Abstract

In order to monitor quality of ultra high bit-rate optical signals in a future optical network, such as 160 Gb/s, a simple monitoring technique is required. Therefore, a novel waveform monitoring technique by prescaled-clock tone detection was proposed in a previous report. In this paper, detailed principle of the proposed technique was explained. The monitoring technique is based on an asynchronous beat signal generation using an elecro-absorption modulator (EAM) and is able to separately observe waveform distortion caused by accumulated chromatic dispersion (CD), polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) degradation. The verification of concepts was performed by experiments, in which 1 GHz pre-scaled signals were employed to monitor distortion of OTDM 160 Gb/s carrier suppressed return-to-zero (CS-RZ) signals. Furthermore, applicability to Q factor estimation was verified by an experiment. In addition, an observation of 160 Gb/s signal by the proposed monitor was demonstrated over 120 minutes using an installed fiber in JGN-II testbed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (3)

2007 (1)

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Otani, Y. Tsuda, and K. Igawa, "Development of Polarization Diversity Sampling Head Unit using Organic AANP Crystals and 160Gb/s Far-end Waveform Measurement," IEEJ Trans. FM 126, 409-413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. T. Tsai, and W. I. Way, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring using an optical delay-and-add filter," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3737-3747 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Campillo, "Chromatic dispersion-monitoring technique based on phase-sensitive detection," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1241-1243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, "40 GHz actively mode-locked distributed Bragg reflector laser diode module with an impedance-matching circuit for efficient RF signal injection," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1960-1964 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

I. Shake, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, "Simple Q factor monitoring for BER estimation using opened eye diagrams captured by high-speed asynchronous electrooptical sampling," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. Norimatsu, and M. Maruoka, "Accurate Q-factor estimation of optically amplified systems in the presence of waveform distortion," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 19-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn. T. Her, D Kudelko and C. Zhang, "Real-time measurement of accumulated chroamtic dipersion for automatic dispersion compensation," Electron. Lett. 38, 1198-1199 (2002)
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Takushima, and K. Kikuchi, "In-service monitor for group-velocity dispersion of optical fibre transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 37, 743-745 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. E. Dimmick, G. Rossi, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical monitoring technique using double sideband subcarriers," Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 900-902 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, and K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, "320 Gbit/s (8 x 40 Gbit/s) WDM transmission over 367-km zero-dispersion-flattened line with 120-km repeater spacing using carrier-suppressed return-to-zero pulse format," Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications 1999, PDP4 (1999).

1993 (1)

S. Bergano, F. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems," Photon. Techenol. Lett. 5, 304-306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. B.

T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, E. Wong, and P. M. Farell, "Asynchronous measurement of chromatic dispersion from waveform distortion," in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2006 (OFC’06), OWN4 (2006).

Arahira, S

A. Suzuki, X. Wang, T. Hasegawa, Y. Ogawa, S Arahira, K. Tajima, and S. Nakamura, "8 × 160 Gb/s (1.28 Tb/s) DWDM/OTDM unrepeatered transmission over 140 km standard fiber by semiconductor-based devices," in Prc. 29th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2003) Mo3.6.1 (2003)

Arahira, S.

S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, "40 GHz actively mode-locked distributed Bragg reflector laser diode module with an impedance-matching circuit for efficient RF signal injection," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1960-1964 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, S.

S. Bergano, F. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems," Photon. Techenol. Lett. 5, 304-306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

T. E. Dimmick, G. Rossi, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical monitoring technique using double sideband subcarriers," Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 900-902 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boerner, C.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campillo, A. L.

A. L. Campillo, "Chromatic dispersion-monitoring technique based on phase-sensitive detection," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1241-1243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Christen, L.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, C. R.

S. Bergano, F. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems," Photon. Techenol. Lett. 5, 304-306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dimmick, T. E.

T. E. Dimmick, G. Rossi, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical monitoring technique using double sideband subcarriers," Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 900-902 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dods, S. D.

T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, E. Wong, and P. M. Farell, "Asynchronous measurement of chromatic dispersion from waveform distortion," in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2006 (OFC’06), OWN4 (2006).

Farell, P. M.

T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, E. Wong, and P. M. Farell, "Asynchronous measurement of chromatic dispersion from waveform distortion," in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2006 (OFC’06), OWN4 (2006).

Ferber, S.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fishteyn, M.

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn. T. Her, D Kudelko and C. Zhang, "Real-time measurement of accumulated chroamtic dipersion for automatic dispersion compensation," Electron. Lett. 38, 1198-1199 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Fujii, K.

Futami, F.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

A. Suzuki, X. Wang, T. Hasegawa, Y. Ogawa, S Arahira, K. Tajima, and S. Nakamura, "8 × 160 Gb/s (1.28 Tb/s) DWDM/OTDM unrepeatered transmission over 140 km standard fiber by semiconductor-based devices," in Prc. 29th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2003) Mo3.6.1 (2003)

Hirano, A.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, "320 Gbit/s (8 x 40 Gbit/s) WDM transmission over 367-km zero-dispersion-flattened line with 120-km repeater spacing using carrier-suppressed return-to-zero pulse format," Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications 1999, PDP4 (1999).

Igawa, K.

A. Otani, Y. Tsuda, and K. Igawa, "Development of Polarization Diversity Sampling Head Unit using Organic AANP Crystals and 160Gb/s Far-end Waveform Measurement," IEEJ Trans. FM 126, 409-413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kagawa, M.

Kashyap, R.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

I. Shake, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, "Simple Q factor monitoring for BER estimation using opened eye diagrams captured by high-speed asynchronous electrooptical sampling," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kerfoot, F.

S. Bergano, F. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems," Photon. Techenol. Lett. 5, 304-306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

Y. Takushima, and K. Kikuchi, "In-service monitor for group-velocity dispersion of optical fibre transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 37, 743-745 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

Kozicki, B.

B. Kozicki, T. Ohara, and H. Takara, "Optical Performance monitoring of phase-modulated signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram analysis," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1353-11361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, "Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using delay-tap sampling method," Opt. Express 16, 3566-3576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kroh, M.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lize, Y. K.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, R.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marembert, V.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maruoka, M.

S. Norimatsu, and M. Maruoka, "Accurate Q-factor estimation of optically amplified systems in the presence of waveform distortion," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 19-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maruta, A.

Mitomi, O.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, "320 Gbit/s (8 x 40 Gbit/s) WDM transmission over 367-km zero-dispersion-flattened line with 120-km repeater spacing using carrier-suppressed return-to-zero pulse format," Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications 1999, PDP4 (1999).

Miyamoto, Y.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, "320 Gbit/s (8 x 40 Gbit/s) WDM transmission over 367-km zero-dispersion-flattened line with 120-km repeater spacing using carrier-suppressed return-to-zero pulse format," Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications 1999, PDP4 (1999).

Murai, H.

Murata, K.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, "320 Gbit/s (8 x 40 Gbit/s) WDM transmission over 367-km zero-dispersion-flattened line with 120-km repeater spacing using carrier-suppressed return-to-zero pulse format," Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications 1999, PDP4 (1999).

Nakamura, S.

A. Suzuki, X. Wang, T. Hasegawa, Y. Ogawa, S Arahira, K. Tajima, and S. Nakamura, "8 × 160 Gb/s (1.28 Tb/s) DWDM/OTDM unrepeatered transmission over 140 km standard fiber by semiconductor-based devices," in Prc. 29th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2003) Mo3.6.1 (2003)

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, and K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Norimatsu, S.

S. Norimatsu, and M. Maruoka, "Accurate Q-factor estimation of optically amplified systems in the presence of waveform distortion," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 19-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nuccio, S.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, "40 GHz actively mode-locked distributed Bragg reflector laser diode module with an impedance-matching circuit for efficient RF signal injection," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1960-1964 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Suzuki, X. Wang, T. Hasegawa, Y. Ogawa, S Arahira, K. Tajima, and S. Nakamura, "8 × 160 Gb/s (1.28 Tb/s) DWDM/OTDM unrepeatered transmission over 140 km standard fiber by semiconductor-based devices," in Prc. 29th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2003) Mo3.6.1 (2003)

Ohara, T.

B. Kozicki, T. Ohara, and H. Takara, "Optical Performance monitoring of phase-modulated signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram analysis," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1353-11361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Otani, A.

A. Otani, Y. Tsuda, and K. Igawa, "Development of Polarization Diversity Sampling Head Unit using Organic AANP Crystals and 160Gb/s Far-end Waveform Measurement," IEEJ Trans. FM 126, 409-413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, G.

T. E. Dimmick, G. Rossi, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical monitoring technique using double sideband subcarriers," Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 900-902 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saghari, P.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sano, A.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, "320 Gbit/s (8 x 40 Gbit/s) WDM transmission over 367-km zero-dispersion-flattened line with 120-km repeater spacing using carrier-suppressed return-to-zero pulse format," Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications 1999, PDP4 (1999).

Sasaki, K.

Schmidt-Langhorst, C.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, C.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shake, I.

I. Shake, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, "Simple Q factor monitoring for BER estimation using opened eye diagrams captured by high-speed asynchronous electrooptical sampling," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

A. Suzuki, X. Wang, T. Hasegawa, Y. Ogawa, S Arahira, K. Tajima, and S. Nakamura, "8 × 160 Gb/s (1.28 Tb/s) DWDM/OTDM unrepeatered transmission over 140 km standard fiber by semiconductor-based devices," in Prc. 29th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2003) Mo3.6.1 (2003)

Tajima, K.

A. Suzuki, X. Wang, T. Hasegawa, Y. Ogawa, S Arahira, K. Tajima, and S. Nakamura, "8 × 160 Gb/s (1.28 Tb/s) DWDM/OTDM unrepeatered transmission over 140 km standard fiber by semiconductor-based devices," in Prc. 29th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2003) Mo3.6.1 (2003)

Takara, H.

B. Kozicki, T. Ohara, and H. Takara, "Optical Performance monitoring of phase-modulated signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram analysis," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1353-11361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Shake, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, "Simple Q factor monitoring for BER estimation using opened eye diagrams captured by high-speed asynchronous electrooptical sampling," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takushima, Y.

Y. Takushima, and K. Kikuchi, "In-service monitor for group-velocity dispersion of optical fibre transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 37, 743-745 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K. R.

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, and K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Toba, H.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, "320 Gbit/s (8 x 40 Gbit/s) WDM transmission over 367-km zero-dispersion-flattened line with 120-km repeater spacing using carrier-suppressed return-to-zero pulse format," Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications 1999, PDP4 (1999).

Tsai, K. T.

K. T. Tsai, and W. I. Way, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring using an optical delay-and-add filter," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3737-3747 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, Y.

A. Otani, Y. Tsuda, and K. Igawa, "Development of Polarization Diversity Sampling Head Unit using Organic AANP Crystals and 160Gb/s Far-end Waveform Measurement," IEEJ Trans. FM 126, 409-413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, H.

Wang, X.

A. Suzuki, X. Wang, T. Hasegawa, Y. Ogawa, S Arahira, K. Tajima, and S. Nakamura, "8 × 160 Gb/s (1.28 Tb/s) DWDM/OTDM unrepeatered transmission over 140 km standard fiber by semiconductor-based devices," in Prc. 29th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2003) Mo3.6.1 (2003)

Watanabe, S.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Way, W. I.

K. T. Tsai, and W. I. Way, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring using an optical delay-and-add filter," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3737-3747 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. G.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wielandy, S.

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn. T. Her, D Kudelko and C. Zhang, "Real-time measurement of accumulated chroamtic dipersion for automatic dispersion compensation," Electron. Lett. 38, 1198-1199 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wong, E.

T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, E. Wong, and P. M. Farell, "Asynchronous measurement of chromatic dispersion from waveform distortion," in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2006 (OFC’06), OWN4 (2006).

Yamamoto, T.

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, and K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. Y.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yonenaga, K.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, "320 Gbit/s (8 x 40 Gbit/s) WDM transmission over 367-km zero-dispersion-flattened line with 120-km repeater spacing using carrier-suppressed return-to-zero pulse format," Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications 1999, PDP4 (1999).

Electron. Lett. (4)

M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, and K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takushima, and K. Kikuchi, "In-service monitor for group-velocity dispersion of optical fibre transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 37, 743-745 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn. T. Her, D Kudelko and C. Zhang, "Real-time measurement of accumulated chroamtic dipersion for automatic dispersion compensation," Electron. Lett. 38, 1198-1199 (2002)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

S. Norimatsu, and M. Maruoka, "Accurate Q-factor estimation of optically amplified systems in the presence of waveform distortion," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 19-27 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, T. Ohara, and H. Takara, "Optical Performance monitoring of phase-modulated signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram analysis," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1353-11361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Tsai, and W. I. Way, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring using an optical delay-and-add filter," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3737-3747 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEJ Trans. FM (1)

A. Otani, Y. Tsuda, and K. Igawa, "Development of Polarization Diversity Sampling Head Unit using Organic AANP Crystals and 160Gb/s Far-end Waveform Measurement," IEEJ Trans. FM 126, 409-413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, "40 GHz actively mode-locked distributed Bragg reflector laser diode module with an impedance-matching circuit for efficient RF signal injection," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1960-1964 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (1)

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, "320 Gbit/s (8 x 40 Gbit/s) WDM transmission over 367-km zero-dispersion-flattened line with 120-km repeater spacing using carrier-suppressed return-to-zero pulse format," Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications 1999, PDP4 (1999).

Photon. Techenol. Lett. (1)

S. Bergano, F. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems," Photon. Techenol. Lett. 5, 304-306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Shake, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, "Simple Q factor monitoring for BER estimation using opened eye diagrams captured by high-speed asynchronous electrooptical sampling," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Campillo, "Chromatic dispersion-monitoring technique based on phase-sensitive detection," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1241-1243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Dimmick, G. Rossi, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical monitoring technique using double sideband subcarriers," Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 900-902 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

G. Bendelli, C. Cavazzoni, R. Girardi, and R. Lano, "Optical performance monitoring techniques," in Proc. 26th Euro. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC2000) 4, 113-116 (2000).

H. Murai, M. Kagawa, H. Tsuji, and K. Fujii, "Single channel 160 Gbit/s carrier-suppressed RZ transmission over 640 km with EA modulator based OTDM module," Proc. 30th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2003) Mo3.6.4 (2003).

E. Lach, K. Schuh, M. Schmidt, B. Junginger, G. Charlet, P. Pecci, G. Veith, "7 × 170 Gbit/s (160 Gbit/s + FEC overhead) DWDM transmission with 0.53 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over long haul distance of standard SMF," in Proc. 29th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2003) Th4.3.5 (2003).

S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, I. Shake, and K. Mori, "3 Tbit/s (160 Gbit/s × 19ch) OTDM-WDM transmission experiment," in Tech. Dig.Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 1999 (OFC’99) PD1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Suzuki, X. Wang, T. Hasegawa, Y. Ogawa, S Arahira, K. Tajima, and S. Nakamura, "8 × 160 Gb/s (1.28 Tb/s) DWDM/OTDM unrepeatered transmission over 140 km standard fiber by semiconductor-based devices," in Prc. 29th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2003) Mo3.6.1 (2003)

Z. Pan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, A. E. Willner, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring and automated compensation for NRZ and RZ data using clock regeneration and fading without adding signaling," in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2001 (OFC’01) 5-1WWWWWWWWW WH5-1 (2001).

X. Liu, and Y. H. Kao, "A simple OSNR monitoring technique independent of PMD and chromatic dispersion based on a 1-bit delay interferometer," Proc. 32th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2006) Mo4.4.7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Dods, and T.B. Andersion, "Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling," in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2006 (OFC’06) OThP5 (2006).

T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, E. Wong, and P. M. Farell, "Asynchronous measurement of chromatic dispersion from waveform distortion," in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2006 (OFC’06), OWN4 (2006).

Y. Kanda, H. Murai, M. Kagawa, and K. Fujii "Highly stable 160-Gb/s field transmission employing adaptive PMD compensator with ultra high time-resolution variable DGD generator," Proc. 34th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2008) We3.E.6 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Valkenburg, Analog Filters Design. Philadelphia: Holt and Rinehart and Winston (1982).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. New York: Academic (1989).

M. Kagawa, H. Murai, H. Tsuji, and K. Fujii, "Waveform Distortion Monitor for 160 Gbit/s Signal by Prescaled-clock Measurement using EA Modulator," in Tech. Dig.Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2008 (OFC’08) OThW7 (2008).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of proposed waveform distortion monitor, (a) prescalar using EA modulator, (b) schematic drawing of beat signal generation in the EA modulator, (c) intensity of generated beat signals, calculated by Eqs. (4)(6) (lines) and numerical simulation results (marks) in case n equals to 1 to 8 (simulated results only in case n=8), (d) practical setup of the waveform distortion monitor.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Product of n and Δf vs. order of filter, a minimum integer more than the calculated value is used as an order of filter response design. F is flatness and SSR is sideband suppression ratio, and stability of oscillator is assumed +/-20 MHz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intensity ratio decrease by OSNR degradation (Res=1nm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Decrease of 160 GHz intensity with accumulated dispersion. T0 is FWHM of signal pulse.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Definition of the power splitting ratio Ix/Iy of signal pulse with DGD and azimuthal angle θ of prepositional polarizer.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Intensity variation with rotation of prepositional polarizer, (a) for each DGDs (a/b=1) and (b) for each PSRs (DGD=1ps).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

DGD vs. difference of maximum and minimum value of I/O intensity ratio.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Discrimination technique of waveform distortion factors, (a) schematic diagram of the monitor and I/O IR difference of each case with OSNR degradation (b) and accumulated dispersion (c).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Experimental setup, (a) is an entire composition; (b) is detail of the DGD emulator and the analyzer, shown as #3 in (a).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

linearity of input 160 Gb/s signal vs. 1 GHz beat signal obtained by an experiment.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

I/O IR vs. OSNR degradation. Broken line is calculated result by Eq. (8). Input power is from 0 to 6 dBm. Eye-diagrams with OSNR of 30 dB and 15 dB are illustrated in the right side as examles.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

I/O IR decrease according to accumulated dispersion. Broken line is calculated result by Eq. (9). OSNR of the input signal is from 15 to 30 dB. Eye-diagrams with CD of 0 and 3 ps/nm are illustrated in the right side as examles.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

DGD measurement by the novel method, (a) example of DGD measurement using an optical sampling scope [29] and (b) differences of maximum and minimum values of I/O IR.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

I/O IR different of dual configuration monitoring technique, (a) results (b) experimental set-up using dual filters.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Measured I/O IR and the difference of signals after transmission of 127 km installed fiber in JGN-II testbed [24] over 120 minutes.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Relation between I/O IR and Q penalty for signals with OSNR degradation (a) and for signals with distortion by accumulated dispersion (b).

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t0 =1fsnΔfnfs .
fn =1mfsnΔf =11fs(mn+1) =nΔf,
IEA h ekV(t)
Isignal Ifs cos (2π.fs.t)
V (t)=V0 {1sin(2πfmt)}
I1 Ifs . h (kVk2V2+1524k3V3) ,
I2 Ifs . h (14k2V214k3V3+748k4V4) ,
I4 Ifs . h 1192k4V4 ,
N=log10{(10SSR101)(10F101)}2log10(f2f1) .
IbeatIin Iclock−toneIin =OSNROSNR+Δλres
IbeatIin I160GHzIin 12 exp [14a02{1+(Daλ22πca02)2}]
IDta=IDOSNRa+IDCDIDtb=IDOSNRa+IDCD

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