Abstract

High temporal resolution OCT imaging is very advantageous for analyzing cardiac mechanics in the developing embryonic heart of small animals. An image-based retrospective gating technique is presented to increase the effective temporal resolution of an OCT system and to allow visualization of systolic dynamics in 3D. The gating technique employs image similarity measures for rearranging asynchronously acquired input data consisting of a time series of 2D images at each z position along the heart volume, to produce a time sequence of 3D volumes of the beating heart. The study includes a novel robust validation technique, which quantitatively evaluates the accuracy of the gating technique, in addition to visual evaluations by 2D multiplanar reformatting (MPR) and 3D volume rendering. The retrospective gating and validation is demonstrated on a stage 14 embryonic quail heart data set. Using the validation scheme, it is shown that the gating is accurate within a standard deviation of 4.7 ms, which is an order of magnitude shorter than the time interval during which systolic contraction (~50 ms) occurs in the developing embryo. This gating method has allowed, for the first time, clear visualization of systolic dynamics of the looping embryonic heart in 3D.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (1)

A. Davis, J. Izatt, and F. Rothenberg, “Quantitative measurement of blood flow dynamics in embryonic vasculature using spectral Doppler velocimetry,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 292(3), 311–319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

I. V. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. V. Larin, and M. E. Dickinson, “Live imaging of blood flow in mammalian embryos using Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Männer, L. Thrane, K. Norozi, and T. M. Yelbuz, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the cross-sectional deformations of contracting embryonic heart loops using optical coherence tomography,” Dev. Dyn. 237(4), 953–961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. P. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Norozi, L. Thrane, J. Männer, F. Pedersen, I. Wolf, S. Mottl-Link, H. P. Meinzer, A. Wessel, and T. M. Yelbuz, “In vivo visualisation of coronary artery development by high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Heart 94(2), 130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, A. M. Rollins, and D. L. Wilson, “Denoising and 4D visualization of OCT images,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12313–12333 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Davis, F. G. Rothenberg, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo spectral domain optical coherence tomography volumetric imaging and spectral Doppler velocimetry of early stage embryonic chicken heart development,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3134–3143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1627–1638 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Jenkins, P. Patel, H. Deng, M. M. Montano, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “Phenotyping transgenic embryonic murine hearts using optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1776–1781 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Jenkins, D. C. Adler, M. Gargesha, R. Huber, F. Rothenberg, J. Belding, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. M. Rollins, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography imaging and visualization of the embryonic avian heart using a buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6251–6267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Yelin, D. Yelin, W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Multimodality optical imaging of embryonic heart microstructure,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064021 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Filas, I. R. Efimov, and L. A. Taber, “Optical coherence tomography as a tool for measuring morphogenetic deformation of the looping heart,” Anatomical Record-Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 290(9), 1057–1068 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

2005 (2)

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Lucitti, K. Tobita, and B. B. Keller, “Arterial hemodynamics and mechanical properties after circulatory intervention in the chick embryo,” J. Exp. Biol. 208(10), 1877–1885 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv. 61(1), 84–94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, B. Qi, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part II): Imaging in vivo cardiac dynamics of Xenopus laevis,” Opt. Express 11, 1650–1658 (2003).

J. R. Hove, R. W. Köster, A. S. Forouhar, G. Acevedo-Bolton, S. E. Fraser, and M. Gharib, “Intracardiac fluid forces are an essential epigenetic factor for embryonic cardiogenesis,” Nature 421(6919), 172–177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Albers, J. M. Boese, C. F. Vahl, and S. Hagl, “In vivo validation of cardiac spiral computed tomography using retrospective gating,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 75(3), 885–889 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106(22), 2771–2774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Kachelrieß, D.-A. Sennst, W. Maxlmoser, and W. A. Kalender, “Kymogram detection and kymogram-correlated image reconstruction from subsecond spiral computed tomography scans of the heart,” Med. Phys. 29(7), 1489–1503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, A. Baumbach, C. Georg, R. Kuzo, M. Heuschmid, B. Ohnesorge, K. R. Karsch, and C. D. Claussen, “Non-invasive coronary angiography with high resolution multidetector-row computed tomography. Results in 102 patients,” Eur. Heart J. 23(21), 1714–1725 (2002).

2001 (2)

A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, M. Heuschmid, C. Georg, B. Ohnesorge, R. Kuzo, and C. D. Claussen, “Coronary arteries: retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT angiography with selective optimization of the image reconstruction window,” Radiology 221(3), 683–688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. P. Du, E. R. McVeigh, D. A. Bluemke, H. A. Silber, and T. K. F. Foo, “A comparison of prospective and retrospective respiratory navigator gating in 3D MR coronary angiography,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 17(4), 287–294, discussion 295–296 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

U. J. Schoepf, C. R. Becker, R. D. Bruening, T. Helmberger, A. Staebler, P. Leimeister, and M. F. Reiser, “Electrocardiographically gated thin-section CT of the lung,” Radiology 212(3), 649–654 (1999).

1997 (3)

C. E. Woodhouse, W. R. Janowitz, and M. Viamonte., “Coronary arteries: retrospective cardiac gating technique to reduce cardiac motion artifact at spiral CT,” Radiology 204(2), 566–569 (1997).

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(9), 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, M. Kulkarni, and J. Izatt, “High resolution imaging of in vivo cardiac dynamics using color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 1(13), 424–431 (1997).

1996 (1)

Y. H. Gui, K. K. Linask, P. Khowsathit, and J. C. Huhta, “Doppler echocardiography of normal and abnormal embryonic mouse heart,” Pediatr. Res. 40(4), 633–642 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. A. Taber, I. E. Lin, and E. B. Clark, “Mechanics of cardiac looping,” Dev. Dyn. 203(1), 42–50 (1995).

Acevedo-Bolton, G.

J. R. Hove, R. W. Köster, A. S. Forouhar, G. Acevedo-Bolton, S. E. Fraser, and M. Gharib, “Intracardiac fluid forces are an essential epigenetic factor for embryonic cardiogenesis,” Nature 421(6919), 172–177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Albers, J.

J. Albers, J. M. Boese, C. F. Vahl, and S. Hagl, “In vivo validation of cardiac spiral computed tomography using retrospective gating,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 75(3), 885–889 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Basavanhally, A. N.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baumbach, A.

A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, A. Baumbach, C. Georg, R. Kuzo, M. Heuschmid, B. Ohnesorge, K. R. Karsch, and C. D. Claussen, “Non-invasive coronary angiography with high resolution multidetector-row computed tomography. Results in 102 patients,” Eur. Heart J. 23(21), 1714–1725 (2002).

Becker, C. R.

U. J. Schoepf, C. R. Becker, R. D. Bruening, T. Helmberger, A. Staebler, P. Leimeister, and M. F. Reiser, “Electrocardiographically gated thin-section CT of the lung,” Radiology 212(3), 649–654 (1999).

Belding, J.

Bluemke, D. A.

Y. P. P. Du, E. R. McVeigh, D. A. Bluemke, H. A. Silber, and T. K. F. Foo, “A comparison of prospective and retrospective respiratory navigator gating in 3D MR coronary angiography,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 17(4), 287–294, discussion 295–296 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bodmer, R.

M. A. Choma, S. D. Izatt, R. J. Wessells, R. Bodmer, and J. A. Izatt, “Images in cardiovascular medicine: in vivo imaging of the adult Drosophila melanogaster heart with real-time optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 114(2), e35–e36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boese, J. M.

J. Albers, J. M. Boese, C. F. Vahl, and S. Hagl, “In vivo validation of cardiac spiral computed tomography using retrospective gating,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 75(3), 885–889 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

W. Luo, D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, and S. A. Boppart, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of the embryonic murine cardiovascular system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 021014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(9), 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boudoux, C.

R. Yelin, D. Yelin, W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Multimodality optical imaging of embryonic heart microstructure,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064021 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

R. Yelin, D. Yelin, W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Multimodality optical imaging of embryonic heart microstructure,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064021 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(9), 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(9), 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bruening, R. D.

U. J. Schoepf, C. R. Becker, R. D. Bruening, T. Helmberger, A. Staebler, P. Leimeister, and M. F. Reiser, “Electrocardiographically gated thin-section CT of the lung,” Radiology 212(3), 649–654 (1999).

Bruining, N.

S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv. 61(1), 84–94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A.

I. V. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. V. Larin, and M. E. Dickinson, “Live imaging of blood flow in mammalian embryos using Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A. E.

Choma, M. A.

M. A. Choma, S. D. Izatt, R. J. Wessells, R. Bodmer, and J. A. Izatt, “Images in cardiovascular medicine: in vivo imaging of the adult Drosophila melanogaster heart with real-time optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 114(2), e35–e36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106(22), 2771–2774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chughtai, O. Q.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clark, E. B.

L. A. Taber, I. E. Lin, and E. B. Clark, “Mechanics of cardiac looping,” Dev. Dyn. 203(1), 42–50 (1995).

Claussen, C. D.

A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, A. Baumbach, C. Georg, R. Kuzo, M. Heuschmid, B. Ohnesorge, K. R. Karsch, and C. D. Claussen, “Non-invasive coronary angiography with high resolution multidetector-row computed tomography. Results in 102 patients,” Eur. Heart J. 23(21), 1714–1725 (2002).

A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, M. Heuschmid, C. Georg, B. Ohnesorge, R. Kuzo, and C. D. Claussen, “Coronary arteries: retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT angiography with selective optimization of the image reconstruction window,” Radiology 221(3), 683–688 (2001).
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Y. P. P. Du, E. R. McVeigh, D. A. Bluemke, H. A. Silber, and T. K. F. Foo, “A comparison of prospective and retrospective respiratory navigator gating in 3D MR coronary angiography,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 17(4), 287–294, discussion 295–296 (2001).
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M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054001 (2005).
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M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054001 (2005).
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A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, M. Heuschmid, C. Georg, B. Ohnesorge, R. Kuzo, and C. D. Claussen, “Coronary arteries: retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT angiography with selective optimization of the image reconstruction window,” Radiology 221(3), 683–688 (2001).
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M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054001 (2005).
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A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, A. Baumbach, C. Georg, R. Kuzo, M. Heuschmid, B. Ohnesorge, K. R. Karsch, and C. D. Claussen, “Non-invasive coronary angiography with high resolution multidetector-row computed tomography. Results in 102 patients,” Eur. Heart J. 23(21), 1714–1725 (2002).

A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, M. Heuschmid, C. Georg, B. Ohnesorge, R. Kuzo, and C. D. Claussen, “Coronary arteries: retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT angiography with selective optimization of the image reconstruction window,” Radiology 221(3), 683–688 (2001).
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Jiang, J.

I. V. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. V. Larin, and M. E. Dickinson, “Live imaging of blood flow in mammalian embryos using Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060506 (2008).
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A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, M. Heuschmid, C. Georg, B. Ohnesorge, R. Kuzo, and C. D. Claussen, “Coronary arteries: retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT angiography with selective optimization of the image reconstruction window,” Radiology 221(3), 683–688 (2001).
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J. R. Hove, R. W. Köster, A. S. Forouhar, G. Acevedo-Bolton, S. E. Fraser, and M. Gharib, “Intracardiac fluid forces are an essential epigenetic factor for embryonic cardiogenesis,” Nature 421(6919), 172–177 (2003).
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A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, M. Heuschmid, C. Georg, B. Ohnesorge, R. Kuzo, and C. D. Claussen, “Coronary arteries: retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT angiography with selective optimization of the image reconstruction window,” Radiology 221(3), 683–688 (2001).
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Kuzo, R.

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A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, M. Heuschmid, C. Georg, B. Ohnesorge, R. Kuzo, and C. D. Claussen, “Coronary arteries: retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT angiography with selective optimization of the image reconstruction window,” Radiology 221(3), 683–688 (2001).
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I. V. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. V. Larin, and M. E. Dickinson, “Live imaging of blood flow in mammalian embryos using Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060506 (2008).
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S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv. 61(1), 84–94 (2004).
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S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. P. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
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Liu, G.

Lo, S.

Lucitti, J. L.

J. L. Lucitti, K. Tobita, and B. B. Keller, “Arterial hemodynamics and mechanical properties after circulatory intervention in the chick embryo,” J. Exp. Biol. 208(10), 1877–1885 (2005).
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Y. P. P. Du, E. R. McVeigh, D. A. Bluemke, H. A. Silber, and T. K. F. Foo, “A comparison of prospective and retrospective respiratory navigator gating in 3D MR coronary angiography,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 17(4), 287–294, discussion 295–296 (2001).
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Nikolski, V. P.

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J. Männer, L. Thrane, K. Norozi, and T. M. Yelbuz, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the cross-sectional deformations of contracting embryonic heart loops using optical coherence tomography,” Dev. Dyn. 237(4), 953–961 (2008).
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A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, M. Heuschmid, C. Georg, B. Ohnesorge, R. Kuzo, and C. D. Claussen, “Coronary arteries: retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT angiography with selective optimization of the image reconstruction window,” Radiology 221(3), 683–688 (2001).
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K. Norozi, L. Thrane, J. Männer, F. Pedersen, I. Wolf, S. Mottl-Link, H. P. Meinzer, A. Wessel, and T. M. Yelbuz, “In vivo visualisation of coronary artery development by high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Heart 94(2), 130 (2008).
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Qi, B.

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W. Luo, D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, and S. A. Boppart, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of the embryonic murine cardiovascular system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 021014 (2006).
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S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv. 61(1), 84–94 (2004).
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A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, A. Baumbach, C. Georg, R. Kuzo, M. Heuschmid, B. Ohnesorge, K. R. Karsch, and C. D. Claussen, “Non-invasive coronary angiography with high resolution multidetector-row computed tomography. Results in 102 patients,” Eur. Heart J. 23(21), 1714–1725 (2002).

A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, M. Heuschmid, C. Georg, B. Ohnesorge, R. Kuzo, and C. D. Claussen, “Coronary arteries: retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT angiography with selective optimization of the image reconstruction window,” Radiology 221(3), 683–688 (2001).
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Sennst, D.-A.

M. Kachelrieß, D.-A. Sennst, W. Maxlmoser, and W. A. Kalender, “Kymogram detection and kymogram-correlated image reconstruction from subsecond spiral computed tomography scans of the heart,” Med. Phys. 29(7), 1489–1503 (2002).
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S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv. 61(1), 84–94 (2004).
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Standish, B. A.

Sudheendran, N.

I. V. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. V. Larin, and M. E. Dickinson, “Live imaging of blood flow in mammalian embryos using Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060506 (2008).
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B. A. Filas, I. R. Efimov, and L. A. Taber, “Optical coherence tomography as a tool for measuring morphogenetic deformation of the looping heart,” Anatomical Record-Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 290(9), 1057–1068 (2007).
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L. A. Taber, I. E. Lin, and E. B. Clark, “Mechanics of cardiac looping,” Dev. Dyn. 203(1), 42–50 (1995).

Tanabe, K.

S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv. 61(1), 84–94 (2004).
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Tearney, G. J.

R. Yelin, D. Yelin, W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Multimodality optical imaging of embryonic heart microstructure,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064021 (2007).
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S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(9), 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thornburg, K.

S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. P. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thrane, L.

K. Norozi, L. Thrane, J. Männer, F. Pedersen, I. Wolf, S. Mottl-Link, H. P. Meinzer, A. Wessel, and T. M. Yelbuz, “In vivo visualisation of coronary artery development by high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Heart 94(2), 130 (2008).
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J. Männer, L. Thrane, K. Norozi, and T. M. Yelbuz, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the cross-sectional deformations of contracting embryonic heart loops using optical coherence tomography,” Dev. Dyn. 237(4), 953–961 (2008).
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T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106(22), 2771–2774 (2002).
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J. L. Lucitti, K. Tobita, and B. B. Keller, “Arterial hemodynamics and mechanical properties after circulatory intervention in the chick embryo,” J. Exp. Biol. 208(10), 1877–1885 (2005).
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J. Albers, J. M. Boese, C. F. Vahl, and S. Hagl, “In vivo validation of cardiac spiral computed tomography using retrospective gating,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 75(3), 885–889 (2003).
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Vakoc, B. J.

R. Yelin, D. Yelin, W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Multimodality optical imaging of embryonic heart microstructure,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064021 (2007).
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C. E. Woodhouse, W. R. Janowitz, and M. Viamonte., “Coronary arteries: retrospective cardiac gating technique to reduce cardiac motion artifact at spiral CT,” Radiology 204(2), 566–569 (1997).

Vitkin, I. A.

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S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. P. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Wessel, A.

K. Norozi, L. Thrane, J. Männer, F. Pedersen, I. Wolf, S. Mottl-Link, H. P. Meinzer, A. Wessel, and T. M. Yelbuz, “In vivo visualisation of coronary artery development by high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Heart 94(2), 130 (2008).
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M. A. Choma, S. D. Izatt, R. J. Wessells, R. Bodmer, and J. A. Izatt, “Images in cardiovascular medicine: in vivo imaging of the adult Drosophila melanogaster heart with real-time optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 114(2), e35–e36 (2006).
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Wojtkowski, M.

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K. Norozi, L. Thrane, J. Männer, F. Pedersen, I. Wolf, S. Mottl-Link, H. P. Meinzer, A. Wessel, and T. M. Yelbuz, “In vivo visualisation of coronary artery development by high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Heart 94(2), 130 (2008).
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C. E. Woodhouse, W. R. Janowitz, and M. Viamonte., “Coronary arteries: retrospective cardiac gating technique to reduce cardiac motion artifact at spiral CT,” Radiology 204(2), 566–569 (1997).

Yang, V. X. D.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yelbuz, T. M.

J. Männer, L. Thrane, K. Norozi, and T. M. Yelbuz, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the cross-sectional deformations of contracting embryonic heart loops using optical coherence tomography,” Dev. Dyn. 237(4), 953–961 (2008).
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K. Norozi, L. Thrane, J. Männer, F. Pedersen, I. Wolf, S. Mottl-Link, H. P. Meinzer, A. Wessel, and T. M. Yelbuz, “In vivo visualisation of coronary artery development by high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Heart 94(2), 130 (2008).
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T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106(22), 2771–2774 (2002).
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R. Yelin, D. Yelin, W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Multimodality optical imaging of embryonic heart microstructure,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064021 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yelin, R.

R. Yelin, D. Yelin, W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Multimodality optical imaging of embryonic heart microstructure,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064021 (2007).
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R. Yelin, D. Yelin, W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Multimodality optical imaging of embryonic heart microstructure,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064021 (2007).
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B. A. Filas, I. R. Efimov, and L. A. Taber, “Optical coherence tomography as a tool for measuring morphogenetic deformation of the looping heart,” Anatomical Record-Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 290(9), 1057–1068 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1)

J. Albers, J. M. Boese, C. F. Vahl, and S. Hagl, “In vivo validation of cardiac spiral computed tomography using retrospective gating,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 75(3), 885–889 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv. (1)

S. A. de Winter, R. Hamers, M. Degertekin, K. Tanabe, P. A. Lemos, P. W. Serruys, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, and N. Bruining, “Retrospective image-based gating of intracoronary ultrasound images for improved quantitative analysis: the intelligate method,” Catheter. Cardiovasc. Interv. 61(1), 84–94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Circulation (2)

M. A. Choma, S. D. Izatt, R. J. Wessells, R. Bodmer, and J. A. Izatt, “Images in cardiovascular medicine: in vivo imaging of the adult Drosophila melanogaster heart with real-time optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 114(2), e35–e36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106(22), 2771–2774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dev. Dyn. (2)

J. Männer, L. Thrane, K. Norozi, and T. M. Yelbuz, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the cross-sectional deformations of contracting embryonic heart loops using optical coherence tomography,” Dev. Dyn. 237(4), 953–961 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Taber, I. E. Lin, and E. B. Clark, “Mechanics of cardiac looping,” Dev. Dyn. 203(1), 42–50 (1995).

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A. F. Kopp, S. Schroeder, A. Kuettner, A. Baumbach, C. Georg, R. Kuzo, M. Heuschmid, B. Ohnesorge, K. R. Karsch, and C. D. Claussen, “Non-invasive coronary angiography with high resolution multidetector-row computed tomography. Results in 102 patients,” Eur. Heart J. 23(21), 1714–1725 (2002).

Heart (1)

K. Norozi, L. Thrane, J. Männer, F. Pedersen, I. Wolf, S. Mottl-Link, H. P. Meinzer, A. Wessel, and T. M. Yelbuz, “In vivo visualisation of coronary artery development by high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Heart 94(2), 130 (2008).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054001 (2005).
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I. V. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. V. Larin, and M. E. Dickinson, “Live imaging of blood flow in mammalian embryos using Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 060506 (2008).
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M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 030505 (2007).
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R. Yelin, D. Yelin, W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Multimodality optical imaging of embryonic heart microstructure,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064021 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Biol. (1)

J. L. Lucitti, K. Tobita, and B. B. Keller, “Arterial hemodynamics and mechanical properties after circulatory intervention in the chick embryo,” J. Exp. Biol. 208(10), 1877–1885 (2005).
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M. Kachelrieß, D.-A. Sennst, W. Maxlmoser, and W. A. Kalender, “Kymogram detection and kymogram-correlated image reconstruction from subsecond spiral computed tomography scans of the heart,” Med. Phys. 29(7), 1489–1503 (2002).
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Nature (1)

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S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. P. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
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S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94(9), 4256–4261 (1997).
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Supplementary Material (5)

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