Abstract

By using spectral analysis in the visible/near-infrared region, we demonstrate a single waveguiding polyaniline/polystyrene nanowire for highly selective detection of gas mixtures with a NH3 detection limit on parts-per-million level and relative humidity sensing ranging from 37% to 84%. The compact and flexible sensing scheme shown here may be attractive for highly selective optical detection in complex chemical or biological environments with a single nanowire.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. X. Huang, S. Virji, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 314–315 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. E. Nicho, M. Trejo, A. Garcia-Valenzuela, J. M. Saniger, J. Palacios, and H. Hub, “Polyaniline composite coatings interrogated by a nulling optical-transmittance bridge for sensing low concentrations of ammonia gas,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 76(1-3), 18–24 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Christie, E. Scorsone, K. Persaud, and F. Kvasnik, “Remote detection of gaseous ammonia using the near infrared transmission properties of polyaniline,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 90(1-3), 163–169 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Q. Liu, J. Kameoka, D. A. Czaplewski, and H. G. Craighead, “Polymeric nanowire chemical sensor,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 671–675 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Jang, J. Ha, and J. Cho, “Fabrication of water-dispersible polyaniline-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) nanoparticles for inkjet-printed chemical-sensor applications,” Adv. Mater. 19(13), 1772–1775 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. T. Kemp, D. McGrouther, J. W. Cochrane, and R. Newbury, “Bridging the gap: polymer nanowire devices,” Adv. Mater. 19(18), 2634–2638 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Virji, J. D. Fowler, C. O. Baker, J. X. Huang, R. B. Kaner, and B. H. Weiller, “Polyaniline nanofiber composites with metal salts: chemical sensors for hydrogen sulfide,” Small 1(6), 624–627 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Elizalde-Torres, H. L. Hu, and A. Garcia-Valenzuela, “NO2-induced optical absorbance changes in semiconductor polyaniline thin films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 98(2-3), 218–226 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. B. Yan, Z. J. Han, Y. Yang, and B. K. Tay, “NO2 gas sensing with polyaniline nanofibers synthesized by a facile aqueous/organic interfacial polymerization,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 123(1), 107–113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Senesac and T. G. Thundat, “Nanosensors for trace explosive detection,” Mater. Today 11(3), 28–36 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. F. Qi, O. Vermesh, M. Grecu, A. Javey, Q. Wang, H. J. Dai, S. Peng, and K. J. Cho, “Toward large arrays of multiplex functionalized carbon nanotube sensors for highly sensitive and selective molecular detection,” Nano Lett. 3(3), 347–351 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. F. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. C. McAlpine, H. Ahmad, D. W. Wang, and J. R. Heath, “Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 379–384 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. A. Skoog, D. M. West, F. J. Holler, and S. R. Crouch, Fundamental of Analytical Chemistry (Brooks Cole, 2004).
  15. D. J. Sirbuly, A. Tao, M. Law, R. Fan, and P. D. Yang, “Multifunctional nanowire evanescent wave optical sensors advanced materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(1), 61–66 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. J. Sirbuly, S. E. Letant, and T. V. Ratto, “Hydrogen sensing with subwavelength pptical waveguides via porous silsesquioxane-palladium nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 20(24), 4724–4727 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. J. Huang, S. Y. Yang, and L. M. Tong, “Modeling of evanescent coupling between two parallel optical nanowires,” Appl. Opt. 46(9), 1429–1434 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Pud, N. Ogurtsova, A. Korzhenkob, and G. Shapovala, “Some aspects of preparation methods and properties of polyaniline blends and composites with organic polymers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28(12), 1701–1753 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Matsuguchi, A. Okamoto, and Y. Sakai, “Effect of humidity on NH3 gas sensitivity of polyaniline blend films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 94(1), 46–52 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, and R. C. Aiyer, “Sens. “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. E. Comini, “Metal oxide nano-crystals for gas sensing,” Anal. Chim. Acta 568(1-2), 28–40 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Kolmakov, Y. X. Zhang, G. S. Cheng, and M. Moskovits, “Detection of CO and O2 using tin oxide nanowire sensors,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 997–1000 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. W. Ra, K. S. Choi, J. H. Kim, Y. B. Hahn, and Y. H. Im, “Fabrication of ZnO nanowires using nanoscale spacer lithography for gas sensors,” Small 4(8), 1105–1109 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. Law, H. Kind, B. Messer, F. Kim, and P. D. Yang, “Photochemical sensing of NO2 with SnO2 nanoribbon nanosensors at room temperature,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(13), 2405–2408 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (5)

L. Senesac and T. G. Thundat, “Nanosensors for trace explosive detection,” Mater. Today 11(3), 28–36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Sirbuly, S. E. Letant, and T. V. Ratto, “Hydrogen sensing with subwavelength pptical waveguides via porous silsesquioxane-palladium nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 20(24), 4724–4727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, and R. C. Aiyer, “Sens. “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Ra, K. S. Choi, J. H. Kim, Y. B. Hahn, and Y. H. Im, “Fabrication of ZnO nanowires using nanoscale spacer lithography for gas sensors,” Small 4(8), 1105–1109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

K. J. Huang, S. Y. Yang, and L. M. Tong, “Modeling of evanescent coupling between two parallel optical nanowires,” Appl. Opt. 46(9), 1429–1434 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. McAlpine, H. Ahmad, D. W. Wang, and J. R. Heath, “Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Sirbuly, A. Tao, M. Law, R. Fan, and P. D. Yang, “Multifunctional nanowire evanescent wave optical sensors advanced materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(1), 61–66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. B. Yan, Z. J. Han, Y. Yang, and B. K. Tay, “NO2 gas sensing with polyaniline nanofibers synthesized by a facile aqueous/organic interfacial polymerization,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 123(1), 107–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Jang, J. Ha, and J. Cho, “Fabrication of water-dispersible polyaniline-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) nanoparticles for inkjet-printed chemical-sensor applications,” Adv. Mater. 19(13), 1772–1775 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Kemp, D. McGrouther, J. W. Cochrane, and R. Newbury, “Bridging the gap: polymer nanowire devices,” Adv. Mater. 19(18), 2634–2638 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

E. Comini, “Metal oxide nano-crystals for gas sensing,” Anal. Chim. Acta 568(1-2), 28–40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Virji, J. D. Fowler, C. O. Baker, J. X. Huang, R. B. Kaner, and B. H. Weiller, “Polyaniline nanofiber composites with metal salts: chemical sensors for hydrogen sulfide,” Small 1(6), 624–627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

J. Elizalde-Torres, H. L. Hu, and A. Garcia-Valenzuela, “NO2-induced optical absorbance changes in semiconductor polyaniline thin films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 98(2-3), 218–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Liu, J. Kameoka, D. A. Czaplewski, and H. G. Craighead, “Polymeric nanowire chemical sensor,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 671–675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (7)

A. Pud, N. Ogurtsova, A. Korzhenkob, and G. Shapovala, “Some aspects of preparation methods and properties of polyaniline blends and composites with organic polymers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28(12), 1701–1753 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsuguchi, A. Okamoto, and Y. Sakai, “Effect of humidity on NH3 gas sensitivity of polyaniline blend films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 94(1), 46–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Kolmakov, Y. X. Zhang, G. S. Cheng, and M. Moskovits, “Detection of CO and O2 using tin oxide nanowire sensors,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 997–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Christie, E. Scorsone, K. Persaud, and F. Kvasnik, “Remote detection of gaseous ammonia using the near infrared transmission properties of polyaniline,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 90(1-3), 163–169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Huang, S. Virji, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 314–315 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. Qi, O. Vermesh, M. Grecu, A. Javey, Q. Wang, H. J. Dai, S. Peng, and K. J. Cho, “Toward large arrays of multiplex functionalized carbon nanotube sensors for highly sensitive and selective molecular detection,” Nano Lett. 3(3), 347–351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Law, H. Kind, B. Messer, F. Kim, and P. D. Yang, “Photochemical sensing of NO2 with SnO2 nanoribbon nanosensors at room temperature,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(13), 2405–2408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. E. Nicho, M. Trejo, A. Garcia-Valenzuela, J. M. Saniger, J. Palacios, and H. Hub, “Polyaniline composite coatings interrogated by a nulling optical-transmittance bridge for sensing low concentrations of ammonia gas,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 76(1-3), 18–24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, H.

M. C. McAlpine, H. Ahmad, D. W. Wang, and J. R. Heath, “Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aiyer, R. C.

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, and R. C. Aiyer, “Sens. “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amalnerkar, D.

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, and R. C. Aiyer, “Sens. “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, C. O.

S. Virji, J. D. Fowler, C. O. Baker, J. X. Huang, R. B. Kaner, and B. H. Weiller, “Polyaniline nanofiber composites with metal salts: chemical sensors for hydrogen sulfide,” Small 1(6), 624–627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. W.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, G. S.

A. Kolmakov, Y. X. Zhang, G. S. Cheng, and M. Moskovits, “Detection of CO and O2 using tin oxide nanowire sensors,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 997–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

J. Jang, J. Ha, and J. Cho, “Fabrication of water-dispersible polyaniline-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) nanoparticles for inkjet-printed chemical-sensor applications,” Adv. Mater. 19(13), 1772–1775 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K. J.

P. F. Qi, O. Vermesh, M. Grecu, A. Javey, Q. Wang, H. J. Dai, S. Peng, and K. J. Cho, “Toward large arrays of multiplex functionalized carbon nanotube sensors for highly sensitive and selective molecular detection,” Nano Lett. 3(3), 347–351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. S.

H. W. Ra, K. S. Choi, J. H. Kim, Y. B. Hahn, and Y. H. Im, “Fabrication of ZnO nanowires using nanoscale spacer lithography for gas sensors,” Small 4(8), 1105–1109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christie, S.

S. Christie, E. Scorsone, K. Persaud, and F. Kvasnik, “Remote detection of gaseous ammonia using the near infrared transmission properties of polyaniline,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 90(1-3), 163–169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cochrane, J. W.

N. T. Kemp, D. McGrouther, J. W. Cochrane, and R. Newbury, “Bridging the gap: polymer nanowire devices,” Adv. Mater. 19(18), 2634–2638 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Comini, E.

E. Comini, “Metal oxide nano-crystals for gas sensing,” Anal. Chim. Acta 568(1-2), 28–40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

H. Q. Liu, J. Kameoka, D. A. Czaplewski, and H. G. Craighead, “Polymeric nanowire chemical sensor,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 671–675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

G. F. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czaplewski, D. A.

H. Q. Liu, J. Kameoka, D. A. Czaplewski, and H. G. Craighead, “Polymeric nanowire chemical sensor,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 671–675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H. J.

P. F. Qi, O. Vermesh, M. Grecu, A. Javey, Q. Wang, H. J. Dai, S. Peng, and K. J. Cho, “Toward large arrays of multiplex functionalized carbon nanotube sensors for highly sensitive and selective molecular detection,” Nano Lett. 3(3), 347–351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elizalde-Torres, J.

J. Elizalde-Torres, H. L. Hu, and A. Garcia-Valenzuela, “NO2-induced optical absorbance changes in semiconductor polyaniline thin films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 98(2-3), 218–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, R.

D. J. Sirbuly, A. Tao, M. Law, R. Fan, and P. D. Yang, “Multifunctional nanowire evanescent wave optical sensors advanced materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(1), 61–66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, J. D.

S. Virji, J. D. Fowler, C. O. Baker, J. X. Huang, R. B. Kaner, and B. H. Weiller, “Polyaniline nanofiber composites with metal salts: chemical sensors for hydrogen sulfide,” Small 1(6), 624–627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fuke, M.

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, and R. C. Aiyer, “Sens. “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Valenzuela, A.

J. Elizalde-Torres, H. L. Hu, and A. Garcia-Valenzuela, “NO2-induced optical absorbance changes in semiconductor polyaniline thin films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 98(2-3), 218–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Nicho, M. Trejo, A. Garcia-Valenzuela, J. M. Saniger, J. Palacios, and H. Hub, “Polyaniline composite coatings interrogated by a nulling optical-transmittance bridge for sensing low concentrations of ammonia gas,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 76(1-3), 18–24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grecu, M.

P. F. Qi, O. Vermesh, M. Grecu, A. Javey, Q. Wang, H. J. Dai, S. Peng, and K. J. Cho, “Toward large arrays of multiplex functionalized carbon nanotube sensors for highly sensitive and selective molecular detection,” Nano Lett. 3(3), 347–351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gu, F. X.

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, J.

J. Jang, J. Ha, and J. Cho, “Fabrication of water-dispersible polyaniline-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) nanoparticles for inkjet-printed chemical-sensor applications,” Adv. Mater. 19(13), 1772–1775 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, Y. B.

H. W. Ra, K. S. Choi, J. H. Kim, Y. B. Hahn, and Y. H. Im, “Fabrication of ZnO nanowires using nanoscale spacer lithography for gas sensors,” Small 4(8), 1105–1109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Z. J.

X. B. Yan, Z. J. Han, Y. Yang, and B. K. Tay, “NO2 gas sensing with polyaniline nanofibers synthesized by a facile aqueous/organic interfacial polymerization,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 123(1), 107–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hawaldar, R.

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, and R. C. Aiyer, “Sens. “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heath, J. R.

M. C. McAlpine, H. Ahmad, D. W. Wang, and J. R. Heath, “Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, H. L.

J. Elizalde-Torres, H. L. Hu, and A. Garcia-Valenzuela, “NO2-induced optical absorbance changes in semiconductor polyaniline thin films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 98(2-3), 218–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. X.

S. Virji, J. D. Fowler, C. O. Baker, J. X. Huang, R. B. Kaner, and B. H. Weiller, “Polyaniline nanofiber composites with metal salts: chemical sensors for hydrogen sulfide,” Small 1(6), 624–627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Huang, S. Virji, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 314–315 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, K. J.

Hub, H.

M. E. Nicho, M. Trejo, A. Garcia-Valenzuela, J. M. Saniger, J. Palacios, and H. Hub, “Polyaniline composite coatings interrogated by a nulling optical-transmittance bridge for sensing low concentrations of ammonia gas,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 76(1-3), 18–24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Im, Y. H.

H. W. Ra, K. S. Choi, J. H. Kim, Y. B. Hahn, and Y. H. Im, “Fabrication of ZnO nanowires using nanoscale spacer lithography for gas sensors,” Small 4(8), 1105–1109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, J.

J. Jang, J. Ha, and J. Cho, “Fabrication of water-dispersible polyaniline-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) nanoparticles for inkjet-printed chemical-sensor applications,” Adv. Mater. 19(13), 1772–1775 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Javey, A.

P. F. Qi, O. Vermesh, M. Grecu, A. Javey, Q. Wang, H. J. Dai, S. Peng, and K. J. Cho, “Toward large arrays of multiplex functionalized carbon nanotube sensors for highly sensitive and selective molecular detection,” Nano Lett. 3(3), 347–351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kameoka, J.

H. Q. Liu, J. Kameoka, D. A. Czaplewski, and H. G. Craighead, “Polymeric nanowire chemical sensor,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 671–675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaner, R. B.

S. Virji, J. D. Fowler, C. O. Baker, J. X. Huang, R. B. Kaner, and B. H. Weiller, “Polyaniline nanofiber composites with metal salts: chemical sensors for hydrogen sulfide,” Small 1(6), 624–627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Huang, S. Virji, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 314–315 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kemp, N. T.

N. T. Kemp, D. McGrouther, J. W. Cochrane, and R. Newbury, “Bridging the gap: polymer nanowire devices,” Adv. Mater. 19(18), 2634–2638 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, F.

M. Law, H. Kind, B. Messer, F. Kim, and P. D. Yang, “Photochemical sensing of NO2 with SnO2 nanoribbon nanosensors at room temperature,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(13), 2405–2408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

H. W. Ra, K. S. Choi, J. H. Kim, Y. B. Hahn, and Y. H. Im, “Fabrication of ZnO nanowires using nanoscale spacer lithography for gas sensors,” Small 4(8), 1105–1109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kind, H.

M. Law, H. Kind, B. Messer, F. Kim, and P. D. Yang, “Photochemical sensing of NO2 with SnO2 nanoribbon nanosensors at room temperature,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(13), 2405–2408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kolmakov, A.

A. Kolmakov, Y. X. Zhang, G. S. Cheng, and M. Moskovits, “Detection of CO and O2 using tin oxide nanowire sensors,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 997–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Korzhenkob, A.

A. Pud, N. Ogurtsova, A. Korzhenkob, and G. Shapovala, “Some aspects of preparation methods and properties of polyaniline blends and composites with organic polymers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28(12), 1701–1753 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M.

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, and R. C. Aiyer, “Sens. “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kvasnik, F.

S. Christie, E. Scorsone, K. Persaud, and F. Kvasnik, “Remote detection of gaseous ammonia using the near infrared transmission properties of polyaniline,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 90(1-3), 163–169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Law, M.

D. J. Sirbuly, A. Tao, M. Law, R. Fan, and P. D. Yang, “Multifunctional nanowire evanescent wave optical sensors advanced materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(1), 61–66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Law, H. Kind, B. Messer, F. Kim, and P. D. Yang, “Photochemical sensing of NO2 with SnO2 nanoribbon nanosensors at room temperature,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(13), 2405–2408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Letant, S. E.

D. J. Sirbuly, S. E. Letant, and T. V. Ratto, “Hydrogen sensing with subwavelength pptical waveguides via porous silsesquioxane-palladium nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 20(24), 4724–4727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

G. F. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. Q.

H. Q. Liu, J. Kameoka, D. A. Czaplewski, and H. G. Craighead, “Polymeric nanowire chemical sensor,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 671–675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuguchi, M.

M. Matsuguchi, A. Okamoto, and Y. Sakai, “Effect of humidity on NH3 gas sensitivity of polyaniline blend films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 94(1), 46–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAlpine, M. C.

M. C. McAlpine, H. Ahmad, D. W. Wang, and J. R. Heath, “Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGrouther, D.

N. T. Kemp, D. McGrouther, J. W. Cochrane, and R. Newbury, “Bridging the gap: polymer nanowire devices,” Adv. Mater. 19(18), 2634–2638 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Messer, B.

M. Law, H. Kind, B. Messer, F. Kim, and P. D. Yang, “Photochemical sensing of NO2 with SnO2 nanoribbon nanosensors at room temperature,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(13), 2405–2408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

A. Kolmakov, Y. X. Zhang, G. S. Cheng, and M. Moskovits, “Detection of CO and O2 using tin oxide nanowire sensors,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 997–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, R.

N. T. Kemp, D. McGrouther, J. W. Cochrane, and R. Newbury, “Bridging the gap: polymer nanowire devices,” Adv. Mater. 19(18), 2634–2638 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicho, M. E.

M. E. Nicho, M. Trejo, A. Garcia-Valenzuela, J. M. Saniger, J. Palacios, and H. Hub, “Polyaniline composite coatings interrogated by a nulling optical-transmittance bridge for sensing low concentrations of ammonia gas,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 76(1-3), 18–24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ogurtsova, N.

A. Pud, N. Ogurtsova, A. Korzhenkob, and G. Shapovala, “Some aspects of preparation methods and properties of polyaniline blends and composites with organic polymers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28(12), 1701–1753 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, A.

M. Matsuguchi, A. Okamoto, and Y. Sakai, “Effect of humidity on NH3 gas sensitivity of polyaniline blend films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 94(1), 46–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Palacios, J.

M. E. Nicho, M. Trejo, A. Garcia-Valenzuela, J. M. Saniger, J. Palacios, and H. Hub, “Polyaniline composite coatings interrogated by a nulling optical-transmittance bridge for sensing low concentrations of ammonia gas,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 76(1-3), 18–24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patolsky, F.

G. F. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, S.

P. F. Qi, O. Vermesh, M. Grecu, A. Javey, Q. Wang, H. J. Dai, S. Peng, and K. J. Cho, “Toward large arrays of multiplex functionalized carbon nanotube sensors for highly sensitive and selective molecular detection,” Nano Lett. 3(3), 347–351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Persaud, K.

S. Christie, E. Scorsone, K. Persaud, and F. Kvasnik, “Remote detection of gaseous ammonia using the near infrared transmission properties of polyaniline,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 90(1-3), 163–169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pud, A.

A. Pud, N. Ogurtsova, A. Korzhenkob, and G. Shapovala, “Some aspects of preparation methods and properties of polyaniline blends and composites with organic polymers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28(12), 1701–1753 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qi, P. F.

P. F. Qi, O. Vermesh, M. Grecu, A. Javey, Q. Wang, H. J. Dai, S. Peng, and K. J. Cho, “Toward large arrays of multiplex functionalized carbon nanotube sensors for highly sensitive and selective molecular detection,” Nano Lett. 3(3), 347–351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ra, H. W.

H. W. Ra, K. S. Choi, J. H. Kim, Y. B. Hahn, and Y. H. Im, “Fabrication of ZnO nanowires using nanoscale spacer lithography for gas sensors,” Small 4(8), 1105–1109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ratto, T. V.

D. J. Sirbuly, S. E. Letant, and T. V. Ratto, “Hydrogen sensing with subwavelength pptical waveguides via porous silsesquioxane-palladium nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 20(24), 4724–4727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, Y.

M. Matsuguchi, A. Okamoto, and Y. Sakai, “Effect of humidity on NH3 gas sensitivity of polyaniline blend films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 94(1), 46–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saniger, J. M.

M. E. Nicho, M. Trejo, A. Garcia-Valenzuela, J. M. Saniger, J. Palacios, and H. Hub, “Polyaniline composite coatings interrogated by a nulling optical-transmittance bridge for sensing low concentrations of ammonia gas,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 76(1-3), 18–24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scorsone, E.

S. Christie, E. Scorsone, K. Persaud, and F. Kvasnik, “Remote detection of gaseous ammonia using the near infrared transmission properties of polyaniline,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 90(1-3), 163–169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Senesac, L.

L. Senesac and T. G. Thundat, “Nanosensors for trace explosive detection,” Mater. Today 11(3), 28–36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shapovala, G.

A. Pud, N. Ogurtsova, A. Korzhenkob, and G. Shapovala, “Some aspects of preparation methods and properties of polyaniline blends and composites with organic polymers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28(12), 1701–1753 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirbuly, D. J.

D. J. Sirbuly, S. E. Letant, and T. V. Ratto, “Hydrogen sensing with subwavelength pptical waveguides via porous silsesquioxane-palladium nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 20(24), 4724–4727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Sirbuly, A. Tao, M. Law, R. Fan, and P. D. Yang, “Multifunctional nanowire evanescent wave optical sensors advanced materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(1), 61–66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tao, A.

D. J. Sirbuly, A. Tao, M. Law, R. Fan, and P. D. Yang, “Multifunctional nanowire evanescent wave optical sensors advanced materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(1), 61–66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tay, B. K.

X. B. Yan, Z. J. Han, Y. Yang, and B. K. Tay, “NO2 gas sensing with polyaniline nanofibers synthesized by a facile aqueous/organic interfacial polymerization,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 123(1), 107–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thundat, T. G.

L. Senesac and T. G. Thundat, “Nanosensors for trace explosive detection,” Mater. Today 11(3), 28–36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L. M.

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Huang, S. Y. Yang, and L. M. Tong, “Modeling of evanescent coupling between two parallel optical nanowires,” Appl. Opt. 46(9), 1429–1434 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trejo, M.

M. E. Nicho, M. Trejo, A. Garcia-Valenzuela, J. M. Saniger, J. Palacios, and H. Hub, “Polyaniline composite coatings interrogated by a nulling optical-transmittance bridge for sensing low concentrations of ammonia gas,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 76(1-3), 18–24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vermesh, O.

P. F. Qi, O. Vermesh, M. Grecu, A. Javey, Q. Wang, H. J. Dai, S. Peng, and K. J. Cho, “Toward large arrays of multiplex functionalized carbon nanotube sensors for highly sensitive and selective molecular detection,” Nano Lett. 3(3), 347–351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vijayan, A.

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, and R. C. Aiyer, “Sens. “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Virji, S.

S. Virji, J. D. Fowler, C. O. Baker, J. X. Huang, R. B. Kaner, and B. H. Weiller, “Polyaniline nanofiber composites with metal salts: chemical sensors for hydrogen sulfide,” Small 1(6), 624–627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Huang, S. Virji, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 314–315 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D. W.

M. C. McAlpine, H. Ahmad, D. W. Wang, and J. R. Heath, “Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

P. F. Qi, O. Vermesh, M. Grecu, A. Javey, Q. Wang, H. J. Dai, S. Peng, and K. J. Cho, “Toward large arrays of multiplex functionalized carbon nanotube sensors for highly sensitive and selective molecular detection,” Nano Lett. 3(3), 347–351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. U.

G. F. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiller, B. H.

S. Virji, J. D. Fowler, C. O. Baker, J. X. Huang, R. B. Kaner, and B. H. Weiller, “Polyaniline nanofiber composites with metal salts: chemical sensors for hydrogen sulfide,” Small 1(6), 624–627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Huang, S. Virji, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 314–315 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, X. B.

X. B. Yan, Z. J. Han, Y. Yang, and B. K. Tay, “NO2 gas sensing with polyaniline nanofibers synthesized by a facile aqueous/organic interfacial polymerization,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 123(1), 107–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. D.

D. J. Sirbuly, A. Tao, M. Law, R. Fan, and P. D. Yang, “Multifunctional nanowire evanescent wave optical sensors advanced materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(1), 61–66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Law, H. Kind, B. Messer, F. Kim, and P. D. Yang, “Photochemical sensing of NO2 with SnO2 nanoribbon nanosensors at room temperature,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(13), 2405–2408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

Yang, Y.

X. B. Yan, Z. J. Han, Y. Yang, and B. K. Tay, “NO2 gas sensing with polyaniline nanofibers synthesized by a facile aqueous/organic interfacial polymerization,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 123(1), 107–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X. F.

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. X.

A. Kolmakov, Y. X. Zhang, G. S. Cheng, and M. Moskovits, “Detection of CO and O2 using tin oxide nanowire sensors,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 997–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, G. F.

G. F. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (5)

J. Jang, J. Ha, and J. Cho, “Fabrication of water-dispersible polyaniline-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) nanoparticles for inkjet-printed chemical-sensor applications,” Adv. Mater. 19(13), 1772–1775 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Kemp, D. McGrouther, J. W. Cochrane, and R. Newbury, “Bridging the gap: polymer nanowire devices,” Adv. Mater. 19(18), 2634–2638 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Sirbuly, A. Tao, M. Law, R. Fan, and P. D. Yang, “Multifunctional nanowire evanescent wave optical sensors advanced materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(1), 61–66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Sirbuly, S. E. Letant, and T. V. Ratto, “Hydrogen sensing with subwavelength pptical waveguides via porous silsesquioxane-palladium nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 20(24), 4724–4727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kolmakov, Y. X. Zhang, G. S. Cheng, and M. Moskovits, “Detection of CO and O2 using tin oxide nanowire sensors,” Adv. Mater. 15(12), 997–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

E. Comini, “Metal oxide nano-crystals for gas sensing,” Anal. Chim. Acta 568(1-2), 28–40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

M. Law, H. Kind, B. Messer, F. Kim, and P. D. Yang, “Photochemical sensing of NO2 with SnO2 nanoribbon nanosensors at room temperature,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(13), 2405–2408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. X. Huang, S. Virji, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 314–315 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Today (1)

L. Senesac and T. G. Thundat, “Nanosensors for trace explosive detection,” Mater. Today 11(3), 28–36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

P. F. Qi, O. Vermesh, M. Grecu, A. Javey, Q. Wang, H. J. Dai, S. Peng, and K. J. Cho, “Toward large arrays of multiplex functionalized carbon nanotube sensors for highly sensitive and selective molecular detection,” Nano Lett. 3(3), 347–351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Q. Liu, J. Kameoka, D. A. Czaplewski, and H. G. Craighead, “Polymeric nanowire chemical sensor,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 671–675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

G. F. Zheng, F. Patolsky, Y. Cui, W. U. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(10), 1294–1301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. C. McAlpine, H. Ahmad, D. W. Wang, and J. R. Heath, “Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors,” Nat. Mater. 6(5), 379–384 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Prog. Polym. Sci. (1)

A. Pud, N. Ogurtsova, A. Korzhenkob, and G. Shapovala, “Some aspects of preparation methods and properties of polyaniline blends and composites with organic polymers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 28(12), 1701–1753 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (6)

M. Matsuguchi, A. Okamoto, and Y. Sakai, “Effect of humidity on NH3 gas sensitivity of polyaniline blend films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 94(1), 46–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, and R. C. Aiyer, “Sens. “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Elizalde-Torres, H. L. Hu, and A. Garcia-Valenzuela, “NO2-induced optical absorbance changes in semiconductor polyaniline thin films,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 98(2-3), 218–226 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. B. Yan, Z. J. Han, Y. Yang, and B. K. Tay, “NO2 gas sensing with polyaniline nanofibers synthesized by a facile aqueous/organic interfacial polymerization,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 123(1), 107–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Nicho, M. Trejo, A. Garcia-Valenzuela, J. M. Saniger, J. Palacios, and H. Hub, “Polyaniline composite coatings interrogated by a nulling optical-transmittance bridge for sensing low concentrations of ammonia gas,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 76(1-3), 18–24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Christie, E. Scorsone, K. Persaud, and F. Kvasnik, “Remote detection of gaseous ammonia using the near infrared transmission properties of polyaniline,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 90(1-3), 163–169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Small (2)

S. Virji, J. D. Fowler, C. O. Baker, J. X. Huang, R. B. Kaner, and B. H. Weiller, “Polyaniline nanofiber composites with metal salts: chemical sensors for hydrogen sulfide,” Small 1(6), 624–627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Ra, K. S. Choi, J. H. Kim, Y. B. Hahn, and Y. H. Im, “Fabrication of ZnO nanowires using nanoscale spacer lithography for gas sensors,” Small 4(8), 1105–1109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. A. Skoog, D. M. West, F. J. Holler, and S. R. Crouch, Fundamental of Analytical Chemistry (Brooks Cole, 2004).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of a nanowire sensing device. (b) Optical micrographs of a 370-nm-diameter nanowire guiding a 633-nm light. Scale bar, 50 μm. The white arrow indicates the direction of light propagation. (c) Optical micrograph of a nanowire device. Scale bar, 1 cm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Output intensity of a 370-nm-diameter PANI/PS nanowire versus wavelength in dry air without NH3 (gray line) and with 20 ppm NH3 (black line). (b) Absorption spectra of the 370-nm-diameter PANI/PS nanowire exposed to dry air with NH3 concentrations from 0.5 to 32 ppm. Inset shows the NH3-concentration dependence of ΔA 600-835.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Absorption spectra of a 350-nm-diameter PANI/PS nanowire exposed to air with RH ranging from 37% to 84%. (b) RH-concentration dependence of A r at wavelengths of 617-, 770-, and 860 nm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output intensity spectra of a 350-nm-diameter PANI/PS nanowire in 70% RH (gray line) and 5 ppm NH3 diluted with 84% RH air (black line). Inset, absorption spectrum of the PANI/PS nanowire to 5 ppm NH3 diluted with 84% RH air.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Time-dependent response of the nanowire exposed to (1) 84% RH air, (2) 5 ppm NH3, (3) 5 ppm NH3 with 79% RH air, and (4) 5 ppm NH3 with 84% RH air respectively, which are simultaneously monitored using two lasers with wavelengths of 633 and 808 nm. (b) Bar graph summarizing the optical response of the nanowire to the analyte gases at wavelengths of 633- and 808 nm.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ar(λ)=κλεληλbc+An

Metrics