Abstract

Gold nanorods emit strong photoluminescence under two photon excitation; the efficient two photon lumininescence (TPL) arises from the local field enhancement assisted by surface plasmons. The surface plasmon effects on the TPL efficiency and spectrum are investigated by measuring the TPL of gold nanorods with various aspect ratios. A large TPL efficiency is found when incident light wavelength coincides with the longitudinal surface plasmon mode of the gold nanorods. However, the emission spectra of nanorods with various aspect ratios look similar and exhibit modest surface plasmon features, which implies a major non-radiative decay of excited surface plasmons.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Mooradian, “Photoluminescence of metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(5), 185–187 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. T. Boyd, T. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30(2), 519–526 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Yelin, D. Oron, S. Thiberge, E. Moses, and Y. Silberberg, “Multiphoton plasmon-resonance microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(12), 1385–1391 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Park, A. Estrada, K. Sharp, K. Sang, J. A. Schwartz, D. K. Smith, C. Coleman, J. D. Payne, B. A. Korgel, A. K. Dunn, and J. W. Tunnell, “Two-photon-induced photoluminescence imaging of tumors using near-infrared excited gold nanoshells,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1590–1599 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, “Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Nanotechnology 19(31), 315102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. B. Mohamed, V. Volkov, S. Link, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The 'lightning' gold nanorods: fluorescence enhancement of over a million compared to the gold metal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317(6), 517–523 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Wet chemical synthesisof high aspect ratio cylindrical gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(19), 4065–4067 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Link and M. El-Sayed, “Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Eustis and M. El-Sayed, “Aspect ratio dependence of the enhanced fluorescence intensity of gold nanorods: experimental and simulation study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(34), 16350–16356 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, J. Beermann, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Barcia-Vidal, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of Au nanoparticle arrays: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155404 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. J. Orendorff and C. J. Murphy, “Quantitation of metal content in the silver-assisted growth of gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(9), 3990–3994 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Plasmon mode imaging of single gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12730–12731 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. Park, A. Estrada, K. Sharp, K. Sang, J. A. Schwartz, D. K. Smith, C. Coleman, J. D. Payne, B. A. Korgel, A. K. Dunn, and J. W. Tunnell, “Two-photon-induced photoluminescence imaging of tumors using near-infrared excited gold nanoshells,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1590–1599 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, “Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Nanotechnology 19(31), 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, J. Beermann, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Barcia-Vidal, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of Au nanoparticle arrays: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Orendorff and C. J. Murphy, “Quantitation of metal content in the silver-assisted growth of gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(9), 3990–3994 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Eustis and M. El-Sayed, “Aspect ratio dependence of the enhanced fluorescence intensity of gold nanorods: experimental and simulation study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(34), 16350–16356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Plasmon mode imaging of single gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12730–12731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Wet chemical synthesisof high aspect ratio cylindrical gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(19), 4065–4067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. B. Mohamed, V. Volkov, S. Link, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The 'lightning' gold nanorods: fluorescence enhancement of over a million compared to the gold metal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317(6), 517–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Link and M. El-Sayed, “Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. T. Boyd, T. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30(2), 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

A. Mooradian, “Photoluminescence of metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(5), 185–187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barcia-Vidal, F.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, J. Beermann, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Barcia-Vidal, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of Au nanoparticle arrays: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beermann, J.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, J. Beermann, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Barcia-Vidal, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of Au nanoparticle arrays: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Yakar, A.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bickford, L.

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, “Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Nanotechnology 19(31), 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. T.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, T. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30(2), 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, J. Beermann, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Barcia-Vidal, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of Au nanoparticle arrays: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Butterfield, F. L.

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, “Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Nanotechnology 19(31), 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, V. W.

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.-X.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, C.

Drezek, R.

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, “Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Nanotechnology 19(31), 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, A. K.

Durr, N. J.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M.

S. Eustis and M. El-Sayed, “Aspect ratio dependence of the enhanced fluorescence intensity of gold nanorods: experimental and simulation study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(34), 16350–16356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Link and M. El-Sayed, “Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

M. B. Mohamed, V. Volkov, S. Link, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The 'lightning' gold nanorods: fluorescence enhancement of over a million compared to the gold metal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317(6), 517–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Estrada, A.

Eustis, S.

S. Eustis and M. El-Sayed, “Aspect ratio dependence of the enhanced fluorescence intensity of gold nanorods: experimental and simulation study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(34), 16350–16356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farrer, R. A.

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fourkas, J. T.

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Franzl, T.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fu, K.

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, “Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Nanotechnology 19(31), 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gearheart, L.

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Wet chemical synthesisof high aspect ratio cylindrical gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(19), 4065–4067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

He, W.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, J. Beermann, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Barcia-Vidal, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of Au nanoparticle arrays: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huff, T. B.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imura, K.

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Plasmon mode imaging of single gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12730–12731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jana, N. R.

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Wet chemical synthesisof high aspect ratio cylindrical gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(19), 4065–4067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Korgel, B. A.

J. Park, A. Estrada, K. Sharp, K. Sang, J. A. Schwartz, D. K. Smith, C. Coleman, J. D. Payne, B. A. Korgel, A. K. Dunn, and J. W. Tunnell, “Two-photon-induced photoluminescence imaging of tumors using near-infrared excited gold nanoshells,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1590–1599 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kostcheev, S.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, J. Beermann, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Barcia-Vidal, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of Au nanoparticle arrays: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Larson, T.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leite, J. R. R.

G. T. Boyd, T. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30(2), 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lerondel, G.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lewinski, N.

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, “Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Nanotechnology 19(31), 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Link, S.

M. B. Mohamed, V. Volkov, S. Link, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The 'lightning' gold nanorods: fluorescence enhancement of over a million compared to the gold metal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317(6), 517–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Link and M. El-Sayed, “Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Low, P. S.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, J. Beermann, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Barcia-Vidal, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of Au nanoparticle arrays: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mohamed, M. B.

M. B. Mohamed, V. Volkov, S. Link, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The 'lightning' gold nanorods: fluorescence enhancement of over a million compared to the gold metal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317(6), 517–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

A. Mooradian, “Photoluminescence of metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(5), 185–187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Moses, E.

Mulvaney, P.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, C. J.

C. J. Orendorff and C. J. Murphy, “Quantitation of metal content in the silver-assisted growth of gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(9), 3990–3994 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Wet chemical synthesisof high aspect ratio cylindrical gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(19), 4065–4067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nagahara, T.

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Plasmon mode imaging of single gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12730–12731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nammalvar, V.

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, “Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Nanotechnology 19(31), 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Plasmon mode imaging of single gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12730–12731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Orendorff, C. J.

C. J. Orendorff and C. J. Murphy, “Quantitation of metal content in the silver-assisted growth of gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(9), 3990–3994 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oron, D.

Park, J.

Payne, J. D.

Rasing, T.

G. T. Boyd, T. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30(2), 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, S. G.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, J. Beermann, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Barcia-Vidal, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of Au nanoparticle arrays: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sang, K.

Schwartz, J. A.

Sharp, K.

Shen, Y. R.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, T. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30(2), 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Smith, D. K.

J. Park, A. Estrada, K. Sharp, K. Sang, J. A. Schwartz, D. K. Smith, C. Coleman, J. D. Payne, B. A. Korgel, A. K. Dunn, and J. W. Tunnell, “Two-photon-induced photoluminescence imaging of tumors using near-infrared excited gold nanoshells,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1590–1599 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, K.

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, “Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Nanotechnology 19(31), 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thiberge, S.

Tunnell, J. W.

Volkov, V.

M. B. Mohamed, V. Volkov, S. Link, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The 'lightning' gold nanorods: fluorescence enhancement of over a million compared to the gold metal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317(6), 517–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

von Plessen, G.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, A.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilk, T.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, O.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yelin, D.

Yu, Z. H.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zweifel, D. A.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. B. Mohamed, V. Volkov, S. Link, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The 'lightning' gold nanorods: fluorescence enhancement of over a million compared to the gold metal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317(6), 517–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Plasmon mode imaging of single gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12730–12731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (4)

C. J. Orendorff and C. J. Murphy, “Quantitation of metal content in the silver-assisted growth of gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(9), 3990–3994 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Wet chemical synthesisof high aspect ratio cylindrical gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(19), 4065–4067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Link and M. El-Sayed, “Spectral Properties and Relaxation Dynamics of Surface Plasmon Electronic Oscillations in Gold and Silver Nanodots and Nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Eustis and M. El-Sayed, “Aspect ratio dependence of the enhanced fluorescence intensity of gold nanorods: experimental and simulation study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(34), 16350–16356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Durr, T. Larson, D. K. Smith, B. A. Korgel, K. Sokolov, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells using molecularly targeted gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 941–945 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

L. Bickford, J. Sun, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, V. Nammalvar, J. Chang, and R. Drezek, “Enhanced multi-spectral imaging of live breast cancer cells using immunotargeted gold nanoshells and two-photon excitation microscopy,” Nanotechnology 19(31), 315102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, T. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30(2), 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, J. Beermann, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Barcia-Vidal, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of Au nanoparticle arrays: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Mooradian, “Photoluminescence of metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(5), 185–187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(44), 15752–15756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The extinction spectra for gold nanorods with various aspect ratios. The numbers at the top and the right of each trace indicate the position of the longitudinal surface plasmon band and the aspect ratio of that nanorod, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the setup for the TPL measurement of gold nanorods.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The measured and calculated TPL efficiency of gold nanorods with various aspect ratios (the equivalent LSP modes are at 540, 590, 680, 740, 790, and 820nm)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The TPL spectra of gold nanorods with LSP modes at (i) 680nm, (ii) 740nm, (iii) 790nm, (iv) 820nm, and (v) 930nm (Data is smoothed by averaging. Averaging interval: 3nm)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a)The absorption spectra for gold nanorods in water and 50% glycerol. (b) The comparison of TPL efficiency of gold nanorods in water and 50% glycerol when the excitation wavelength is varied. (c) The TPL spectra for gold nanorods in water and 50% glycerol almost overlap each other when the excitation wavelength is set at 815nm (raw data is shown; no data average is applied).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The Ix/IL ratios for the TPL spectra of various gold nanorods

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Iext(ω)=Iabs(ω)+Isca(ω)(α(ω)+β(ω))NL(ω)E02=Nγ (ω)L2(ω)Iin,
L(ω)=(IextNγIin)12=(IinItNγIin)12=(110ANγ)12,
P(ω2)=η (ω2)NE04L4(ω1)L2(ω2),
Pr=PLSPR=790PLSPR=820×N1N2,
Pr=L4(ω1)L2(ω2)LSPR=790L4(ω1)L2(ω2)LSPR=820 .

Metrics