Abstract

Conventional white-light sources suffer from a fundamental trade-off between color rendering index and the luminous efficacy; increasing one generally comes at the expense of the other. We demonstrate through simulation that dual-wavelength blue-emitting active regions in phosphor-converted white light sources maximize the output luminous flux while significantly increasing the color rendering ability. Our results indicate that such improvements can be achieved over a broad range of correlated color temperatures.

© 2009 OSA

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References

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  1. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–237 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 20(3), 28–37 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. W. Brown, C. Santana, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Development of a tunable LED-based colorimetric source,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 107, 363–371 (2002).
  5. B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, C. Pernot, and J. Massies, “Monolithic white light emitting diodes based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 9A/B), 918–920 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. F. Schubert, Light Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. 2003), Chap. 19–20.
  8. R. J. Xie and N. Hirosaki, “Review: Silicon-based oxynitrides and nitride phosphors for white LEDs,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 8(7-8), 588–600 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Mukai, Proceedings of SPIE Photonics West, San Jose, California, Jan. 29, 7216 (2009)
  10. R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S Nakamura, “Progress with GaN-based blue/green LEDs and bluish-purple semiconductor LDs,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 81, 1–8 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Peter, A. Laubsch, P. Stauss, A. Walter, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “Green ThinGaN power LED-demonstrates 100 lm,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(6), 2050–2052 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Yamada, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor free high-luminous-efficiency white light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multi-quantum well,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 3A), 246–248 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. K. Park, J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “Phosphor-free white light emitting diode with laterally distributed multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Grundmann and U. Mishra, “Multi-color light emitting diode using polarization-induced tunnel junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4(7), 2830–2833 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. International Commission on Illumination, Method of measuring and specifying colour rendering properties of light sources, ISBN 978–3900734572 (1995)
  17. N. Sándor and J. Schanda, “Visual color rendering based on color difference evaluations,” Lighting Res. Tech. 38(3), 225–239 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, P. Stauss, A. Walter, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “Green ThinGaN power LED-demonstrates 100 lm,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(6), 2050–2052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Park, J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “Phosphor-free white light emitting diode with laterally distributed multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. Grundmann and U. Mishra, “Multi-color light emitting diode using polarization-induced tunnel junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4(7), 2830–2833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Xie and N. Hirosaki, “Review: Silicon-based oxynitrides and nitride phosphors for white LEDs,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 8(7-8), 588–600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

N. Sándor and J. Schanda, “Visual color rendering based on color difference evaluations,” Lighting Res. Tech. 38(3), 225–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 20(3), 28–37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

S. W. Brown, C. Santana, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Development of a tunable LED-based colorimetric source,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 107, 363–371 (2002).

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor free high-luminous-efficiency white light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multi-quantum well,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 3A), 246–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, C. Pernot, and J. Massies, “Monolithic white light emitting diodes based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 9A/B), 918–920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S Nakamura, “Progress with GaN-based blue/green LEDs and bluish-purple semiconductor LDs,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 81, 1–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baur, J.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, P. Stauss, A. Walter, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “Green ThinGaN power LED-demonstrates 100 lm,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(6), 2050–2052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. W.

S. W. Brown, C. Santana, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Development of a tunable LED-based colorimetric source,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 107, 363–371 (2002).

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

I. K. Park, J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “Phosphor-free white light emitting diode with laterally distributed multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Damilano, B.

B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, C. Pernot, and J. Massies, “Monolithic white light emitting diodes based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 9A/B), 918–920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eppeldauer, G. P.

S. W. Brown, C. Santana, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Development of a tunable LED-based colorimetric source,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 107, 363–371 (2002).

Gaska, R.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, T.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, N.

B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, C. Pernot, and J. Massies, “Monolithic white light emitting diodes based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 9A/B), 918–920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grundmann, M.

M. Grundmann and U. Mishra, “Multi-color light emitting diode using polarization-induced tunnel junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4(7), 2830–2833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, B.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, P. Stauss, A. Walter, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “Green ThinGaN power LED-demonstrates 100 lm,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(6), 2050–2052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hirosaki, N.

R. J. Xie and N. Hirosaki, “Review: Silicon-based oxynitrides and nitride phosphors for white LEDs,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 8(7-8), 588–600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, H. A.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ivanauskas, F.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Juestel, T.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

I. K. Park, J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “Phosphor-free white light emitting diode with laterally distributed multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M. K.

I. K. Park, J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “Phosphor-free white light emitting diode with laterally distributed multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laubsch, A.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, P. Stauss, A. Walter, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “Green ThinGaN power LED-demonstrates 100 lm,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(6), 2050–2052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. L.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. H.

I. K. Park, J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “Phosphor-free white light emitting diode with laterally distributed multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Massies, J.

B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, C. Pernot, and J. Massies, “Monolithic white light emitting diodes based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 9A/B), 918–920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U.

M. Grundmann and U. Mishra, “Multi-color light emitting diode using polarization-induced tunnel junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4(7), 2830–2833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

M. Yamada, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor free high-luminous-efficiency white light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multi-quantum well,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 3A), 246–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S

S Nakamura, “Progress with GaN-based blue/green LEDs and bluish-purple semiconductor LDs,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 81, 1–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

M. Yamada, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor free high-luminous-efficiency white light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multi-quantum well,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 3A), 246–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, I. K.

I. K. Park, J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “Phosphor-free white light emitting diode with laterally distributed multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

I. K. Park, J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “Phosphor-free white light emitting diode with laterally distributed multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pernot, C.

B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, C. Pernot, and J. Massies, “Monolithic white light emitting diodes based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 9A/B), 918–920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peter, M.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, P. Stauss, A. Walter, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “Green ThinGaN power LED-demonstrates 100 lm,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(6), 2050–2052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sándor, N.

N. Sándor and J. Schanda, “Visual color rendering based on color difference evaluations,” Lighting Res. Tech. 38(3), 225–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santana, C.

S. W. Brown, C. Santana, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Development of a tunable LED-based colorimetric source,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 107, 363–371 (2002).

Schanda, J.

N. Sándor and J. Schanda, “Visual color rendering based on color difference evaluations,” Lighting Res. Tech. 38(3), 225–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, P.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schnick, W.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, F.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stauss, P.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, P. Stauss, A. Walter, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “Green ThinGaN power LED-demonstrates 100 lm,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(6), 2050–2052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, J.

J. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 20(3), 28–37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walter, A.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, P. Stauss, A. Walter, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “Green ThinGaN power LED-demonstrates 100 lm,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(6), 2050–2052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xi, Y.

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xie, R. J.

R. J. Xie and N. Hirosaki, “Review: Silicon-based oxynitrides and nitride phosphors for white LEDs,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 8(7-8), 588–600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor free high-luminous-efficiency white light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multi-quantum well,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 3A), 246–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zukauskas, A.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Park, J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and S. J. Park, “Phosphor-free white light emitting diode with laterally distributed multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Commun. Jpn. (1)

S Nakamura, “Progress with GaN-based blue/green LEDs and bluish-purple semiconductor LDs,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 81, 1–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. (1)

J. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 20(3), 28–37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Influence of junction temperature on chromaticity and color-rendering properties of trichromatic white-light sources based on light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(5), 054506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

S. W. Brown, C. Santana, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Development of a tunable LED-based colorimetric source,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 107, 363–371 (2002).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, C. Pernot, and J. Massies, “Monolithic white light emitting diodes based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 9A/B), 918–920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor free high-luminous-efficiency white light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multi-quantum well,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 3A), 246–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lighting Res. Tech. (1)

N. Sándor and J. Schanda, “Visual color rendering based on color difference evaluations,” Lighting Res. Tech. 38(3), 225–239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Hoppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (2)

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, P. Stauss, A. Walter, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “Green ThinGaN power LED-demonstrates 100 lm,” Phys. Status Solidi C 5(6), 2050–2052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Grundmann and U. Mishra, “Multi-color light emitting diode using polarization-induced tunnel junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4(7), 2830–2833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. (1)

R. J. Xie and N. Hirosaki, “Review: Silicon-based oxynitrides and nitride phosphors for white LEDs,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 8(7-8), 588–600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

International Commission on Illumination, Method of measuring and specifying colour rendering properties of light sources, ISBN 978–3900734572 (1995)

T. Mukai, Proceedings of SPIE Photonics West, San Jose, California, Jan. 29, 7216 (2009)

E. F. Schubert, Light Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. 2003), Chap. 19–20.

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