramanian, P. Echternach, M. Dickie, R. Muller, V. White, D. Hoppe, S. Shaklan, R. Belikov, N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Fabrication and characteristics of free-standing shaped pupil masks for TPF-coronagraph," Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653N (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Belikov, J. Beall, M. Carr, A. Give’on, J. Kay, T. Kolade, M. Littman, F. Mycroft, L. Pueyo, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Towards 10−10 Contrast for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission: Demonstration of High Contrast in a Shaped-Pupil Coronagraph at Princeton," Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 1(C200), 415-420 (2006).

Beuzit, J.

F. Wildi, J. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, A. Baruffolo, J. Charton, J. Antichi, P. Baudoz,  et al., "The SPHERE exoplanet imager: status report at PDR," Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bierden, P.

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, and J. Perreault, "Micromachined Deformable Mirrors for Dynamic Wavefront Control," Proc. SPIE 5553, 1-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T.

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, and J. Perreault, "Micromachined Deformable Mirrors for Dynamic Wavefront Control," Proc. SPIE 5553, 1-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carr, M.

R. Belikov, J. Beall, M. Carr, A. Give’on, J. Kay, T. Kolade, M. Littman, F. Mycroft, L. Pueyo, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Towards 10−10 Contrast for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission: Demonstration of High Contrast in a Shaped-Pupil Coronagraph at Princeton," Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 1(C200), 415-420 (2006).

Charton, J.

F. Wildi, J. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, A. Baruffolo, J. Charton, J. Antichi, P. Baudoz,  et al., "The SPHERE exoplanet imager: status report at PDR," Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dickie, M.

K. Balasubramanian, P. Echternach, M. Dickie, R. Muller, V. White, D. Hoppe, S. Shaklan, R. Belikov, N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Fabrication and characteristics of free-standing shaped pupil masks for TPF-coronagraph," Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dillon, D.

J. W. Evans, S. J. Thomas, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. A. Macintosh, "Contrast analysis and stability on the ExAO testbed," in Adaptive Optics Systems, Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156K-70156K (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, S. Thomas, and B. Macintosh, "Laboratory demonstration of accurate and efficient nanometer-level wavefront control for extreme adaptive optics," Appl. Opt. 47, 1317-1326 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, "Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, "Effect of Wavefront Error on 10−7 Contrast Measurements," Opt Lett. 31, 565-567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, B. A. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dillon, D. R.

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. R. Dillon, B. A. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. T. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and C. Marois, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed, " Proc. SPIE 7015, 7015-238 (2008).

Dohlen, K.

F. Wildi, J. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, A. Baruffolo, J. Charton, J. Antichi, P. Baudoz,  et al., "The SPHERE exoplanet imager: status report at PDR," Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doyon, R.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman,  et al., "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes rendus-Physique 8, 365-373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Echternach, P.

K. Balasubramanian, P. Echternach, M. Dickie, R. Muller, V. White, D. Hoppe, S. Shaklan, R. Belikov, N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Fabrication and characteristics of free-standing shaped pupil masks for TPF-coronagraph," Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J.

J. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, "Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. W.

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. R. Dillon, B. A. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. T. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and C. Marois, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed, " Proc. SPIE 7015, 7015-238 (2008).

J. W. Evans, S. J. Thomas, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. A. Macintosh, "Contrast analysis and stability on the ExAO testbed," in Adaptive Optics Systems, Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156K-70156K (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, "Effect of Wavefront Error on 10−7 Contrast Measurements," Opt Lett. 31, 565-567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, B. A. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldt, M.

F. Wildi, J. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, A. Baruffolo, J. Charton, J. Antichi, P. Baudoz,  et al., "The SPHERE exoplanet imager: status report at PDR," Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A.

C. Aime, R. Soummer, and A. Ferrari, "Interferometric apodization of rectangular apertures. Application to stellar coronagraphy," A&A 379, 697-707 (2001).

Gavel, D.

J. W. Evans, S. J. Thomas, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. A. Macintosh, "Contrast analysis and stability on the ExAO testbed," in Adaptive Optics Systems, Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156K-70156K (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman,  et al., "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes rendus-Physique 8, 365-373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, "Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. A. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gavel, D. T.

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. R. Dillon, B. A. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. T. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and C. Marois, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed, " Proc. SPIE 7015, 7015-238 (2008).

Give’on, A.

R. Belikov, J. Beall, M. Carr, A. Give’on, J. Kay, T. Kolade, M. Littman, F. Mycroft, L. Pueyo, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Towards 10−10 Contrast for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission: Demonstration of High Contrast in a Shaped-Pupil Coronagraph at Princeton," Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 1(C200), 415-420 (2006).

Graham, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman,  et al., "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes rendus-Physique 8, 365-373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, D.

K. Balasubramanian, P. Echternach, M. Dickie, R. Muller, V. White, D. Hoppe, S. Shaklan, R. Belikov, N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Fabrication and characteristics of free-standing shaped pupil masks for TPF-coronagraph," Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kasdin, N.

K. Balasubramanian, P. Echternach, M. Dickie, R. Muller, V. White, D. Hoppe, S. Shaklan, R. Belikov, N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Fabrication and characteristics of free-standing shaped pupil masks for TPF-coronagraph," Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kasdin, N. J.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, "Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodizedpupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs," Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kay, J.

R. Belikov, J. Beall, M. Carr, A. Give’on, J. Kay, T. Kolade, M. Littman, F. Mycroft, L. Pueyo, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Towards 10−10 Contrast for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission: Demonstration of High Contrast in a Shaped-Pupil Coronagraph at Princeton," Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 1(C200), 415-420 (2006).

Kolade, T.

R. Belikov, J. Beall, M. Carr, A. Give’on, J. Kay, T. Kolade, M. Littman, F. Mycroft, L. Pueyo, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Towards 10−10 Contrast for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission: Demonstration of High Contrast in a Shaped-Pupil Coronagraph at Princeton," Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 1(C200), 415-420 (2006).

Larkin, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman,  et al., "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes rendus-Physique 8, 365-373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Littman, M.

R. Belikov, J. Beall, M. Carr, A. Give’on, J. Kay, T. Kolade, M. Littman, F. Mycroft, L. Pueyo, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Towards 10−10 Contrast for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission: Demonstration of High Contrast in a Shaped-Pupil Coronagraph at Princeton," Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 1(C200), 415-420 (2006).

Littman, M. G.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, "Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodizedpupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs," Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

L. Poyneer, D. Dillon, S. Thomas, and B. Macintosh, "Laboratory demonstration of accurate and efficient nanometer-level wavefront control for extreme adaptive optics," Appl. Opt. 47, 1317-1326 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, "Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman,  et al., "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes rendus-Physique 8, 365-373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. R. Dillon, B. A. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. T. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and C. Marois, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed, " Proc. SPIE 7015, 7015-238 (2008).

J. W. Evans, S. J. Thomas, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. A. Macintosh, "Contrast analysis and stability on the ExAO testbed," in Adaptive Optics Systems, Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156K-70156K (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, B. A. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, "Effect of Wavefront Error on 10−7 Contrast Measurements," Opt Lett. 31, 565-567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marois, C.

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. R. Dillon, B. A. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. T. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and C. Marois, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed, " Proc. SPIE 7015, 7015-238 (2008).

Morzinski, K.

Mouillet, D.

F. Wildi, J. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, A. Baruffolo, J. Charton, J. Antichi, P. Baudoz,  et al., "The SPHERE exoplanet imager: status report at PDR," Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R.

K. Balasubramanian, P. Echternach, M. Dickie, R. Muller, V. White, D. Hoppe, S. Shaklan, R. Belikov, N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Fabrication and characteristics of free-standing shaped pupil masks for TPF-coronagraph," Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mycroft, F.

R. Belikov, J. Beall, M. Carr, A. Give’on, J. Kay, T. Kolade, M. Littman, F. Mycroft, L. Pueyo, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Towards 10−10 Contrast for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission: Demonstration of High Contrast in a Shaped-Pupil Coronagraph at Princeton," Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 1(C200), 415-420 (2006).

Oppenheimer, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman,  et al., "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes rendus-Physique 8, 365-373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman,  et al., "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes rendus-Physique 8, 365-373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perreault, J.

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, and J. Perreault, "Micromachined Deformable Mirrors for Dynamic Wavefront Control," Proc. SPIE 5553, 1-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phillion, D.

J. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, "Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L.

Pueyo, L.

R. Belikov, J. Beall, M. Carr, A. Give’on, J. Kay, T. Kolade, M. Littman, F. Mycroft, L. Pueyo, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Towards 10−10 Contrast for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission: Demonstration of High Contrast in a Shaped-Pupil Coronagraph at Princeton," Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 1(C200), 415-420 (2006).

Puget, P.

F. Wildi, J. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, A. Baruffolo, J. Charton, J. Antichi, P. Baudoz,  et al., "The SPHERE exoplanet imager: status report at PDR," Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reza, L.

Saddlemyer, L.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman,  et al., "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes rendus-Physique 8, 365-373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Severson, S.

J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, "Effect of Wavefront Error on 10−7 Contrast Measurements," Opt Lett. 31, 565-567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, B. A. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, "Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening," Opt. Express 14, 5558-5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaklan, S.

K. Balasubramanian, P. Echternach, M. Dickie, R. Muller, V. White, D. Hoppe, S. Shaklan, R. Belikov, N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Fabrication and characteristics of free-standing shaped pupil masks for TPF-coronagraph," Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. R. Dillon, B. A. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. T. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and C. Marois, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed, " Proc. SPIE 7015, 7015-238 (2008).

Sommargren, G.

J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, "Effect of Wavefront Error on 10−7 Contrast Measurements," Opt Lett. 31, 565-567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soummer, R.

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. R. Dillon, B. A. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. T. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and C. Marois, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed, " Proc. SPIE 7015, 7015-238 (2008).

C. Aime, R. Soummer, and A. Ferrari, "Interferometric apodization of rectangular apertures. Application to stellar coronagraphy," A&A 379, 697-707 (2001).

Spergel, D. N.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, "Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodizedpupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs," Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, S.

Thomas, S. J.

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. R. Dillon, B. A. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. T. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and C. Marois, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed, " Proc. SPIE 7015, 7015-238 (2008).

J. W. Evans, S. J. Thomas, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. A. Macintosh, "Contrast analysis and stability on the ExAO testbed," in Adaptive Optics Systems, Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156K-70156K (2008).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W.

J. Trauger and W. Traub, "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet." Nature 446, 771-3 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trauger, J.

J. Trauger and W. Traub, "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet." Nature 446, 771-3 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanderbei, R.

K. Balasubramanian, P. Echternach, M. Dickie, R. Muller, V. White, D. Hoppe, S. Shaklan, R. Belikov, N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Fabrication and characteristics of free-standing shaped pupil masks for TPF-coronagraph," Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653N (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Belikov, J. Beall, M. Carr, A. Give’on, J. Kay, T. Kolade, M. Littman, F. Mycroft, L. Pueyo, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Towards 10−10 Contrast for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission: Demonstration of High Contrast in a Shaped-Pupil Coronagraph at Princeton," Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 1(C200), 415-420 (2006).

Vanderbei, R. J.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, "Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodizedpupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs," Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman,  et al., "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes rendus-Physique 8, 365-373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

White, V.

K. Balasubramanian, P. Echternach, M. Dickie, R. Muller, V. White, D. Hoppe, S. Shaklan, R. Belikov, N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Fabrication and characteristics of free-standing shaped pupil masks for TPF-coronagraph," Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wildi, F.

F. Wildi, J. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, A. Baruffolo, J. Charton, J. Antichi, P. Baudoz,  et al., "The SPHERE exoplanet imager: status report at PDR," Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (1)

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, "Extrasolar planet finding via optimal apodizedpupil and shaped-pupil coronagraphs," Astrophys. J. 582, 1147-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Comptes rendus-Physique (1)

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman,  et al., "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes rendus-Physique 8, 365-373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Trauger and W. Traub, "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet." Nature 446, 771-3 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt Lett. (1)

J. W. Evans, G. Sommargren, B. A. Macintosh, S. Severson, and D. Dillon, "Effect of Wavefront Error on 10−7 Contrast Measurements," Opt Lett. 31, 565-567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (6)

K. Balasubramanian, P. Echternach, M. Dickie, R. Muller, V. White, D. Hoppe, S. Shaklan, R. Belikov, N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Fabrication and characteristics of free-standing shaped pupil masks for TPF-coronagraph," Proc. SPIE 6265, 62653N (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. R. Dillon, B. A. Macintosh, J. W. Evans, D. T. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, and C. Marois, "Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed, " Proc. SPIE 7015, 7015-238 (2008).

J. W. Evans, S. J. Thomas, D. Gavel, D. Dillon, and B. A. Macintosh, "Contrast analysis and stability on the ExAO testbed," in Adaptive Optics Systems, Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156K-70156K (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Evans, S. Thomas, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, D. Phillion, and B. Macintosh, "Amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed," Proc. SPIE 6693, 669312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, and J. Perreault, "Micromachined Deformable Mirrors for Dynamic Wavefront Control," Proc. SPIE 5553, 1-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Wildi, J. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, A. Baruffolo, J. Charton, J. Antichi, P. Baudoz,  et al., "The SPHERE exoplanet imager: status report at PDR," Proc. SPIE 6691, 66910L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union (1)

R. Belikov, J. Beall, M. Carr, A. Give’on, J. Kay, T. Kolade, M. Littman, F. Mycroft, L. Pueyo, R. Vanderbei,  et al., "Towards 10−10 Contrast for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission: Demonstration of High Contrast in a Shaped-Pupil Coronagraph at Princeton," Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 1(C200), 415-420 (2006).

Other (2)

R. Soummer, C. Aime, and P. E. Falloon, "Prolate apodized coronagraphy: numerical simulations for circular apertures," EAS Publications Series, Volume 8, 2003, Astronomy with High Contrast Imaging, Proceedings of the conference held 13-16 May, 2002 in Nice, France. Edited by C. Aime and R. Soummer, pp.93-105. 8, 93-105 (2003).

C. Aime, R. Soummer, and A. Ferrari, "Interferometric apodization of rectangular apertures. Application to stellar coronagraphy," A&A 379, 697-707 (2001).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (14448 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the Phase II ExAO testbed. The PSDI front end located at the top left feeds the test (measurement) and reference fibers for the system. The far-field camera is out-of-plane to reduce astigmatism introduced by the spherical mirrors (M1 and M2). Focus 1 is the first focal plane of the system and can be used for the coronagraph occulter or a simple focal plane mask for shaped pupil high-contrast imaging. The far-field Camera is replaced with the PSDI reference source for interferometry mode (not used for this work).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The shaped pupil coronagraph made by Princeton University [10, 11] is shown on the left with a simulation of the corresponding high-contrast PSF on the right.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Log-scale far-field images with the MEMS (top) and the flat (bottom) using the new shaped pupil coronagraph, with increased ROI over previous results. The core of the PSF is blocked at focus position 1 to avoid saturating the CCD. In the MEMS image the bright replications of the PSF on the right and left side are caused by the ripple on the MEMS device. The triangles indicate the typical angle for ROI and the spatial frequencies controllable by the MEMS device. The radial averages of both images are shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Radial average over 60 degrees of the MEMS and flat mirror high-contrast image. The contrast achieved with the MEMS mirror is slightly worse than predicted by the phase and amplitude measured by the PSDI, possibly caused by increased scatter off of the new mask or reflections off the window of this particular MEMS device.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The relative centroid position for two trials with 0 and 20 watts of heat introduced to the system (in front of the pupil plane) is plotted here to illustrate the variation over 100 frames and between trials. Each 100 frame trial (0.1 s integration time for each frame) takes about 30s. A measurement of only 25 frames will return inconsistent rms values because of the large scale variation occurring on the 100 frame time scale.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The heat source was placed in front of the pupil plane and 3 trials of 100 frames each were measured for heat levels between 0 and 20 watts. The average standard deviation of the image position (i.e. rms image motion) for each heat level is plotted above.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

To assess the effect of the position of the heat source and effectiveness of baffling several trials were completed with the heat source set at 20 watts. The standard deviation of image position was plotted for each trial. Trial 0: last point in Fig. 6, Trial 1: Heat source is moved 50 mm away from the beamline, Trial 2: Heat source is returned to original position, Trial 3: Block between beamlines is removed, Trial 4: Heat source is moved between the MEMS and pupil planes, Trial 5: Heat source is moved between the two beamlines. It appears that the opening and closing of the system enclosure to adjust the system has more effect on increase image motion than a particular location of the heat source.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

To test if heat-induced turbulence could cause different image motion for different size apertures a 5, 10 and 15 mm aperture were tested with the heat source in front of the pupil plane. The results for heat versus rms image motion for the three aperture sizes are shown here. The difference between the apertures is within the error bars of these types of measurements.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

A 25 frame movie (Media 1) of the images in the focal plane taken over a total time period of approximately 30 seconds (25 frames separated by about a second) with the heat source, set at 15 watts, in the beam near the pupil plane. This is a typical example of the experiments we performed and is perhaps the one most sensitive to the heat. Individual frames are registered to each other through correlation of their speckle patterns, which normalizes out most of the heat induced image motion (the dominant effect) and accentuates the changes in the speckle pattern itself, i.e. shows how the heat convection changes the wavefront. The changes are evident but small (the scale is logarithmic, ranging from 1×10-9 to 1×10-6 of peak intensity), suggesting that the heat source is not a significant contributor to wavefront error other than through image motion.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

The temporal standard deviation of each pixels intensity over the 25 frames taken at each heat level, averaged over the a 30 degree region from 10 to 25 λ/D on both sides of the PSF is plotted versus heat for each location of the source. The images were registered prior to the calculation of standard deviation which should mostly remove the effect of image motion.

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