Abstract

We report both linear and nonlinear optical properties of a ferroelectric thin film of polycrystalline BiFeO3 deposited on a quartz substrate. The linear refraction index and absorption coefficient of the film are determined as a function of light wavelength by optical transmittance measurements. By performing Z-scan experiments with femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 780 nm, the third-order nonlinear refraction index and two-photon absorption (2PA) coefficient are measured to be 1.5×10-4 cm2/GW and 16 cm/GW, respectively. The results indicate that the thin film of polycrystalline BiFeO3 is a promising candidate for applications in nonlinear photonic devices.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Y. Yun, M. Noda, and M. Okuyama, "Prominent ferroelectricity of BiFeO3 thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3981-3983 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. R. Basu, L. W. Martin, Y. H. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. C. Rai, X. Xu, and J. L. Musfeldt, "Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091905 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Wang, R. Y. Zheng, C. H. Sim, and J. Wang, "Charged defects and their effects on electrical behavior in Bi1−xLaxFeO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 016106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Shin, H. J. Chang, R. W. Boyd, M. R. Choi, and W. Jo, "Large nonlinear optical response of polycrystalline Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin films on quartz substrates," Opt. Lett. 32, 2453-2455 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Gu, Y. H. Wang, X. C. Peng, J. P. Ding, J. L. He, and H. T. Wang, "Giant optical nonlinearity of a Bi2Nd2Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3687-3689 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Leng, C. Yang, H. Ji, J. Zhang, J. Tang, H. Chen, and L. Gao, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of RF sputtered (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric thin films," J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 18, 887-892 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Ning, C. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, G. Yang, "Large optical nonlinearity in CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films," Appl. Phys. A 94, 567-570 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. W. Liu, J. Xu, D. Guzun, G. J. Salamo, C. L. Chen, Y. Lin, and M. Xiao, "Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on (001) MgO substrates," Appl. Phys. B 82, 443-447 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Swanepoel, "Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 16, 1214-1222 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. A. Barboza and R. S. Cudney, "Improved Sellmeier equation for congruently grown lithium tantalate," Appl. Phys. B 95, 453-458 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, "Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium," Phys. Stat. Sol. 15, 627-637 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Gu, W. Ji, and X. Q. Huang, "Analytical expression for femtosecond-pulsed z scans on instantaneous nonlinearity," Appl. Opt. 47, 1187-1192 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, "Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1799-1801 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Ara’ujo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, "Optical nonlinearities in VO2 nanoparticles and thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5191-5193 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. L. Sutherland with contributions by D. G. McLean and S. Kikpatrick, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

Y. Wang, R. Y. Zheng, C. H. Sim, and J. Wang, "Charged defects and their effects on electrical behavior in Bi1−xLaxFeO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 016106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Ning, C. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, G. Yang, "Large optical nonlinearity in CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films," Appl. Phys. A 94, 567-570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Barboza and R. S. Cudney, "Improved Sellmeier equation for congruently grown lithium tantalate," Appl. Phys. B 95, 453-458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

B. Gu, W. Ji, and X. Q. Huang, "Analytical expression for femtosecond-pulsed z scans on instantaneous nonlinearity," Appl. Opt. 47, 1187-1192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Basu, L. W. Martin, Y. H. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. C. Rai, X. Xu, and J. L. Musfeldt, "Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. Shin, H. J. Chang, R. W. Boyd, M. R. Choi, and W. Jo, "Large nonlinear optical response of polycrystalline Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin films on quartz substrates," Opt. Lett. 32, 2453-2455 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Leng, C. Yang, H. Ji, J. Zhang, J. Tang, H. Chen, and L. Gao, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of RF sputtered (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric thin films," J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 18, 887-892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Ara’ujo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. W. Liu, J. Xu, D. Guzun, G. J. Salamo, C. L. Chen, Y. Lin, and M. Xiao, "Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on (001) MgO substrates," Appl. Phys. B 82, 443-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

B. Gu, Y. H. Wang, X. C. Peng, J. P. Ding, J. L. He, and H. T. Wang, "Giant optical nonlinearity of a Bi2Nd2Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3687-3689 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, "Optical nonlinearities in VO2 nanoparticles and thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5191-5193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, "Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1799-1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Yun, M. Noda, and M. Okuyama, "Prominent ferroelectricity of BiFeO3 thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3981-3983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. Swanepoel, "Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 16, 1214-1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, "Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium," Phys. Stat. Sol. 15, 627-637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Barboza, N. A.

N. A. Barboza and R. S. Cudney, "Improved Sellmeier equation for congruently grown lithium tantalate," Appl. Phys. B 95, 453-458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basu, S. R.

S. R. Basu, L. W. Martin, Y. H. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. C. Rai, X. Xu, and J. L. Musfeldt, "Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boatner, L. A.

R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, "Optical nonlinearities in VO2 nanoparticles and thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5191-5193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Burger, A.

A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. J.

Chen, C.

T. Ning, C. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, G. Yang, "Large optical nonlinearity in CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films," Appl. Phys. A 94, 567-570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. L.

S. W. Liu, J. Xu, D. Guzun, G. J. Salamo, C. L. Chen, Y. Lin, and M. Xiao, "Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on (001) MgO substrates," Appl. Phys. B 82, 443-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

W. Leng, C. Yang, H. Ji, J. Zhang, J. Tang, H. Chen, and L. Gao, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of RF sputtered (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric thin films," J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 18, 887-892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, M. R.

Chu, Y. H.

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Basu, L. W. Martin, Y. H. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. C. Rai, X. Xu, and J. L. Musfeldt, "Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R. W.

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cudney, R. S.

N. A. Barboza and R. S. Cudney, "Improved Sellmeier equation for congruently grown lithium tantalate," Appl. Phys. B 95, 453-458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dadson, J. B.

A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Ara’ujo, C. B.

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Ara’ujo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, R. E.

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Ara’ujo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Denev, S.

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J. P.

B. Gu, Y. H. Wang, X. C. Peng, J. P. Ding, J. L. He, and H. T. Wang, "Giant optical nonlinearity of a Bi2Nd2Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3687-3689 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elim, H. I.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, "Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1799-1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, L. C.

R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, "Optical nonlinearities in VO2 nanoparticles and thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5191-5193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gajek, M.

S. R. Basu, L. W. Martin, Y. H. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. C. Rai, X. Xu, and J. L. Musfeldt, "Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

W. Leng, C. Yang, H. Ji, J. Zhang, J. Tang, H. Chen, and L. Gao, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of RF sputtered (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric thin films," J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 18, 887-892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Ara’ujo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, V.

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grigorovici, R.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, "Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium," Phys. Stat. Sol. 15, 627-637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B.

B. Gu, W. Ji, and X. Q. Huang, "Analytical expression for femtosecond-pulsed z scans on instantaneous nonlinearity," Appl. Opt. 47, 1187-1192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Gu, Y. H. Wang, X. C. Peng, J. P. Ding, J. L. He, and H. T. Wang, "Giant optical nonlinearity of a Bi2Nd2Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3687-3689 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guzun, D.

S. W. Liu, J. Xu, D. Guzun, G. J. Salamo, C. L. Chen, Y. Lin, and M. Xiao, "Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on (001) MgO substrates," Appl. Phys. B 82, 443-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, R. F.

R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, "Optical nonlinearities in VO2 nanoparticles and thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5191-5193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, T. E.

R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, "Optical nonlinearities in VO2 nanoparticles and thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5191-5193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

He, J. L.

B. Gu, Y. H. Wang, X. C. Peng, J. P. Ding, J. L. He, and H. T. Wang, "Giant optical nonlinearity of a Bi2Nd2Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3687-3689 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heeg, T.

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huan, C. H. A.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, "Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1799-1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. Q.

Hunter, D.

A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ihlefeld, J.

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ji, H.

W. Leng, C. Yang, H. Ji, J. Zhang, J. Tang, H. Chen, and L. Gao, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of RF sputtered (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric thin films," J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 18, 887-892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

B. Gu, W. Ji, and X. Q. Huang, "Analytical expression for femtosecond-pulsed z scans on instantaneous nonlinearity," Appl. Opt. 47, 1187-1192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, "Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1799-1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jo, W.

Kassab, L. R. P.

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Ara’ujo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katiyar, R.

A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leng, W.

W. Leng, C. Yang, H. Ji, J. Zhang, J. Tang, H. Chen, and L. Gao, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of RF sputtered (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric thin films," J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 18, 887-892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, K. Y.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, "Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1799-1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

S. W. Liu, J. Xu, D. Guzun, G. J. Salamo, C. L. Chen, Y. Lin, and M. Xiao, "Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on (001) MgO substrates," Appl. Phys. B 82, 443-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. W.

S. W. Liu, J. Xu, D. Guzun, G. J. Salamo, C. L. Chen, Y. Lin, and M. Xiao, "Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on (001) MgO substrates," Appl. Phys. B 82, 443-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. B.

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, R.

R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, "Optical nonlinearities in VO2 nanoparticles and thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5191-5193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loutts, G. B.

A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

T. Ning, C. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, G. Yang, "Large optical nonlinearity in CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films," Appl. Phys. A 94, 567-570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, G. H.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, "Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1799-1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, L. W.

S. R. Basu, L. W. Martin, Y. H. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. C. Rai, X. Xu, and J. L. Musfeldt, "Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ming, H.

T. Ning, C. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, G. Yang, "Large optical nonlinearity in CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films," Appl. Phys. A 94, 567-570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Musfeldt, J. L.

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Basu, L. W. Martin, Y. H. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. C. Rai, X. Xu, and J. L. Musfeldt, "Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagarajan, V.

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neaton, J. B.

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ning, T.

T. Ning, C. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, G. Yang, "Large optical nonlinearity in CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films," Appl. Phys. A 94, 567-570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noda, M.

K. Y. Yun, M. Noda, and M. Okuyama, "Prominent ferroelectricity of BiFeO3 thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3981-3983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ogale, S. B.

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okuyama, M.

K. Y. Yun, M. Noda, and M. Okuyama, "Prominent ferroelectricity of BiFeO3 thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3981-3983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, J.

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X. C.

B. Gu, Y. H. Wang, X. C. Peng, J. P. Ding, J. L. He, and H. T. Wang, "Giant optical nonlinearity of a Bi2Nd2Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3687-3689 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Podraza, N. J.

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pradhan, A. K.

A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, K. M.

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rai, R. C.

S. R. Basu, L. W. Martin, Y. H. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. C. Rai, X. Xu, and J. L. Musfeldt, "Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ramesh, R.

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Basu, L. W. Martin, Y. H. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. C. Rai, X. Xu, and J. L. Musfeldt, "Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramirez, M.

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rativa, D.

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Ara’ujo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roy, U. N.

A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

S. W. Liu, J. Xu, D. Guzun, G. J. Salamo, C. L. Chen, Y. Lin, and M. Xiao, "Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on (001) MgO substrates," Appl. Phys. B 82, 443-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schlom, D. G.

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sellmyer, D. J.

A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H.

Sim, C. H.

Y. Wang, R. Y. Zheng, C. H. Sim, and J. Wang, "Charged defects and their effects on electrical behavior in Bi1−xLaxFeO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 016106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sow, C. H.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, "Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1799-1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spaldin, N. A.

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suchubert, J.

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, "Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 16, 1214-1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J.

W. Leng, C. Yang, H. Ji, J. Zhang, J. Tang, H. Chen, and L. Gao, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of RF sputtered (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric thin films," J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 18, 887-892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tauc, J.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, "Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium," Phys. Stat. Sol. 15, 627-637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J. G.

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaithyanathan, V.

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vancu, A.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, "Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium," Phys. Stat. Sol. 15, 627-637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Viehland, D.

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waghmare, U. V.

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. T.

B. Gu, Y. H. Wang, X. C. Peng, J. P. Ding, J. L. He, and H. T. Wang, "Giant optical nonlinearity of a Bi2Nd2Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3687-3689 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Y. Wang, R. Y. Zheng, C. H. Sim, and J. Wang, "Charged defects and their effects on electrical behavior in Bi1−xLaxFeO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 016106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, R. Y. Zheng, C. H. Sim, and J. Wang, "Charged defects and their effects on electrical behavior in Bi1−xLaxFeO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 016106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. H.

B. Gu, Y. H. Wang, X. C. Peng, J. P. Ding, J. L. He, and H. T. Wang, "Giant optical nonlinearity of a Bi2Nd2Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3687-3689 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wuttig, M.

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

S. W. Liu, J. Xu, D. Guzun, G. J. Salamo, C. L. Chen, Y. Lin, and M. Xiao, "Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on (001) MgO substrates," Appl. Phys. B 82, 443-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

S. W. Liu, J. Xu, D. Guzun, G. J. Salamo, C. L. Chen, Y. Lin, and M. Xiao, "Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on (001) MgO substrates," Appl. Phys. B 82, 443-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

S. R. Basu, L. W. Martin, Y. H. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. C. Rai, X. Xu, and J. L. Musfeldt, "Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

W. Leng, C. Yang, H. Ji, J. Zhang, J. Tang, H. Chen, and L. Gao, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of RF sputtered (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric thin films," J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 18, 887-892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

T. Ning, C. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, G. Yang, "Large optical nonlinearity in CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films," Appl. Phys. A 94, 567-570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yun, K. Y.

K. Y. Yun, M. Noda, and M. Okuyama, "Prominent ferroelectricity of BiFeO3 thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3981-3983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zang, W. P.

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. P.

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

T. Ning, C. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, G. Yang, "Large optical nonlinearity in CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films," Appl. Phys. A 94, 567-570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

W. Leng, C. Yang, H. Ji, J. Zhang, J. Tang, H. Chen, and L. Gao, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of RF sputtered (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric thin films," J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 18, 887-892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, H.

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, R. Y.

Y. Wang, R. Y. Zheng, C. H. Sim, and J. Wang, "Charged defects and their effects on electrical behavior in Bi1−xLaxFeO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 016106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. Y.

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

T. Ning, C. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, G. Yang, "Large optical nonlinearity in CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films," Appl. Phys. A 94, 567-570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

T. Ning, C. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, G. Yang, "Large optical nonlinearity in CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films," Appl. Phys. A 94, 567-570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

S. W. Liu, J. Xu, D. Guzun, G. J. Salamo, C. L. Chen, Y. Lin, and M. Xiao, "Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction of epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on (001) MgO substrates," Appl. Phys. B 82, 443-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Barboza and R. S. Cudney, "Improved Sellmeier equation for congruently grown lithium tantalate," Appl. Phys. B 95, 453-458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, "Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1799-1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Ara’ujo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. R. P. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, "Optical nonlinearities in VO2 nanoparticles and thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5191-5193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Yun, M. Noda, and M. Okuyama, "Prominent ferroelectricity of BiFeO3 thin films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3981-3983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Basu, L. W. Martin, Y. H. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. C. Rai, X. Xu, and J. L. Musfeldt, "Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, R. C. Rai, N. J. Podraza, S. Denev, M. Ramirez, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, J. Ihlefeld, T. Heeg, J. Suchubert, D. G. Schlom, J. Orenstein, R. Ramesh, R. W. Collins, J. L. Musfeldt, and V. Gopalan, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of BiFeO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121915 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, Y. H. Wang, X. C. Peng, J. P. Ding, J. L. He, and H. T. Wang, "Giant optical nonlinearity of a Bi2Nd2Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3687-3689 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. K. Pradhan, K. Zhang, D. Hunter, J. B. Dadson, G. B. Loutts, P. Bhattacharya, R. Katiyar, J. Zhang, D. J. Sellmyer, U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, and A. Burger, "Magnetic and electrical properties of single-phase multiferroic BiFeO3," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, R. Y. Zheng, C. H. Sim, and J. Wang, "Charged defects and their effects on electrical behavior in Bi1−xLaxFeO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 016106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. (1)

W. Leng, C. Yang, H. Ji, J. Zhang, J. Tang, H. Chen, and L. Gao, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of RF sputtered (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric thin films," J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 18, 887-892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Swanepoel, "Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 16, 1214-1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Stat. Sol. (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, "Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium," Phys. Stat. Sol. 15, 627-637 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, "Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures," Science 299, 1719-1722 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. L. Sutherland with contributions by D. G. McLean and S. Kikpatrick, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical transmittance spectrum of the BFO thin film on the quartz substrate (solid line) and its envelope (dotted lines).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Wavelength dependence of (a) the linear refractive index and (b) the absorption coefficient of the BFO thin film. The circles are the calculated data and the solid lines are the theoretical fittings by the improved Sellmeier-type formulae [13].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(α0)2 is plotted as a function of photon energy, , or wavelength for the BFO thin film.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Examples of Z-scans measured at I 0=156 GW/cm2 for (a) the 1.0-mm-thick quartz substrate and (b) the 510-nm-thick BFO film deposited on the 1.0-mm-thick quartz substrate. Filled and open circles are the OA and CA Z-scans, respectively; and the solid lines are the best-fit curves calculated by the femtosecond-pulsed Z-scan theory [16].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Intensity independence of (a) 2PA coefficient α 2 and (b) nonlinear refraction index n 2 for the BFO film.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of several thin films in the near infrared region.

Metrics