Abstract

The first and perhaps most important phase of a surgical procedure is the insertion of an intravenous (IV) catheter. Currently, this is performed manually by trained personnel. In some visions of future operating rooms, however, this process is to be replaced by an automated system. Experiments to determine the best NIR wavelengths to optimize vein contrast for physiological differences such as skin tone and/or the presence of hair on the arm or wrist surface are presented. For illumination our system is composed of a mercury arc lamp coupled to a 10nm band-pass spectrometer. A structured lighting system is also coupled to our multispectral system in order to provide 3D information of the patient arm orientation. Images of each patient arm are captured under every possible combinations of illuminants and the optimal combination of wavelengths for a given subject to maximize vein contrast using linear discriminant analysis is determined.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. E. M. C. Hillman, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of near infrared tomographic imaging methods and clinical applications,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering - University College London (2002).
  2. E. M. C. Hillman and A. Moore, “All-optical anatomical co-registration for molecular imaging of small animals using dynamic contrast,” Nature Photonics 1(9), 526–530 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. D. Zeman, G. Lovhoiden, C. Vrancken, and R. K. Danish, “Prototype vein contrast enhancer,” Optical Engineering 44(8), 086,401 (2005).
  4. V. C. Paquit, F. Meriaudeau, J. R. Price, and K.W. Tobin, “Simulation of skin reflectance images using 3D tissue modeling and multispectral Monte Carlo light propagation,” in 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2008. EMBS 2008, pp. 447–450 (2008).
  5. V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, R. Seulin, F. Mériaudeau, R. H. Farahi, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Near-infrared imaging and structured light ranging for automatic catheter insertion,” Medical Imaging 2006: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display 6141(1), 61411T (pages 9) (2006).
  6. V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, F. Mériaudeau, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Combining near-infrared illuminants to optimize venous imaging,” Medical Imaging 2007: Visualization and Image-Guided Procedures 6509(1), 65090H (pages 9) (2007).
  7. R. Anderson and J. Parrish, “The Optics of Human Skin,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Zhang, “Flexible Camera Calibration by Viewing a Plane from Unknown Orientations,” IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision 1, 666 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. Z. Pan, G. Healey, M. Prasad, and B. Tromberg, “Face Recognition in Hyperspectral Images,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 25(12), 1552–1560 (2003).
  10. R. A. Jarvis, “A Perspective on Range Finding Techniques for Computer Vision,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 5(2), 122–139 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Forest, J. M. Teixidor, J. Salvi, and E. Cabruja, “A Proposal for Laser Scanners Sub-pixel Accuracy Peak Detector,” in Workshop on European Scientific and Industrial Collaboration, pp. 525–532 (Mickolj (Hungria), 2003).
  12. P. E. BezierEmploi des machines à commande numérique (Masson et Cie., 1970). Translated by Forrest, A. Robin, Pankhurst, and F. Anne as Numerical Control - Mathematics and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., London, 1972.
  13. A. Efremov, V. Havran, and H.-P. Seidel, “Robust and numerically stable Bézier clipping method for ray tracing NURBS surfaces,” in SCCG ’05: Proceedings of the 21st spring conference on Computer graphics, pp. 127–135 (ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2005).
    [Crossref]
  14. V. C. Paquit, F. Meriaudeau, J. R. Price, and K. W. Tobin, “Multispectral Imaging For Subcutaneous Structures Classification And Analysis,” in International Topical Meeting on Optical Sensing and Artificial Vision, OSAV’2008, Saint Petersburg, Russia (2008).
    [PubMed]
  15. H. J. Noordmans, R. de Roode, and R. Verdaasdonk “Compact multi-spectral imaging system for dermatology and neurosurgery,” in Medical Imaging 2007: Physics of Medical Imaging, J. Hsieh and M. J. Flynn, eds., vol. 6510, p. 65100I (SPIE, 2007).
  16. K. Fukunaga, Statistical Pattern Recognition (Morgan Kaufmann, 1990).
  17. C. Steger, “Extraction of curved lines from images,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 251–255vol.2 (1996).
  18. J. Staal, M. Abramoff, M. Niemeijer, M. Viergever, and B. van Ginneken, “Ridge-based vessel segmentation in color images of the retina,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 23(4), 501–509 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Soares, J. Leandro, R. Cesar, H. Jelinek, and M. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. V. C. Paquit, “Imagerie multispectrale et modélisation 3D pour l’estimation quantitative des vaisseaux sanguins sous cutanés,” Ph.D. thesis, Université de Bourgogne, Le Creusot, France (2008).

2008 (2)

V. C. Paquit, F. Meriaudeau, J. R. Price, and K.W. Tobin, “Simulation of skin reflectance images using 3D tissue modeling and multispectral Monte Carlo light propagation,” in 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2008. EMBS 2008, pp. 447–450 (2008).

V. C. Paquit, “Imagerie multispectrale et modélisation 3D pour l’estimation quantitative des vaisseaux sanguins sous cutanés,” Ph.D. thesis, Université de Bourgogne, Le Creusot, France (2008).

2007 (2)

E. M. C. Hillman and A. Moore, “All-optical anatomical co-registration for molecular imaging of small animals using dynamic contrast,” Nature Photonics 1(9), 526–530 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, F. Mériaudeau, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Combining near-infrared illuminants to optimize venous imaging,” Medical Imaging 2007: Visualization and Image-Guided Procedures 6509(1), 65090H (pages 9) (2007).

2006 (2)

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, R. Seulin, F. Mériaudeau, R. H. Farahi, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Near-infrared imaging and structured light ranging for automatic catheter insertion,” Medical Imaging 2006: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display 6141(1), 61411T (pages 9) (2006).

J. Soares, J. Leandro, R. Cesar, H. Jelinek, and M. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H. D. Zeman, G. Lovhoiden, C. Vrancken, and R. K. Danish, “Prototype vein contrast enhancer,” Optical Engineering 44(8), 086,401 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. Staal, M. Abramoff, M. Niemeijer, M. Viergever, and B. van Ginneken, “Ridge-based vessel segmentation in color images of the retina,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 23(4), 501–509 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. Forest, J. M. Teixidor, J. Salvi, and E. Cabruja, “A Proposal for Laser Scanners Sub-pixel Accuracy Peak Detector,” in Workshop on European Scientific and Industrial Collaboration, pp. 525–532 (Mickolj (Hungria), 2003).

Z. Pan, G. Healey, M. Prasad, and B. Tromberg, “Face Recognition in Hyperspectral Images,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 25(12), 1552–1560 (2003).

2002 (1)

E. M. C. Hillman, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of near infrared tomographic imaging methods and clinical applications,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering - University College London (2002).

1999 (1)

Z. Zhang, “Flexible Camera Calibration by Viewing a Plane from Unknown Orientations,” IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision 1, 666 (1999).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. A. Jarvis, “A Perspective on Range Finding Techniques for Computer Vision,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 5(2), 122–139 (1983).
[Crossref]

Abramoff, M.

J. Staal, M. Abramoff, M. Niemeijer, M. Viergever, and B. van Ginneken, “Ridge-based vessel segmentation in color images of the retina,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 23(4), 501–509 (2004).
[Crossref]

Anderson, R.

R. Anderson and J. Parrish, “The Optics of Human Skin,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anne, F.

P. E. BezierEmploi des machines à commande numérique (Masson et Cie., 1970). Translated by Forrest, A. Robin, Pankhurst, and F. Anne as Numerical Control - Mathematics and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., London, 1972.

Bezier, P. E.

P. E. BezierEmploi des machines à commande numérique (Masson et Cie., 1970). Translated by Forrest, A. Robin, Pankhurst, and F. Anne as Numerical Control - Mathematics and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., London, 1972.

Cabruja, E.

J. Forest, J. M. Teixidor, J. Salvi, and E. Cabruja, “A Proposal for Laser Scanners Sub-pixel Accuracy Peak Detector,” in Workshop on European Scientific and Industrial Collaboration, pp. 525–532 (Mickolj (Hungria), 2003).

Cesar, R.

J. Soares, J. Leandro, R. Cesar, H. Jelinek, and M. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cree, M.

J. Soares, J. Leandro, R. Cesar, H. Jelinek, and M. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
[Crossref]

Danish, R. K.

H. D. Zeman, G. Lovhoiden, C. Vrancken, and R. K. Danish, “Prototype vein contrast enhancer,” Optical Engineering 44(8), 086,401 (2005).

de Roode, R.

H. J. Noordmans, R. de Roode, and R. Verdaasdonk “Compact multi-spectral imaging system for dermatology and neurosurgery,” in Medical Imaging 2007: Physics of Medical Imaging, J. Hsieh and M. J. Flynn, eds., vol. 6510, p. 65100I (SPIE, 2007).

Efremov, A.

A. Efremov, V. Havran, and H.-P. Seidel, “Robust and numerically stable Bézier clipping method for ray tracing NURBS surfaces,” in SCCG ’05: Proceedings of the 21st spring conference on Computer graphics, pp. 127–135 (ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2005).
[Crossref]

Farahi, R. H.

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, R. Seulin, F. Mériaudeau, R. H. Farahi, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Near-infrared imaging and structured light ranging for automatic catheter insertion,” Medical Imaging 2006: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display 6141(1), 61411T (pages 9) (2006).

Ferrell, T. L.

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, F. Mériaudeau, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Combining near-infrared illuminants to optimize venous imaging,” Medical Imaging 2007: Visualization and Image-Guided Procedures 6509(1), 65090H (pages 9) (2007).

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, R. Seulin, F. Mériaudeau, R. H. Farahi, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Near-infrared imaging and structured light ranging for automatic catheter insertion,” Medical Imaging 2006: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display 6141(1), 61411T (pages 9) (2006).

Flynn, M. J.

H. J. Noordmans, R. de Roode, and R. Verdaasdonk “Compact multi-spectral imaging system for dermatology and neurosurgery,” in Medical Imaging 2007: Physics of Medical Imaging, J. Hsieh and M. J. Flynn, eds., vol. 6510, p. 65100I (SPIE, 2007).

Forest, J.

J. Forest, J. M. Teixidor, J. Salvi, and E. Cabruja, “A Proposal for Laser Scanners Sub-pixel Accuracy Peak Detector,” in Workshop on European Scientific and Industrial Collaboration, pp. 525–532 (Mickolj (Hungria), 2003).

Fukunaga, K.

K. Fukunaga, Statistical Pattern Recognition (Morgan Kaufmann, 1990).

Havran, V.

A. Efremov, V. Havran, and H.-P. Seidel, “Robust and numerically stable Bézier clipping method for ray tracing NURBS surfaces,” in SCCG ’05: Proceedings of the 21st spring conference on Computer graphics, pp. 127–135 (ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2005).
[Crossref]

Healey, G.

Z. Pan, G. Healey, M. Prasad, and B. Tromberg, “Face Recognition in Hyperspectral Images,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 25(12), 1552–1560 (2003).

Hillman, E. M. C.

E. M. C. Hillman and A. Moore, “All-optical anatomical co-registration for molecular imaging of small animals using dynamic contrast,” Nature Photonics 1(9), 526–530 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. M. C. Hillman, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of near infrared tomographic imaging methods and clinical applications,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering - University College London (2002).

Hsieh, J.

H. J. Noordmans, R. de Roode, and R. Verdaasdonk “Compact multi-spectral imaging system for dermatology and neurosurgery,” in Medical Imaging 2007: Physics of Medical Imaging, J. Hsieh and M. J. Flynn, eds., vol. 6510, p. 65100I (SPIE, 2007).

Jarvis, R. A.

R. A. Jarvis, “A Perspective on Range Finding Techniques for Computer Vision,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 5(2), 122–139 (1983).
[Crossref]

Jelinek, H.

J. Soares, J. Leandro, R. Cesar, H. Jelinek, and M. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kenneth, J.

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, F. Mériaudeau, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Combining near-infrared illuminants to optimize venous imaging,” Medical Imaging 2007: Visualization and Image-Guided Procedures 6509(1), 65090H (pages 9) (2007).

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, R. Seulin, F. Mériaudeau, R. H. Farahi, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Near-infrared imaging and structured light ranging for automatic catheter insertion,” Medical Imaging 2006: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display 6141(1), 61411T (pages 9) (2006).

Leandro, J.

J. Soares, J. Leandro, R. Cesar, H. Jelinek, and M. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lovhoiden, G.

H. D. Zeman, G. Lovhoiden, C. Vrancken, and R. K. Danish, “Prototype vein contrast enhancer,” Optical Engineering 44(8), 086,401 (2005).

Meriaudeau, F.

V. C. Paquit, F. Meriaudeau, J. R. Price, and K.W. Tobin, “Simulation of skin reflectance images using 3D tissue modeling and multispectral Monte Carlo light propagation,” in 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2008. EMBS 2008, pp. 447–450 (2008).

V. C. Paquit, F. Meriaudeau, J. R. Price, and K. W. Tobin, “Multispectral Imaging For Subcutaneous Structures Classification And Analysis,” in International Topical Meeting on Optical Sensing and Artificial Vision, OSAV’2008, Saint Petersburg, Russia (2008).
[PubMed]

Mériaudeau, F.

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, F. Mériaudeau, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Combining near-infrared illuminants to optimize venous imaging,” Medical Imaging 2007: Visualization and Image-Guided Procedures 6509(1), 65090H (pages 9) (2007).

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, R. Seulin, F. Mériaudeau, R. H. Farahi, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Near-infrared imaging and structured light ranging for automatic catheter insertion,” Medical Imaging 2006: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display 6141(1), 61411T (pages 9) (2006).

Moore, A.

E. M. C. Hillman and A. Moore, “All-optical anatomical co-registration for molecular imaging of small animals using dynamic contrast,” Nature Photonics 1(9), 526–530 (2007).
[Crossref]

Niemeijer, M.

J. Staal, M. Abramoff, M. Niemeijer, M. Viergever, and B. van Ginneken, “Ridge-based vessel segmentation in color images of the retina,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 23(4), 501–509 (2004).
[Crossref]

Noordmans, H. J.

H. J. Noordmans, R. de Roode, and R. Verdaasdonk “Compact multi-spectral imaging system for dermatology and neurosurgery,” in Medical Imaging 2007: Physics of Medical Imaging, J. Hsieh and M. J. Flynn, eds., vol. 6510, p. 65100I (SPIE, 2007).

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, G. Healey, M. Prasad, and B. Tromberg, “Face Recognition in Hyperspectral Images,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 25(12), 1552–1560 (2003).

Pankhurst,

P. E. BezierEmploi des machines à commande numérique (Masson et Cie., 1970). Translated by Forrest, A. Robin, Pankhurst, and F. Anne as Numerical Control - Mathematics and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., London, 1972.

Paquit, V. C.

V. C. Paquit, “Imagerie multispectrale et modélisation 3D pour l’estimation quantitative des vaisseaux sanguins sous cutanés,” Ph.D. thesis, Université de Bourgogne, Le Creusot, France (2008).

V. C. Paquit, F. Meriaudeau, J. R. Price, and K.W. Tobin, “Simulation of skin reflectance images using 3D tissue modeling and multispectral Monte Carlo light propagation,” in 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2008. EMBS 2008, pp. 447–450 (2008).

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, F. Mériaudeau, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Combining near-infrared illuminants to optimize venous imaging,” Medical Imaging 2007: Visualization and Image-Guided Procedures 6509(1), 65090H (pages 9) (2007).

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, R. Seulin, F. Mériaudeau, R. H. Farahi, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Near-infrared imaging and structured light ranging for automatic catheter insertion,” Medical Imaging 2006: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display 6141(1), 61411T (pages 9) (2006).

V. C. Paquit, F. Meriaudeau, J. R. Price, and K. W. Tobin, “Multispectral Imaging For Subcutaneous Structures Classification And Analysis,” in International Topical Meeting on Optical Sensing and Artificial Vision, OSAV’2008, Saint Petersburg, Russia (2008).
[PubMed]

Parrish, J.

R. Anderson and J. Parrish, “The Optics of Human Skin,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasad, M.

Z. Pan, G. Healey, M. Prasad, and B. Tromberg, “Face Recognition in Hyperspectral Images,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 25(12), 1552–1560 (2003).

Price, J. R.

V. C. Paquit, F. Meriaudeau, J. R. Price, and K.W. Tobin, “Simulation of skin reflectance images using 3D tissue modeling and multispectral Monte Carlo light propagation,” in 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2008. EMBS 2008, pp. 447–450 (2008).

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, F. Mériaudeau, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Combining near-infrared illuminants to optimize venous imaging,” Medical Imaging 2007: Visualization and Image-Guided Procedures 6509(1), 65090H (pages 9) (2007).

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, R. Seulin, F. Mériaudeau, R. H. Farahi, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Near-infrared imaging and structured light ranging for automatic catheter insertion,” Medical Imaging 2006: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display 6141(1), 61411T (pages 9) (2006).

V. C. Paquit, F. Meriaudeau, J. R. Price, and K. W. Tobin, “Multispectral Imaging For Subcutaneous Structures Classification And Analysis,” in International Topical Meeting on Optical Sensing and Artificial Vision, OSAV’2008, Saint Petersburg, Russia (2008).
[PubMed]

Robin, A.

P. E. BezierEmploi des machines à commande numérique (Masson et Cie., 1970). Translated by Forrest, A. Robin, Pankhurst, and F. Anne as Numerical Control - Mathematics and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., London, 1972.

Salvi, J.

J. Forest, J. M. Teixidor, J. Salvi, and E. Cabruja, “A Proposal for Laser Scanners Sub-pixel Accuracy Peak Detector,” in Workshop on European Scientific and Industrial Collaboration, pp. 525–532 (Mickolj (Hungria), 2003).

Seidel, H.-P.

A. Efremov, V. Havran, and H.-P. Seidel, “Robust and numerically stable Bézier clipping method for ray tracing NURBS surfaces,” in SCCG ’05: Proceedings of the 21st spring conference on Computer graphics, pp. 127–135 (ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2005).
[Crossref]

Seulin, R.

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, R. Seulin, F. Mériaudeau, R. H. Farahi, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Near-infrared imaging and structured light ranging for automatic catheter insertion,” Medical Imaging 2006: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display 6141(1), 61411T (pages 9) (2006).

Soares, J.

J. Soares, J. Leandro, R. Cesar, H. Jelinek, and M. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
[Crossref]

Staal, J.

J. Staal, M. Abramoff, M. Niemeijer, M. Viergever, and B. van Ginneken, “Ridge-based vessel segmentation in color images of the retina,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 23(4), 501–509 (2004).
[Crossref]

Steger, C.

C. Steger, “Extraction of curved lines from images,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 251–255vol.2 (1996).

Teixidor, J. M.

J. Forest, J. M. Teixidor, J. Salvi, and E. Cabruja, “A Proposal for Laser Scanners Sub-pixel Accuracy Peak Detector,” in Workshop on European Scientific and Industrial Collaboration, pp. 525–532 (Mickolj (Hungria), 2003).

Tobin, K. W.

V. C. Paquit, F. Meriaudeau, J. R. Price, and K. W. Tobin, “Multispectral Imaging For Subcutaneous Structures Classification And Analysis,” in International Topical Meeting on Optical Sensing and Artificial Vision, OSAV’2008, Saint Petersburg, Russia (2008).
[PubMed]

Tobin, K.W.

V. C. Paquit, F. Meriaudeau, J. R. Price, and K.W. Tobin, “Simulation of skin reflectance images using 3D tissue modeling and multispectral Monte Carlo light propagation,” in 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2008. EMBS 2008, pp. 447–450 (2008).

Tobin, W.

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, F. Mériaudeau, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Combining near-infrared illuminants to optimize venous imaging,” Medical Imaging 2007: Visualization and Image-Guided Procedures 6509(1), 65090H (pages 9) (2007).

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, R. Seulin, F. Mériaudeau, R. H. Farahi, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Near-infrared imaging and structured light ranging for automatic catheter insertion,” Medical Imaging 2006: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display 6141(1), 61411T (pages 9) (2006).

Tromberg, B.

Z. Pan, G. Healey, M. Prasad, and B. Tromberg, “Face Recognition in Hyperspectral Images,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 25(12), 1552–1560 (2003).

van Ginneken, B.

J. Staal, M. Abramoff, M. Niemeijer, M. Viergever, and B. van Ginneken, “Ridge-based vessel segmentation in color images of the retina,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 23(4), 501–509 (2004).
[Crossref]

Verdaasdonk, R.

H. J. Noordmans, R. de Roode, and R. Verdaasdonk “Compact multi-spectral imaging system for dermatology and neurosurgery,” in Medical Imaging 2007: Physics of Medical Imaging, J. Hsieh and M. J. Flynn, eds., vol. 6510, p. 65100I (SPIE, 2007).

Viergever, M.

J. Staal, M. Abramoff, M. Niemeijer, M. Viergever, and B. van Ginneken, “Ridge-based vessel segmentation in color images of the retina,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 23(4), 501–509 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vrancken, C.

H. D. Zeman, G. Lovhoiden, C. Vrancken, and R. K. Danish, “Prototype vein contrast enhancer,” Optical Engineering 44(8), 086,401 (2005).

Zeman, H. D.

H. D. Zeman, G. Lovhoiden, C. Vrancken, and R. K. Danish, “Prototype vein contrast enhancer,” Optical Engineering 44(8), 086,401 (2005).

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, “Flexible Camera Calibration by Viewing a Plane from Unknown Orientations,” IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision 1, 666 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (1)

Z. Zhang, “Flexible Camera Calibration by Viewing a Plane from Unknown Orientations,” IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision 1, 666 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging (2)

J. Staal, M. Abramoff, M. Niemeijer, M. Viergever, and B. van Ginneken, “Ridge-based vessel segmentation in color images of the retina,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 23(4), 501–509 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Soares, J. Leandro, R. Cesar, H. Jelinek, and M. Cree, “Retinal vessel segmentation using the 2-D Gabor wavelet and supervised classification,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 25(9), 1214–1222 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (2)

Z. Pan, G. Healey, M. Prasad, and B. Tromberg, “Face Recognition in Hyperspectral Images,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 25(12), 1552–1560 (2003).

R. A. Jarvis, “A Perspective on Range Finding Techniques for Computer Vision,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 5(2), 122–139 (1983).
[Crossref]

Medical Imaging 2006: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display (1)

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, R. Seulin, F. Mériaudeau, R. H. Farahi, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Near-infrared imaging and structured light ranging for automatic catheter insertion,” Medical Imaging 2006: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display 6141(1), 61411T (pages 9) (2006).

Medical Imaging 2007: Visualization and Image-Guided Procedures (1)

V. C. Paquit, J. R. Price, F. Mériaudeau, J. Kenneth, W. Tobin, and T. L. Ferrell, “Combining near-infrared illuminants to optimize venous imaging,” Medical Imaging 2007: Visualization and Image-Guided Procedures 6509(1), 65090H (pages 9) (2007).

Nature Photonics (1)

E. M. C. Hillman and A. Moore, “All-optical anatomical co-registration for molecular imaging of small animals using dynamic contrast,” Nature Photonics 1(9), 526–530 (2007).
[Crossref]

Optical Engineering (1)

H. D. Zeman, G. Lovhoiden, C. Vrancken, and R. K. Danish, “Prototype vein contrast enhancer,” Optical Engineering 44(8), 086,401 (2005).

Ph.D. thesis, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering - University College London (1)

E. M. C. Hillman, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of near infrared tomographic imaging methods and clinical applications,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering - University College London (2002).

Workshop on European Scientific and Industrial Collaboration (1)

J. Forest, J. M. Teixidor, J. Salvi, and E. Cabruja, “A Proposal for Laser Scanners Sub-pixel Accuracy Peak Detector,” in Workshop on European Scientific and Industrial Collaboration, pp. 525–532 (Mickolj (Hungria), 2003).

Other (9)

P. E. BezierEmploi des machines à commande numérique (Masson et Cie., 1970). Translated by Forrest, A. Robin, Pankhurst, and F. Anne as Numerical Control - Mathematics and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., London, 1972.

A. Efremov, V. Havran, and H.-P. Seidel, “Robust and numerically stable Bézier clipping method for ray tracing NURBS surfaces,” in SCCG ’05: Proceedings of the 21st spring conference on Computer graphics, pp. 127–135 (ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2005).
[Crossref]

V. C. Paquit, F. Meriaudeau, J. R. Price, and K. W. Tobin, “Multispectral Imaging For Subcutaneous Structures Classification And Analysis,” in International Topical Meeting on Optical Sensing and Artificial Vision, OSAV’2008, Saint Petersburg, Russia (2008).
[PubMed]

H. J. Noordmans, R. de Roode, and R. Verdaasdonk “Compact multi-spectral imaging system for dermatology and neurosurgery,” in Medical Imaging 2007: Physics of Medical Imaging, J. Hsieh and M. J. Flynn, eds., vol. 6510, p. 65100I (SPIE, 2007).

K. Fukunaga, Statistical Pattern Recognition (Morgan Kaufmann, 1990).

C. Steger, “Extraction of curved lines from images,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 251–255vol.2 (1996).

V. C. Paquit, “Imagerie multispectrale et modélisation 3D pour l’estimation quantitative des vaisseaux sanguins sous cutanés,” Ph.D. thesis, Université de Bourgogne, Le Creusot, France (2008).

V. C. Paquit, F. Meriaudeau, J. R. Price, and K.W. Tobin, “Simulation of skin reflectance images using 3D tissue modeling and multispectral Monte Carlo light propagation,” in 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2008. EMBS 2008, pp. 447–450 (2008).

R. Anderson and J. Parrish, “The Optics of Human Skin,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Triangulation principle

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) image of the laser lines on the surface of the skin, (b) centerlines detected using a supbixel operator are in red, (c) Laser line on the forearm and (d) its 3D reconstruction.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Example of the masks used for the LDA process. (a) Manually generated 2 class mask. (b)Aumatically (based on the PCA and Steger Algorithm) generated 2 class mask (c) Manually generated 3 class mask. (d)Aumatically (based on the PCA and Steger Algorithm) generated 3 class mask

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of the vascular centerline detection using Steger’s algorithm for different input features and class masks: (first column) two class problem - vein/not vein - where the mask is manually defined; (second column) two class problem with mask automatically generated from the PCA image; (third column) three class problem - vein/skin/other -with mask manually defined; and (fourth column) three class problem with mask automatically generated from the PCA image.

Equations (1)

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