Abstract

An optical sensor for quantitative analysis of ultrathin films and adsorbed layers is described. Quantification of both layer thickness and refractive index (density) can be made for in situ and ex-situ coated films. With the use of two polarizations, in situ measurements are made via one path length in a young’s interferometer arrangement while ex-situ measurements use multiple path lengths. The multiple path length young’s interferometer arrangement is embodied in a solid state waveguide configuration called the multiple path length dual polarization interferometer (MPL-DPI). The technique is demonstrated with ultrathin layers of poly(methylmethacrylate) and human serum albumin.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Siepmann, J. Siepmann, M. Walther, R. J. MacRae, and R. Bodmeier, “Polymer blends for controlled release coatings,” J. Control. Release 125(1), 1–15 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. K. Mann, L. Heinrich, and P. Schaaf, “Validity of the Uniform Thin-Film Approximation for the Optical Analysis of Particulate Films,” Langmuir 13(18), 4906–4909 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Heinrich, E. K. Mann, J. C. Voegel, and P. Schaaf, “Characterization of Thin Protein Films through Scanning Angle Reflectometry,” Langmuir 13(12), 3177–3186 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Zhao, F. Pan, P. Coffey, and J. R. Lu, “Cationic copolymer-mediated DNA immobilization: interfacial structure and composition as determined by ellipsometry, dual polarization interferometry, and neutron reflection,” Langmuir 24(23), 13556–13564 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. S. Lord, M. H. Stenzel, A. Simmons, and B. K. Milthorpe, “Lysozyme interaction with poly(HEMA)-based hydrogel,” Biomaterials 27(8), 1341–1345 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman, “A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterisation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 19(4), 383–390 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

S. Park, D. H. Lee, J. Xu, B. Kim, S. W. Hong, U. Jeong, T. Xu, and T. P. Russell, “Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square-inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order,” Science 323(5917), 1030–1033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

F. Siepmann, J. Siepmann, M. Walther, R. J. MacRae, and R. Bodmeier, “Polymer blends for controlled release coatings,” J. Control. Release 125(1), 1–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Yaseen, H. J. Salacinski, A. M. Seifalian, and J. R. Lu, “Dynamic protein adsorption at the polyurethane copolymer/water interface,” Biomed. Mater. 3(3), 034123 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhao, F. Pan, P. Coffey, and J. R. Lu, “Cationic copolymer-mediated DNA immobilization: interfacial structure and composition as determined by ellipsometry, dual polarization interferometry, and neutron reflection,” Langmuir 24(23), 13556–13564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kokkinis, E. S. Valamontes, D. Goustouridis, T. Ganetsos, K. Beltsios, and I. Raptis, “Molecular weight and processing effects on the dissolution properties of thin poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(1), 93–99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. Manoudis, S. Papadopoulou, I. Karapanagiotis, A. Tsakalof, I. Zuburtikudis, and C. Panayiotou, “Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 61, 1361–1365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Yu, W. Lian, Y. He, J. Shu, J. M. Tobin, and L. Shuyou, “Highly transparent and conductive double-layer oxide thin films as anodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Lord, M. H. Stenzel, A. Simmons, and B. K. Milthorpe, “Lysozyme interaction with poly(HEMA)-based hydrogel,” Biomaterials 27(8), 1341–1345 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

X. Su, Y.-J. Wu, and W. Knoll, “Comparison of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance techniques for studying DNA assembly and hybridization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(5), 719–726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R. Horváth, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, “Application of the optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy to monitor lipid bilayer phase transition,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 18(4), 415–428 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman, “A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterisation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 19(4), 383–390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

E. K. Mann, L. Heinrich, and P. Schaaf, “Validity of the Uniform Thin-Film Approximation for the Optical Analysis of Particulate Films,” Langmuir 13(18), 4906–4909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Heinrich, E. K. Mann, J. C. Voegel, and P. Schaaf, “Characterization of Thin Protein Films through Scanning Angle Reflectometry,” Langmuir 13(12), 3177–3186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

1978

J. A. Defeijter, J. Benjamins, and F. A. Veer, “Ellipsometry as a Tool to Study Adsorption Behavior of Synthetic and Biopolymers at Air-Water-Interface,” Biopolymers 17(7), 1759–1772 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Beltsios, K.

A. Kokkinis, E. S. Valamontes, D. Goustouridis, T. Ganetsos, K. Beltsios, and I. Raptis, “Molecular weight and processing effects on the dissolution properties of thin poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(1), 93–99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benjamins, J.

J. A. Defeijter, J. Benjamins, and F. A. Veer, “Ellipsometry as a Tool to Study Adsorption Behavior of Synthetic and Biopolymers at Air-Water-Interface,” Biopolymers 17(7), 1759–1772 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bodmeier, R.

F. Siepmann, J. Siepmann, M. Walther, R. J. MacRae, and R. Bodmeier, “Polymer blends for controlled release coatings,” J. Control. Release 125(1), 1–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brand, S.

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman, “A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterisation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 19(4), 383–390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coffey, P.

X. Zhao, F. Pan, P. Coffey, and J. R. Lu, “Cationic copolymer-mediated DNA immobilization: interfacial structure and composition as determined by ellipsometry, dual polarization interferometry, and neutron reflection,” Langmuir 24(23), 13556–13564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cross, G. H.

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman, “A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterisation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 19(4), 383–390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Defeijter, J. A.

J. A. Defeijter, J. Benjamins, and F. A. Veer, “Ellipsometry as a Tool to Study Adsorption Behavior of Synthetic and Biopolymers at Air-Water-Interface,” Biopolymers 17(7), 1759–1772 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, N. J.

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman, “A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterisation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 19(4), 383–390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fricsovszky, G.

R. Horváth, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, “Application of the optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy to monitor lipid bilayer phase transition,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 18(4), 415–428 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganetsos, T.

A. Kokkinis, E. S. Valamontes, D. Goustouridis, T. Ganetsos, K. Beltsios, and I. Raptis, “Molecular weight and processing effects on the dissolution properties of thin poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(1), 93–99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goustouridis, D.

A. Kokkinis, E. S. Valamontes, D. Goustouridis, T. Ganetsos, K. Beltsios, and I. Raptis, “Molecular weight and processing effects on the dissolution properties of thin poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(1), 93–99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

Y. Yu, W. Lian, Y. He, J. Shu, J. M. Tobin, and L. Shuyou, “Highly transparent and conductive double-layer oxide thin films as anodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, L.

E. K. Mann, L. Heinrich, and P. Schaaf, “Validity of the Uniform Thin-Film Approximation for the Optical Analysis of Particulate Films,” Langmuir 13(18), 4906–4909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Heinrich, E. K. Mann, J. C. Voegel, and P. Schaaf, “Characterization of Thin Protein Films through Scanning Angle Reflectometry,” Langmuir 13(12), 3177–3186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, W. C.

Hong, S. W.

S. Park, D. H. Lee, J. Xu, B. Kim, S. W. Hong, U. Jeong, T. Xu, and T. P. Russell, “Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square-inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order,” Science 323(5917), 1030–1033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horváth, R.

R. Horváth, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, “Application of the optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy to monitor lipid bilayer phase transition,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 18(4), 415–428 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, U.

S. Park, D. H. Lee, J. Xu, B. Kim, S. W. Hong, U. Jeong, T. Xu, and T. P. Russell, “Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square-inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order,” Science 323(5917), 1030–1033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karapanagiotis, I.

P. Manoudis, S. Papadopoulou, I. Karapanagiotis, A. Tsakalof, I. Zuburtikudis, and C. Panayiotou, “Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 61, 1361–1365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.

S. Park, D. H. Lee, J. Xu, B. Kim, S. W. Hong, U. Jeong, T. Xu, and T. P. Russell, “Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square-inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order,” Science 323(5917), 1030–1033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoll, W.

X. Su, Y.-J. Wu, and W. Knoll, “Comparison of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance techniques for studying DNA assembly and hybridization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(5), 719–726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kokkinis, A.

A. Kokkinis, E. S. Valamontes, D. Goustouridis, T. Ganetsos, K. Beltsios, and I. Raptis, “Molecular weight and processing effects on the dissolution properties of thin poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(1), 93–99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. H.

S. Park, D. H. Lee, J. Xu, B. Kim, S. W. Hong, U. Jeong, T. Xu, and T. P. Russell, “Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square-inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order,” Science 323(5917), 1030–1033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lian, W.

Y. Yu, W. Lian, Y. He, J. Shu, J. M. Tobin, and L. Shuyou, “Highly transparent and conductive double-layer oxide thin films as anodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lord, M. S.

M. S. Lord, M. H. Stenzel, A. Simmons, and B. K. Milthorpe, “Lysozyme interaction with poly(HEMA)-based hydrogel,” Biomaterials 27(8), 1341–1345 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. R.

X. Zhao, F. Pan, P. Coffey, and J. R. Lu, “Cationic copolymer-mediated DNA immobilization: interfacial structure and composition as determined by ellipsometry, dual polarization interferometry, and neutron reflection,” Langmuir 24(23), 13556–13564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yaseen, H. J. Salacinski, A. M. Seifalian, and J. R. Lu, “Dynamic protein adsorption at the polyurethane copolymer/water interface,” Biomed. Mater. 3(3), 034123 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacRae, R. J.

F. Siepmann, J. Siepmann, M. Walther, R. J. MacRae, and R. Bodmeier, “Polymer blends for controlled release coatings,” J. Control. Release 125(1), 1–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mann, E. K.

E. K. Mann, L. Heinrich, and P. Schaaf, “Validity of the Uniform Thin-Film Approximation for the Optical Analysis of Particulate Films,” Langmuir 13(18), 4906–4909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Heinrich, E. K. Mann, J. C. Voegel, and P. Schaaf, “Characterization of Thin Protein Films through Scanning Angle Reflectometry,” Langmuir 13(12), 3177–3186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Manoudis, P.

P. Manoudis, S. Papadopoulou, I. Karapanagiotis, A. Tsakalof, I. Zuburtikudis, and C. Panayiotou, “Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 61, 1361–1365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Milthorpe, B. K.

M. S. Lord, M. H. Stenzel, A. Simmons, and B. K. Milthorpe, “Lysozyme interaction with poly(HEMA)-based hydrogel,” Biomaterials 27(8), 1341–1345 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morton, D. E.

Pan, F.

X. Zhao, F. Pan, P. Coffey, and J. R. Lu, “Cationic copolymer-mediated DNA immobilization: interfacial structure and composition as determined by ellipsometry, dual polarization interferometry, and neutron reflection,” Langmuir 24(23), 13556–13564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panayiotou, C.

P. Manoudis, S. Papadopoulou, I. Karapanagiotis, A. Tsakalof, I. Zuburtikudis, and C. Panayiotou, “Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 61, 1361–1365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Papadopoulou, S.

P. Manoudis, S. Papadopoulou, I. Karapanagiotis, A. Tsakalof, I. Zuburtikudis, and C. Panayiotou, “Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 61, 1361–1365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Papp, E.

R. Horváth, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, “Application of the optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy to monitor lipid bilayer phase transition,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 18(4), 415–428 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S.

S. Park, D. H. Lee, J. Xu, B. Kim, S. W. Hong, U. Jeong, T. Xu, and T. P. Russell, “Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square-inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order,” Science 323(5917), 1030–1033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peel, L. L.

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman, “A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterisation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 19(4), 383–390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popplewell, J. F.

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman, “A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterisation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 19(4), 383–390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raptis, I.

A. Kokkinis, E. S. Valamontes, D. Goustouridis, T. Ganetsos, K. Beltsios, and I. Raptis, “Molecular weight and processing effects on the dissolution properties of thin poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(1), 93–99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, A. A.

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman, “A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterisation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 19(4), 383–390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, T. P.

S. Park, D. H. Lee, J. Xu, B. Kim, S. W. Hong, U. Jeong, T. Xu, and T. P. Russell, “Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square-inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order,” Science 323(5917), 1030–1033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salacinski, H. J.

M. Yaseen, H. J. Salacinski, A. M. Seifalian, and J. R. Lu, “Dynamic protein adsorption at the polyurethane copolymer/water interface,” Biomed. Mater. 3(3), 034123 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaaf, P.

E. K. Mann, L. Heinrich, and P. Schaaf, “Validity of the Uniform Thin-Film Approximation for the Optical Analysis of Particulate Films,” Langmuir 13(18), 4906–4909 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Heinrich, E. K. Mann, J. C. Voegel, and P. Schaaf, “Characterization of Thin Protein Films through Scanning Angle Reflectometry,” Langmuir 13(12), 3177–3186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seifalian, A. M.

M. Yaseen, H. J. Salacinski, A. M. Seifalian, and J. R. Lu, “Dynamic protein adsorption at the polyurethane copolymer/water interface,” Biomed. Mater. 3(3), 034123 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shu, J.

Y. Yu, W. Lian, Y. He, J. Shu, J. M. Tobin, and L. Shuyou, “Highly transparent and conductive double-layer oxide thin films as anodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shuyou, L.

Y. Yu, W. Lian, Y. He, J. Shu, J. M. Tobin, and L. Shuyou, “Highly transparent and conductive double-layer oxide thin films as anodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siepmann, F.

F. Siepmann, J. Siepmann, M. Walther, R. J. MacRae, and R. Bodmeier, “Polymer blends for controlled release coatings,” J. Control. Release 125(1), 1–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siepmann, J.

F. Siepmann, J. Siepmann, M. Walther, R. J. MacRae, and R. Bodmeier, “Polymer blends for controlled release coatings,” J. Control. Release 125(1), 1–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, A.

M. S. Lord, M. H. Stenzel, A. Simmons, and B. K. Milthorpe, “Lysozyme interaction with poly(HEMA)-based hydrogel,” Biomaterials 27(8), 1341–1345 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stenzel, M. H.

M. S. Lord, M. H. Stenzel, A. Simmons, and B. K. Milthorpe, “Lysozyme interaction with poly(HEMA)-based hydrogel,” Biomaterials 27(8), 1341–1345 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, X.

X. Su, Y.-J. Wu, and W. Knoll, “Comparison of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance techniques for studying DNA assembly and hybridization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(5), 719–726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, M. J.

G. H. Cross, A. A. Reeves, S. Brand, J. F. Popplewell, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, and N. J. Freeman, “A new quantitative optical biosensor for protein characterisation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 19(4), 383–390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tobin, J. M.

Y. Yu, W. Lian, Y. He, J. Shu, J. M. Tobin, and L. Shuyou, “Highly transparent and conductive double-layer oxide thin films as anodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsakalof, A.

P. Manoudis, S. Papadopoulou, I. Karapanagiotis, A. Tsakalof, I. Zuburtikudis, and C. Panayiotou, “Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 61, 1361–1365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Valamontes, E. S.

A. Kokkinis, E. S. Valamontes, D. Goustouridis, T. Ganetsos, K. Beltsios, and I. Raptis, “Molecular weight and processing effects on the dissolution properties of thin poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(1), 93–99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veer, F. A.

J. A. Defeijter, J. Benjamins, and F. A. Veer, “Ellipsometry as a Tool to Study Adsorption Behavior of Synthetic and Biopolymers at Air-Water-Interface,” Biopolymers 17(7), 1759–1772 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Voegel, J. C.

L. Heinrich, E. K. Mann, J. C. Voegel, and P. Schaaf, “Characterization of Thin Protein Films through Scanning Angle Reflectometry,” Langmuir 13(12), 3177–3186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

F. Siepmann, J. Siepmann, M. Walther, R. J. MacRae, and R. Bodmeier, “Polymer blends for controlled release coatings,” J. Control. Release 125(1), 1–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-J.

X. Su, Y.-J. Wu, and W. Knoll, “Comparison of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance techniques for studying DNA assembly and hybridization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(5), 719–726 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

S. Park, D. H. Lee, J. Xu, B. Kim, S. W. Hong, U. Jeong, T. Xu, and T. P. Russell, “Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square-inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order,” Science 323(5917), 1030–1033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, T.

S. Park, D. H. Lee, J. Xu, B. Kim, S. W. Hong, U. Jeong, T. Xu, and T. P. Russell, “Macroscopic 10-terabit-per-square-inch arrays from block copolymers with lateral order,” Science 323(5917), 1030–1033 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaseen, M.

M. Yaseen, H. J. Salacinski, A. M. Seifalian, and J. R. Lu, “Dynamic protein adsorption at the polyurethane copolymer/water interface,” Biomed. Mater. 3(3), 034123 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, W. Lian, Y. He, J. Shu, J. M. Tobin, and L. Shuyou, “Highly transparent and conductive double-layer oxide thin films as anodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

X. Zhao, F. Pan, P. Coffey, and J. R. Lu, “Cationic copolymer-mediated DNA immobilization: interfacial structure and composition as determined by ellipsometry, dual polarization interferometry, and neutron reflection,” Langmuir 24(23), 13556–13564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuburtikudis, I.

P. Manoudis, S. Papadopoulou, I. Karapanagiotis, A. Tsakalof, I. Zuburtikudis, and C. Panayiotou, “Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 61, 1361–1365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Yu, W. Lian, Y. He, J. Shu, J. M. Tobin, and L. Shuyou, “Highly transparent and conductive double-layer oxide thin films as anodes for organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials

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Biopolymers

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross section of the DPI in x-z plane. (b) Cross section of the MPL-DPI in x-z plane. (c) Experimental arrangement for the DPI. (d) In situ experimental arrangement for the MPL-DPI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top view of the MPL-DPI in the y-z plane, L1 = 10000μm, L2 = 7500μm, W1 = W2 = 600μm, W3 = 1000μm. (b) Real CMOS image of the Young’s Interference patterns. A phase difference between armsΦ of 5.8×2π radians can be seen. (c) Illustrates the regions of the MPL-DPI that cause the different interference patterns on the CMOS camera.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Positions of removed PMMA with respect to the silicon wafer and locations of the sampled step heights. (b) AFM height data from corner of trench 4. 2D interpretation of the height and a 3D interpretation. (c) Averaged step height from one of the six sample regions within trench 4. (d) Single profilometry line scan of one of the seven trenches.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Real time measurements. (a) PMMA swelling in water at 20°C. (b) HSA at pH5 adsorbing to the PMMA film shown in (a).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔϕTM,r=p2π+ϕTM,f,rϕTM,i,r=(βTM,f,rβTM,i,r)lr,pInteger
ΔϕTE,r=q2π+ϕTE,f,rϕTE,i,r=(βTE,f,rβTE,i,r)lr,qInteger
ΔΦ=Δϕ1Δϕ2=(βf,1(x1,n1)βi,1)l1(βf,2(x2,n2)βi,2)l2
(βf,1(x1,n1)βi,1)l1(βf,2(x2,n2)βi,2)l2=(βf,1(x,n)βi,1)l1(βf,2(x,n)βi,2)l2
|ΔϕpredictedΔϕr|<π

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