Abstract

Short lived plasma channels generated through filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in air can be revived after several milliseconds by a delayed nanosecond pulse. Electrons initially ionized from oxygen molecules and subsequently captured by neutral oxygen molecules provide the long-lived reservoir of low affinity allowing this process. A Bessel-like nanosecond-duration laser beam can easily detach these weakly bound electrons and multiply them in an avalanche process. We have experimentally demonstrated such revivals over a channel length of 50 cm by focusing the nanosecond laser with an axicon.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  26. D. S. Burch, S. J. Smith, and L. M. Branscomb, “Photodetachment of O2,” Phys. Rev. 112, 171–175 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Yablonovitch and N. Bloembergen, “Avalanche Ionization and the Limiting Diameter of Filaments Induced by Light Pulses in Transparent Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29(14), 907–910 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (5)

A. Houard, Y. Liu, B. Prade, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Strong enhancement of terahertz radiation from laser filaments in air by a static electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 255006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Chateauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J.-C. Kieffer, “Microwave guiding in air by a cylindrical filament array waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Henis, G. Milikh, K. Papadopoulos, and A. Zigler, “Generation of controlled radiation sources in the atmosphere using a dual femtosecond/nanosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Generation of long plasma channels in air by focusing ulrashort laser pulses with an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 282, 129–134 (2008).

2007 (5)

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Houard, Y. Liu, A. Mysyrowicz, and B. Leriche, “Calorimetric detection of conical THz radiation from femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, J. Kasparian,, and J. P. Wolf “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. B. Zhu, Z. G. Ji, Y. Deng, J. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “R.X. Li and Z.Z. Xu, ” Long lifetime plasma channel in air generated by multiple femtosecond laser pulses and an external electrical field,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20(3), 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrman, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189(1-3), 107–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1972 (1)

E. Yablonovitch and N. Bloembergen, “Avalanche Ionization and the Limiting Diameter of Filaments Induced by Light Pulses in Transparent Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29(14), 907–910 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

D. S. Burch, S. J. Smith, and L. M. Branscomb, “Photodetachment of O2,” Phys. Rev. 112, 171–175 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, R.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Akturk, S.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Generation of long plasma channels in air by focusing ulrashort laser pulses with an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 282, 129–134 (2008).

André, Y.-B.

Baronavski, A. P.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrman, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189(1-3), 107–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, J. Kasparian,, and J. P. Wolf “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

E. Yablonovitch and N. Bloembergen, “Avalanche Ionization and the Limiting Diameter of Filaments Induced by Light Pulses in Transparent Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29(14), 907–910 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Branscomb, L. M.

D. S. Burch, S. J. Smith, and L. M. Branscomb, “Photodetachment of O2,” Phys. Rev. 112, 171–175 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Burch, D. S.

D. S. Burch, S. J. Smith, and L. M. Branscomb, “Photodetachment of O2,” Phys. Rev. 112, 171–175 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Chateauneuf, M.

M. Chateauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J.-C. Kieffer, “Microwave guiding in air by a cylindrical filament array waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. L.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. Y.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Comtois, D.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Generation of long plasma channels in air by focusing ulrashort laser pulses with an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 282, 129–134 (2008).

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, C.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

Desparois, A.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J. C.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, J.

M. Chateauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J.-C. Kieffer, “Microwave guiding in air by a cylindrical filament array waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Durnin, J.

Elizondo, J. M.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferland, B.

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Generation of long plasma channels in air by focusing ulrashort laser pulses with an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 282, 129–134 (2008).

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M. A.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

Girardi, P. G.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrman, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189(1-3), 107–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grounds, P. W.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrman, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189(1-3), 107–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henis, Z.

Z. Henis, G. Milikh, K. Papadopoulos, and A. Zigler, “Generation of controlled radiation sources in the atmosphere using a dual femtosecond/nanosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Houard, A.

A. Houard, Y. Liu, B. Prade, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Strong enhancement of terahertz radiation from laser filaments in air by a static electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 255006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Houard, Y. Liu, A. Mysyrowicz, and B. Leriche, “Calorimetric detection of conical THz radiation from femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwasakil, A.

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Z. G.

Johnston, T. W.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kalkner, W.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, J. Kasparian,, and J. P. Wolf “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20(3), 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian,, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, J. Kasparian,, and J. P. Wolf “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.-C.

M. Chateauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J.-C. Kieffer, “Microwave guiding in air by a cylindrical filament array waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klingbeil, L.

La Fontaine, B.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ladouceur, H. D.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrman, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189(1-3), 107–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leriche, B.

A. Houard, Y. Liu, A. Mysyrowicz, and B. Leriche, “Calorimetric detection of conical THz radiation from femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

Li, Y. J.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. T.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ling, W. J.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

A. Houard, Y. Liu, B. Prade, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Strong enhancement of terahertz radiation from laser filaments in air by a static electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 255006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Houard, Y. Liu, A. Mysyrowicz, and B. Leriche, “Calorimetric detection of conical THz radiation from femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lohrman, D.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrman, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189(1-3), 107–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Méchain, G.

Méjean, G.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mercure, H. P.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milikh, G.

Z. Henis, G. Milikh, K. Papadopoulos, and A. Zigler, “Generation of controlled radiation sources in the atmosphere using a dual femtosecond/nanosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mondelain, D.

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20(3), 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Generation of long plasma channels in air by focusing ulrashort laser pulses with an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 282, 129–134 (2008).

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Houard, Y. Liu, B. Prade, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Strong enhancement of terahertz radiation from laser filaments in air by a static electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 255006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Houard, Y. Liu, A. Mysyrowicz, and B. Leriche, “Calorimetric detection of conical THz radiation from femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20(3), 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, J. Kasparian,, and J. P. Wolf “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Papadopoulos, K.

Z. Henis, G. Milikh, K. Papadopoulos, and A. Zigler, “Generation of controlled radiation sources in the atmosphere using a dual femtosecond/nanosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Payeur, S.

M. Chateauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J.-C. Kieffer, “Microwave guiding in air by a cylindrical filament array waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, H.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

A. Houard, Y. Liu, B. Prade, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Strong enhancement of terahertz radiation from laser filaments in air by a static electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 255006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B. S.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rethmeier, K.

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rizk, F. A.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20(3), 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rohwetter, P.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roy, G.

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20(3), 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Z. M.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, J. Kasparian,, and J. P. Wolf “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. J.

D. S. Burch, S. J. Smith, and L. M. Branscomb, “Photodetachment of O2,” Phys. Rev. 112, 171–175 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teng, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

A. Houard, Y. Liu, B. Prade, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Strong enhancement of terahertz radiation from laser filaments in air by a static electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 255006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. H.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z. Y.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20(3), 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, J. Kasparian,, and J. P. Wolf “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20(3), 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, J. Kasparian,, and J. P. Wolf “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20(3), 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch and N. Bloembergen, “Avalanche Ionization and the Limiting Diameter of Filaments Induced by Light Pulses in Transparent Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29(14), 907–910 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J. P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20(3), 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X. H.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X. M.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z. Y.

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, B.

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Generation of long plasma channels in air by focusing ulrashort laser pulses with an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 282, 129–134 (2008).

Zhu, J. B.

Zigler, A.

Z. Henis, G. Milikh, K. Papadopoulos, and A. Zigler, “Generation of controlled radiation sources in the atmosphere using a dual femtosecond/nanosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, “Filamentation nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 477–483 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, X. Lu, X. H. Yuan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. H. Wang, W. J. Ling, and Z. Y. Wei, “Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 627–630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Méjean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Wöste, “Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Chateauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J.-C. Kieffer, “Microwave guiding in air by a cylindrical filament array waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Houard, Y. Liu, A. Mysyrowicz, and B. Leriche, “Calorimetric detection of conical THz radiation from femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20(3), 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, B. La Fontaine, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. P. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. A. Rizk, “Modeling the triggering of streamers in air by ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(2), 418–433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. Henis, G. Milikh, K. Papadopoulos, and A. Zigler, “Generation of controlled radiation sources in the atmosphere using a dual femtosecond/nanosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (3)

S. Akturk, B. Zhou, M. Franco, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Generation of long plasma channels in air by focusing ulrashort laser pulses with an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 282, 129–134 (2008).

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 123–127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrman, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189(1-3), 107–111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. S. Burch, S. J. Smith, and L. M. Branscomb, “Photodetachment of O2,” Phys. Rev. 112, 171–175 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. J. Li, J. Zhang, Y. T. Li, Z. L. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. M. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1), 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Houard, Y. Liu, B. Prade, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Strong enhancement of terahertz radiation from laser filaments in air by a static electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 255006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch and N. Bloembergen, “Avalanche Ionization and the Limiting Diameter of Filaments Induced by Light Pulses in Transparent Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29(14), 907–910 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, J. Kasparian,, and J. P. Wolf “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

N. L. Alexandrov in, 2nd International Symposium on Filamentation Paris, France, (2008).

F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. The fs laser generates the plasma channel and the delayed ns laser revives it. The plasma channel is detected using electrodes with high voltage and/or a PMT.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Signal detected using the electrical method, showing plasma channel initially created by the fs laser and then revived by the ns laser (532 nm) after 1ms. (b) Magnitude of the signal from the revived plasma at various distances from the beginning of the initial plasma filament. (c) Magnitude of the signal from the revived plasma as a function of the Nd:YAG laser pulse energy. In (b) and (c) each point corresponds to the average of 100 measurements. The mean fluctuation around the average is 5%.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Three beam configuration when both YAG laser pulses are delayed by 53 µs from the fs laser pulse: (a) Signals detected by the PMT with a 338 nm filter in the presence of breakdown. The laser pulse at 1064 nm arrives 10 ns after the pulse at 532 nm. The optical signal recorded under the same conditions with the fs laser alone is shown in the inset (the magnitudes can be compared). (b) Photograph of the breakdown spark in a three laser beams configuration. The beam paths are shown with dotted lines. (c) Revival plasma triggered breakdown probability as a function of delay between the 1064 nm and 532 nm. A positive delay corresponds to the 532 nm pulse arriving first. Each point is an average over 1000 shots.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Evolution of free electron and O2 - ion densities: (a) After the fs laser excitation. (b) During and after the delayed ns pulse (at 532 nm) excitation. The end of the time axis in (a) coincides with the beginning of time axis in (b). The fs pulse arrives at t=0 and creates the initial plasma channel of density 1017cm-3. The ns pulse is a Gaussian with 10 ns (FWHM) duration, has its peak 50 ns after the beginning of time axis of (b) (at 50.05 µs) and it has a peak intensity of 1011 W/cm2.

Equations (3)

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dnedt=βepnenpηne+α(I2)ne+σ(I2(t)hυ)nn
dnpdt=βepnenpβnpnnnp+α(I2)ne
dnndt=βnpnnnp+ηneσ(I2(t)hυ)nn

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