Abstract

We present a surface plasmon-mediated energy transfer based on an organic light-emitting device structure. In order to localize surface plasmons, silver nano clusters were deposited thermally close to the cathode with a 1-nm-thick LiF spacer. It was shown that the surface plasmon formed on the silver nano cluster provides a strong donor decay channel and increases the donor-acceptor dipolar interaction. Thus, photoluminescence results displayed 3.5-fold enhanced acceptor emission intensity, compared with those of sample which has no Ag nano cluster.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Nie, and S. R. Emory, "Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Science 275, 1102-1106 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3095-3097 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and Quenching of Single-Molecule Fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 11302-11303 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Félidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404-406 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, "Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7519-7526 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging Photonics and Electronics at Nanoscale Dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Förster, "Transfer mechanisms of electronic excitation," Discuss. Faraday Soc. 27, 7-17 (1959).
  12. C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, "A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles," Nat. Biotech. 23, 741-745 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors," Nat. Mater. 7, 442-453 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Hopmeier, W. Guss, M. Deussen, E. O. Gübel, and R. F. Mahrt, "Enhanced Dipole-Dipole Interaction in a Polymer Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4118-4121 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. K. Kim, K. Kerman, M. Saito, R. R. Sathuluri, T. Endo, S. Yamamura, Y. S. Kwon, and E. Tamiya, "Label-free DNA biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance coupled with interferometry," Anal. Chem. 79, 1855-1864 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mat. 3, 601-605 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers," Opt. Express 13, 5522-5527 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Bellessa, C. Bonnand, J. C. Plenet, and J. Mugnier, "Strong Coupling between Surface Plasmons and Excitons in an Organic Semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 036404 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, "Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 20, 1253-1257 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W.-H. Chuang, J.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, and Y.-W. Kiang, "Study on the decay mechanisms of surface plasmon coupling features with a light emitter through time-resolved simulations," Opt. Express 17, 104-116 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, "Förster Energy Transfer in an Optical Microcavity," Science 290, 785-788 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102-071103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Y. Yang, K. C. Choi, and C. W. Ahn, "Surface plasmon-enhanced spontaneous emission rate in an organic light-emitting device structure: Cathode structure for plasmonic application," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 173301-173303 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, "Energy Transfer Across a Metal Film Mediated by Surface Plasmon Polaritons," Science 306, 1002-1005 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

W.-H. Chuang, J.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, and Y.-W. Kiang, "Study on the decay mechanisms of surface plasmon coupling features with a light emitter through time-resolved simulations," Opt. Express 17, 104-116 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Yang, K. C. Choi, and C. W. Ahn, "Surface plasmon-enhanced spontaneous emission rate in an organic light-emitting device structure: Cathode structure for plasmonic application," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 173301-173303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, "Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 20, 1253-1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors," Nat. Mater. 7, 442-453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

D. K. Kim, K. Kerman, M. Saito, R. R. Sathuluri, T. Endo, S. Yamamura, Y. S. Kwon, and E. Tamiya, "Label-free DNA biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance coupled with interferometry," Anal. Chem. 79, 1855-1864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and Quenching of Single-Molecule Fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 11302-11303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging Photonics and Electronics at Nanoscale Dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers," Opt. Express 13, 5522-5527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, "A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles," Nat. Biotech. 23, 741-745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102-071103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, "Energy Transfer Across a Metal Film Mediated by Surface Plasmon Polaritons," Science 306, 1002-1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bellessa, C. Bonnand, J. C. Plenet, and J. Mugnier, "Strong Coupling between Surface Plasmons and Excitons in an Organic Semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 036404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mat. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, "Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7519-7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3095-3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Félidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404-406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, "Förster Energy Transfer in an Optical Microcavity," Science 290, 785-788 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Hopmeier, W. Guss, M. Deussen, E. O. Gübel, and R. F. Mahrt, "Enhanced Dipole-Dipole Interaction in a Polymer Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4118-4121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Nie, and S. R. Emory, "Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Science 275, 1102-1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

T. Förster, "Transfer mechanisms of electronic excitation," Discuss. Faraday Soc. 27, 7-17 (1959).

1948 (1)

T. Förster, "Intermolecular energy transference and fluorescence," Annalen der Physik 2, 55-75 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, C. W.

K. Y. Yang, K. C. Choi, and C. W. Ahn, "Surface plasmon-enhanced spontaneous emission rate in an organic light-emitting device structure: Cathode structure for plasmonic application," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 173301-173303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, "A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles," Nat. Biotech. 23, 741-745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andrew, P.

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, "Energy Transfer Across a Metal Film Mediated by Surface Plasmon Polaritons," Science 306, 1002-1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, "Förster Energy Transfer in an Optical Microcavity," Science 290, 785-788 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anger, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and Quenching of Single-Molecule Fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 11302-11303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors," Nat. Mater. 7, 442-453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aubard, J.

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3095-3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3095-3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Félidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404-406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, "Energy Transfer Across a Metal Film Mediated by Surface Plasmon Polaritons," Science 306, 1002-1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, "Förster Energy Transfer in an Optical Microcavity," Science 290, 785-788 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellessa, J.

J. Bellessa, C. Bonnand, J. C. Plenet, and J. Mugnier, "Strong Coupling between Surface Plasmons and Excitons in an Organic Semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 036404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and Quenching of Single-Molecule Fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 11302-11303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonnand, C.

J. Bellessa, C. Bonnand, J. C. Plenet, and J. Mugnier, "Strong Coupling between Surface Plasmons and Excitons in an Organic Semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 036404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulovic, V.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, C. C.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, "Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 20, 1253-1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, "Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 20, 1253-1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. C.

K. Y. Yang, K. C. Choi, and C. W. Ahn, "Surface plasmon-enhanced spontaneous emission rate in an organic light-emitting device structure: Cathode structure for plasmonic application," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 173301-173303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, W.-H.

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deussen, M.

M. Hopmeier, W. Guss, M. Deussen, E. O. Gübel, and R. F. Mahrt, "Enhanced Dipole-Dipole Interaction in a Polymer Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4118-4121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Félidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404-406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie, and S. R. Emory, "Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Science 275, 1102-1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endo, T.

D. K. Kim, K. Kerman, M. Saito, R. R. Sathuluri, T. Endo, S. Yamamura, Y. S. Kwon, and E. Tamiya, "Label-free DNA biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance coupled with interferometry," Anal. Chem. 79, 1855-1864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Félidj, N.

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3095-3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Félidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404-406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, "Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7519-7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Förster, T.

T. Förster, "Transfer mechanisms of electronic excitation," Discuss. Faraday Soc. 27, 7-17 (1959).

T. Förster, "Intermolecular energy transference and fluorescence," Annalen der Physik 2, 55-75 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Gübel, E. O.

M. Hopmeier, W. Guss, M. Deussen, E. O. Gübel, and R. F. Mahrt, "Enhanced Dipole-Dipole Interaction in a Polymer Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4118-4121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guss, W.

M. Hopmeier, W. Guss, M. Deussen, E. O. Gübel, and R. F. Mahrt, "Enhanced Dipole-Dipole Interaction in a Polymer Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4118-4121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors," Nat. Mater. 7, 442-453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3095-3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hopmeier, M.

M. Hopmeier, W. Guss, M. Deussen, E. O. Gübel, and R. F. Mahrt, "Enhanced Dipole-Dipole Interaction in a Polymer Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4118-4121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102-071103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kerman, K.

D. K. Kim, K. Kerman, M. Saito, R. R. Sathuluri, T. Endo, S. Yamamura, Y. S. Kwon, and E. Tamiya, "Label-free DNA biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance coupled with interferometry," Anal. Chem. 79, 1855-1864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khalfin, V. B.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiang, Y.-W.

Kim, B. H.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, "Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 20, 1253-1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. K.

D. K. Kim, K. Kerman, M. Saito, R. R. Sathuluri, T. Endo, S. Yamamura, Y. S. Kwon, and E. Tamiya, "Label-free DNA biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance coupled with interferometry," Anal. Chem. 79, 1855-1864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, "Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 20, 1253-1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3095-3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Félidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404-406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, "Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 20, 1253-1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, Y. S.

D. K. Kim, K. Kerman, M. Saito, R. R. Sathuluri, T. Endo, S. Yamamura, Y. S. Kwon, and E. Tamiya, "Label-free DNA biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance coupled with interferometry," Anal. Chem. 79, 1855-1864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamprecht, B.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Félidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404-406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3095-3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Félidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404-406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lévi, G.

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3095-3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liphardt, J.

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, "A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles," Nat. Biotech. 23, 741-745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors," Nat. Mater. 7, 442-453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahrt, R. F.

M. Hopmeier, W. Guss, M. Deussen, E. O. Gübel, and R. F. Mahrt, "Enhanced Dipole-Dipole Interaction in a Polymer Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4118-4121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, J.

J. Bellessa, C. Bonnand, J. C. Plenet, and J. Mugnier, "Strong Coupling between Surface Plasmons and Excitons in an Organic Semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 036404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102-071103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mat. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102-071103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mat. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neal, T. D.

Nie, S.

S. Nie, and S. R. Emory, "Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Science 275, 1102-1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102-071103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mat. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and Quenching of Single-Molecule Fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 11302-11303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers," Opt. Express 13, 5522-5527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102-071103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mat. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging Photonics and Electronics at Nanoscale Dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, I. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, "Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 20, 1253-1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, "Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 20, 1253-1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parthasarathy, G.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, "Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7519-7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Plenet, J. C.

J. Bellessa, C. Bonnand, J. C. Plenet, and J. Mugnier, "Strong Coupling between Surface Plasmons and Excitons in an Organic Semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 036404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rand, B. P.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, "Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7519-7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, B. M.

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, "A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles," Nat. Biotech. 23, 741-745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

D. K. Kim, K. Kerman, M. Saito, R. R. Sathuluri, T. Endo, S. Yamamura, Y. S. Kwon, and E. Tamiya, "Label-free DNA biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance coupled with interferometry," Anal. Chem. 79, 1855-1864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salerno, M.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Félidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404-406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sathuluri, R. R.

D. K. Kim, K. Kerman, M. Saito, R. R. Sathuluri, T. Endo, S. Yamamura, Y. S. Kwon, and E. Tamiya, "Label-free DNA biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance coupled with interferometry," Anal. Chem. 79, 1855-1864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers," Opt. Express 13, 5522-5527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102-071103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mat. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3095-3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Félidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404-406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors," Nat. Mater. 7, 442-453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mat. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, "A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles," Nat. Biotech. 23, 741-745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamiya, E.

D. K. Kim, K. Kerman, M. Saito, R. R. Sathuluri, T. Endo, S. Yamamura, Y. S. Kwon, and E. Tamiya, "Label-free DNA biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance coupled with interferometry," Anal. Chem. 79, 1855-1864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. E.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors," Nat. Mater. 7, 442-453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.-Y.

Yamamura, S.

D. K. Kim, K. Kerman, M. Saito, R. R. Sathuluri, T. Endo, S. Yamamura, Y. S. Kwon, and E. Tamiya, "Label-free DNA biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance coupled with interferometry," Anal. Chem. 79, 1855-1864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

Yang, K. Y.

K. Y. Yang, K. C. Choi, and C. W. Ahn, "Surface plasmon-enhanced spontaneous emission rate in an organic light-emitting device structure: Cathode structure for plasmonic application," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 173301-173303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

You, Y.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors," Nat. Mater. 7, 442-453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, "Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes," Adv. Mater. 20, 1253-1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

D. K. Kim, K. Kerman, M. Saito, R. R. Sathuluri, T. Endo, S. Yamamura, Y. S. Kwon, and E. Tamiya, "Label-free DNA biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance coupled with interferometry," Anal. Chem. 79, 1855-1864 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annalen der Physik (1)

T. Förster, "Intermolecular energy transference and fluorescence," Annalen der Physik 2, 55-75 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Lévi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3095-3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Félidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 404-406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102-071103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Yang, K. C. Choi, and C. W. Ahn, "Surface plasmon-enhanced spontaneous emission rate in an organic light-emitting device structure: Cathode structure for plasmonic application," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 173301-173303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Discuss. Faraday Soc. (1)

T. Förster, "Transfer mechanisms of electronic excitation," Discuss. Faraday Soc. 27, 7-17 (1959).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, "Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7519-7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotech. (1)

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, "A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles," Nat. Biotech. 23, 741-745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mat. (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mat. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors," Nat. Mater. 7, 442-453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. Bellessa, C. Bonnand, J. C. Plenet, and J. Mugnier, "Strong Coupling between Surface Plasmons and Excitons in an Organic Semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 036404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hopmeier, W. Guss, M. Deussen, E. O. Gübel, and R. F. Mahrt, "Enhanced Dipole-Dipole Interaction in a Polymer Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4118-4121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and Quenching of Single-Molecule Fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 11302-11303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

S. Nie, and S. R. Emory, "Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Science 275, 1102-1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging Photonics and Electronics at Nanoscale Dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, "Förster Energy Transfer in an Optical Microcavity," Science 290, 785-788 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, "Energy Transfer Across a Metal Film Mediated by Surface Plasmon Polaritons," Science 306, 1002-1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, 2007).

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Absorbance spectra of LiF-Ag cluster-LiF, LiF thin film and Ag film; LiF and Ag film thickness of 2 nm and 50 nm, respectively, (b) TEM Plan view of the top of Ag clusters on the LiF surface. Inset of the left: high resolution image of Ag cluster for confirming crystallites. Inset of the right: overview of Ag cluster on LiF surface. (c) TEM cross-section view of LiF-Ag cluster-LiF structured Al cathode on the surface of SiN substrate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematics of samples with different Ag deposition conditions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Fluorescence micrographs of donor-only system1 and 3, (b) Photoluminescence (PL) emission results of donor-only system 1–4 (λexc =266 nm). Inset: PL enhancement ratio of donor-only system 2–4 compared with the donor-only system 1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Fluorescence micrographs of donor-acceptor system 1 and 3, (b) Calculated acceptor emission results of donor-acceptor system 1–4 (λexc=266 nm). Inset: PL emission result which also includes the donor emission.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) PL emission spectra of the acceptor in acceptor-only system 1–4 excited by 266 nm and 532 nm Nd:YAG laser that excites the acceptor-only system. Samples were prepared as explained in Fig. 2, and a 15-nm-thick DCM layer that acts as an organic active layer were deposited on the sample, (b) Time-resolved photoluminescence detected at the DCM emitting wavelength for donor-acceptor systems 1–4.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Ratio of the ET rate and the donor emission rate versus wavelength of the resonance mode. The absorption profile of DCM is included for a comparison.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The denotations of samples

Tables Icon

Table 2. Energy transfer dependence on the different SP resonance conditions.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Fp(ω)=krad(ω)+knon(ω)+ksp(ω)krad(ω)+knon(ω) =τPL(ω)τPL*(ω)1ηint(ω)1ηint*(ω).
ΓET=ΓDR6[34πc4ω4n4FD(ω)σA(ω)dω]=ΓDR6R06.

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