Abstract

We determine and use a minimal set of numerical simulations to create a simplified model for the spectral response of nanoantennae with respect to their geometric and modeling parameters. The simplified model is then used to rapidly obtain best-fit modeling parameters to match experimental results, accurately predict the spectral response for various geometries, and inversely design antennae to have a desired performance. This method is structure and model independent, and is applied here to both nanoantenna pair arrays and strips modeled using a 3D finite-element method and 2D spatial harmonic analysis, respectively. Typical numerical simulations may need hours per model, whereas this method, after the initial time to obtain a baseline set of simulations, requires only seconds to analyze and generate spectra for new geometries.

© 2009 OSA

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2008 (5)

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101–043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H.-K. Yuan, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Kim, V. Drachev, H.-K. Yuan, R. Bakker, and V. Shalaev, “Imaging contrast under aperture tip–nanoantenna array interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 189–198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (9)

A. V. Kildishev, U. K. Chettiar, Z. Liu, V. M. Shalaev, D.-H. Kwon, Z. Bayraktar, and D. H. Werner, “Stochastic optimization of low-loss optical negative-index metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A34–A39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the Universal Scaling Behavior of the Distance Decay of Plasmon Coupling in Metal Nanoparticle Pairs: A Plasmon Ruler Equation,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245403–245407 (2007).

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kildishev and U. K. Chettiar, “Cascading Optical Negative Index Metamaterials,” Appl. Comput. Electromagn. Soc. Jrn. 22, 172–183 (2007).

R. M. Bakker, A. Boltasseva, Z. Liu, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field excitation of nanoantenna resonance,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13682–13688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and T. Søndergaard, “General properties of slow-plasmon resonant nanostructures: nano-antennas and resonators,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10869–10877 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Metal nano-strip optical resonators,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4198–4204 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18(12), 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. Hecht, P. Muhlschlegel, J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, O. J. F. Martin, and P. Biagioni, ““Prospects of Resonant Optical Antennas for Nano-Analysis,” Chimia (Aarau) 60(11), 765–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(1), 357–366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Enoch, R. Quidant, and G. Badenes, “Optical sensing based on plasmon coupling in nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3422–3427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-Dependent Optical Coupling of Single Bowtie Nanoantennas Resonant in the Visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

R. L. Plackett and J. P. Burman, “The Design Of Optimum Multifactorial Experiments,” Biometrika 33(4), 305–325 (1946).
[CrossRef]

1926 (1)

R. A. Fisher, “The arrangement of field experiments,” Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture of Great Britain 33, 503–513 (1926).

Aizpurua, J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

Bakker, R.

J.-Y. Kim, V. Drachev, H.-K. Yuan, R. Bakker, and V. Shalaev, “Imaging contrast under aperture tip–nanoantenna array interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 189–198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, R. M.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101–043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H.-K. Yuan, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, A. Boltasseva, Z. Liu, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field excitation of nanoantenna resonance,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13682–13688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bayraktar, Z.

Biagioni, P.

B. Hecht, P. Muhlschlegel, J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, O. J. F. Martin, and P. Biagioni, ““Prospects of Resonant Optical Antennas for Nano-Analysis,” Chimia (Aarau) 60(11), 765–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H.-K. Yuan, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101–043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, A. Boltasseva, Z. Liu, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field excitation of nanoantenna resonance,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13682–13688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Brandl, D. W.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burman, J. P.

R. L. Plackett and J. P. Burman, “The Design Of Optimum Multifactorial Experiments,” Biometrika 33(4), 305–325 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Chen, J.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H.-K. Yuan, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Conley, N. R.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V.

J.-Y. Kim, V. Drachev, H.-K. Yuan, R. Bakker, and V. Shalaev, “Imaging contrast under aperture tip–nanoantenna array interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 189–198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H.-K. Yuan, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101–043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, A. Boltasseva, Z. Liu, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field excitation of nanoantenna resonance,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13682–13688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H. J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.-J.

J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18(12), 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, P. Muhlschlegel, J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, O. J. F. Martin, and P. Biagioni, ““Prospects of Resonant Optical Antennas for Nano-Analysis,” Chimia (Aarau) 60(11), 765–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the Universal Scaling Behavior of the Distance Decay of Plasmon Coupling in Metal Nanoparticle Pairs: A Plasmon Ruler Equation,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245403–245407 (2007).

Enoch, S.

Farahani, J. N.

J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18(12), 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, P. Muhlschlegel, J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, O. J. F. Martin, and P. Biagioni, ““Prospects of Resonant Optical Antennas for Nano-Analysis,” Chimia (Aarau) 60(11), 765–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, R. A.

R. A. Fisher, “The arrangement of field experiments,” Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture of Great Britain 33, 503–513 (1926).

Fluckiger, P.

J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18(12), 125506 (2007).
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A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
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A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
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D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-Dependent Optical Coupling of Single Bowtie Nanoantennas Resonant in the Visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
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J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
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J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18(12), 125506 (2007).
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R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101–043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, A. Boltasseva, Z. Liu, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field excitation of nanoantenna resonance,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13682–13688 (2007).
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H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 53–62 (2007).
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Hao, E.

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(1), 357–366 (2004).
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Hecht, B.

J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18(12), 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, P. Muhlschlegel, J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, O. J. F. Martin, and P. Biagioni, ““Prospects of Resonant Optical Antennas for Nano-Analysis,” Chimia (Aarau) 60(11), 765–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
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Huang, W.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the Universal Scaling Behavior of the Distance Decay of Plasmon Coupling in Metal Nanoparticle Pairs: A Plasmon Ruler Equation,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2080–2088 (2007).
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Irudayaraj, J.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H.-K. Yuan, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jain, P. K.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the Universal Scaling Behavior of the Distance Decay of Plasmon Coupling in Metal Nanoparticle Pairs: A Plasmon Ruler Equation,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, B. K.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101–043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H.-K. Yuan, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, A. Boltasseva, Z. Liu, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field excitation of nanoantenna resonance,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13682–13688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kildishev, U. K. Chettiar, Z. Liu, V. M. Shalaev, D.-H. Kwon, Z. Bayraktar, and D. H. Werner, “Stochastic optimization of low-loss optical negative-index metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A34–A39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kildishev and U. K. Chettiar, “Cascading Optical Negative Index Metamaterials,” Appl. Comput. Electromagn. Soc. Jrn. 22, 172–183 (2007).

Kim, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Kim, V. Drachev, H.-K. Yuan, R. Bakker, and V. Shalaev, “Imaging contrast under aperture tip–nanoantenna array interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 189–198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-Dependent Optical Coupling of Single Bowtie Nanoantennas Resonant in the Visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kottmann, J.

Krenn, J. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, D.-H.

Lamprecht, B.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245403–245407 (2007).

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S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
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R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H.-K. Yuan, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101–043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, A. Boltasseva, Z. Liu, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field excitation of nanoantenna resonance,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13682–13688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kildishev, U. K. Chettiar, Z. Liu, V. M. Shalaev, D.-H. Kwon, Z. Bayraktar, and D. H. Werner, “Stochastic optimization of low-loss optical negative-index metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A34–A39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mallouk, T.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O.

Martin, O. J. F.

B. Hecht, P. Muhlschlegel, J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, O. J. F. Martin, and P. Biagioni, ““Prospects of Resonant Optical Antennas for Nano-Analysis,” Chimia (Aarau) 60(11), 765–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-Dependent Optical Coupling of Single Bowtie Nanoantennas Resonant in the Visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muhlschlegel, P.

B. Hecht, P. Muhlschlegel, J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, O. J. F. Martin, and P. Biagioni, ““Prospects of Resonant Optical Antennas for Nano-Analysis,” Chimia (Aarau) 60(11), 765–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pavius, M.

J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18(12), 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, R. H.

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101–043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H.-K. Yuan, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, A. Boltasseva, Z. Liu, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field excitation of nanoantenna resonance,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13682–13688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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R. L. Plackett and J. P. Burman, “The Design Of Optimum Multifactorial Experiments,” Biometrika 33(4), 305–325 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18(12), 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, P. Muhlschlegel, J. N. Farahani, H.-J. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, O. J. F. Martin, and P. Biagioni, ““Prospects of Resonant Optical Antennas for Nano-Analysis,” Chimia (Aarau) 60(11), 765–769 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quate, C. F.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

Rechberger, W.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richter, L. J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salandrino, A.

J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245403–245407 (2007).

Schatz, G. C.

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(1), 357–366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-Dependent Optical Coupling of Single Bowtie Nanoantennas Resonant in the Visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V.

J.-Y. Kim, V. Drachev, H.-K. Yuan, R. Bakker, and V. Shalaev, “Imaging contrast under aperture tip–nanoantenna array interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 189–198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101–043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H.-K. Yuan, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kildishev, U. K. Chettiar, Z. Liu, V. M. Shalaev, D.-H. Kwon, Z. Bayraktar, and D. H. Werner, “Stochastic optimization of low-loss optical negative-index metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), A34–A39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, A. Boltasseva, Z. Liu, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field excitation of nanoantenna resonance,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13682–13688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Søndergaard, T.

Su, K. H.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-Dependent Optical Coupling of Single Bowtie Nanoantennas Resonant in the Visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q. H.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Werner, D. H.

Yuan, H.-K.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, and A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101–043103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H.-K. Yuan, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Kim, V. Drachev, H.-K. Yuan, R. Bakker, and V. Shalaev, “Imaging contrast under aperture tip–nanoantenna array interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 189–198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling Effects on Plasmon Resonances of Nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40(1), 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Comput. Electromagn. Soc. Jrn. (1)

A. V. Kildishev and U. K. Chettiar, “Cascading Optical Negative Index Metamaterials,” Appl. Comput. Electromagn. Soc. Jrn. 22, 172–183 (2007).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J.-Y. Kim, V. Drachev, H.-K. Yuan, R. Bakker, and V. Shalaev, “Imaging contrast under aperture tip–nanoantenna array interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 189–198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Nanoantennae sample 1 SEM (sample A in [24]) [scale bar=500 nm]. Inset represents 3D FEM geometry.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Nanoantenna Strips sample 2 SEM [scale bar=500 nm]. Inset represents 2D SHA model geometry.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Nanoantenna array (sample 1), transmission and reflection for primary polarization (P) and secondary polarization (N). Experimental results vs. method 1 (fit parameters) best fit. Predicted spectra were generated using method 2 (fit per wavelength). The results of the actual 3D FEM model are shown using the same best-fit parameters

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Predicted transmission and reflection spectra for nanoantenna array geometry inversely designed to have a primary resonance at 690 nm. Predicted spectra versus results of the actual 3D FEM model for the designed values.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Nanoantenna Strips (sample 2), transmission and reflection for primary polarization (P) and secondary polarization (N). Experimental results vs. method 1 (fit parameters) best fit. Predicted spectra were generated using method 2 (linear fit per wavelength). The results of the actual 2D SHA model are shown using the same best-fit parameters, and agree well with the predicted curve.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Nanoantennae (sample 1) Coefficients

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Table 2. Nanoantenna Strips (sample 2) Coefficients

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f(P)=[β0+β1p1++βn+1pn]+linear
[βn+2p1p2++β2np1pn+β2n+1p2p3++βjpn1pn]interaction
[βjp12++βjpn2]+quadratic
X β=f
F=i=15w̅ifi2,w̅i=wii=15wi

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