Abstract

We theoretically investigate the properties of absorption switches for metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) plasmonic waveguides. We show that a MDM waveguide directly coupled to a cavity filled with an active material with tunable absorption coefficient can act as an absorption switch, in which the on/off states correspond to the absence/presence of optical pumping. We also show that a MDM plasmonic waveguide side-coupled to a cavity filled with an active material can operate as an absorption switch, in which the on/off states correspond to the presence/absence of pumping. For a specific modulation depth, the side-coupled-cavity switch results in more compact designs compared to the direct-coupled-cavity switch. Variations in the imaginary part of the refractive index of the material filling the cavity of Δκ = 0.01 (Δκ = 0.15) result in ~60% (~99%) modulation depth. The properties of both switches can be accurately described using transmission line theory.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: fundamentals and applications, (Springer, New York, 2007).
  5. H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–63 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. V. Krasavin and N. I. Zheludev, “Active plasmonics: Controlling signals in Au/Ga waveguide using nanoscale structural transformations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1416–1418 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. A. Wurtz and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 125–135 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Min, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Deng, Y. Lu, H. Ming, T. Ning, Y. Zhou, and G. Yang, “All-optical switching in subwavelength metallic grating structure containing nonlinear optical materials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 869–871 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic Modulation in Thin Film Barium Titanate Plasmonic Interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4058–4052 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Gain-induced switching in metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041117 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, “A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1506–1510 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, L. A. Sweatlock, C. D. Ruiter, V. Ferry, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical plasmonic modulators and interconnects,” in Plasmonic nanoguides and circuits, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, ed. (World Scientific, 2009).
  18. J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(12), 2442–2446 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in subwavelength metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Hosseini and Y. Massoud, “Nanoscale surface plasmon based resonator using rectangular geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Matsuzaki, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and M. Nakagaki, “Characteristics of gap plasmon waveguide with stub structures,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16314–16325 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. X. S. Lin and X. G. Huang, “Tooth-shaped plasmonic waveguide filters with nanometeric sizes,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2874–2876 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, (Wiley, New York, 1998).
  27. E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. Veronis, and S. Fan, “Overview of Simulation Techniques for Plasmonic Devices,” in Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics, Mark L. Brongersma and Pieter G. Kik, ed. (Springer, 2007).
  29. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (Academic, New York, 1985).
  30. J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics, (Wiley, New York, 2002).
  31. S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery, and T. Van Duzer, Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics, (Wiley, New York, 1994).
  32. H. A. Haus and Y. Lai, “Narrow-band distributed feedback reflector design,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9(6), 754–760 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  33. H. A. Haus and Y. Lai, “Theory of Cascaded Quarter Wave Shifted Distributed Feedback Resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 205–213 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and J. Weiner, “Quantitative determination of optical transmission through subwavelength slit arrays in Ag films: Role of surface wave interference and local coupling between adjacent slits,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115411 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, L. A. Sweatlock, R. J. Walters, and H. A. Atwater, “Universal optical transmission features in periodic and quasiperiodic hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9222–9238 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. E. Kocabas, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Transmission line and equivalent circuit models for plasmonic waveguide components,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1462–1472 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  38. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15, 430–436 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, U. Koren, and B. I. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaAs/InP quantum wells grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(15), 1010 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  40. S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, and S. Fan, “Stopping and time reversing a light pulse using dynamic loss tuning of coupled-resonator delay lines,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3333–3335 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. A. Wurtz and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 125–135 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Min, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Deng, Y. Lu, H. Ming, T. Ning, Y. Zhou, and G. Yang, “All-optical switching in subwavelength metallic grating structure containing nonlinear optical materials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 869–871 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic Modulation in Thin Film Barium Titanate Plasmonic Interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4058–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Gain-induced switching in metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, “A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuzaki, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and M. Nakagaki, “Characteristics of gap plasmon waveguide with stub structures,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16314–16325 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Lin and X. G. Huang, “Tooth-shaped plasmonic waveguide filters with nanometeric sizes,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2874–2876 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and J. Weiner, “Quantitative determination of optical transmission through subwavelength slit arrays in Ag films: Role of surface wave interference and local coupling between adjacent slits,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, L. A. Sweatlock, R. J. Walters, and H. A. Atwater, “Universal optical transmission features in periodic and quasiperiodic hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9222–9238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Kocabas, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Transmission line and equivalent circuit models for plasmonic waveguide components,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1462–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15, 430–436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hosseini and Y. Massoud, “Nanoscale surface plasmon based resonator using rectangular geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, and S. Fan, “Stopping and time reversing a light pulse using dynamic loss tuning of coupled-resonator delay lines,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3333–3335 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–63 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in subwavelength metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(12), 2442–2446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and N. I. Zheludev, “Active plasmonics: Controlling signals in Au/Ga waveguide using nanoscale structural transformations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1416–1418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. A. Haus and Y. Lai, “Theory of Cascaded Quarter Wave Shifted Distributed Feedback Resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 205–213 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. A. Haus and Y. Lai, “Narrow-band distributed feedback reflector design,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9(6), 754–760 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, U. Koren, and B. I. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaAs/InP quantum wells grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(15), 1010 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1969

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic Modulation in Thin Film Barium Titanate Plasmonic Interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4058–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and J. Weiner, “Quantitative determination of optical transmission through subwavelength slit arrays in Ag films: Role of surface wave interference and local coupling between adjacent slits,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, L. A. Sweatlock, R. J. Walters, and H. A. Atwater, “Universal optical transmission features in periodic and quasiperiodic hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9222–9238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–63 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Joseph, I.

I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, U. Koren, and B. I. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaAs/InP quantum wells grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(15), 1010 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, K.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic Modulation in Thin Film Barium Titanate Plasmonic Interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4058–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, “A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Gain-induced switching in metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(12), 2442–2446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

Chandran, A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, U. Koren, and B. I. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaAs/InP quantum wells grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(15), 1010 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dicken, M. J.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic Modulation in Thin Film Barium Titanate Plasmonic Interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4058–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dickson, W.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P. R.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Gain-induced switching in metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Kocabas, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Transmission line and equivalent circuit models for plasmonic waveguide components,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1462–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, and S. Fan, “Stopping and time reversing a light pulse using dynamic loss tuning of coupled-resonator delay lines,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3333–3335 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in subwavelength metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferrell, T. L.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, M.

Goudonnet, J.-P.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haraguchi, M.

Harel, E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus and Y. Lai, “Theory of Cascaded Quarter Wave Shifted Distributed Feedback Resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 205–213 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus and Y. Lai, “Narrow-band distributed feedback reflector design,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9(6), 754–760 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, A.

A. Hosseini and Y. Massoud, “Nanoscale surface plasmon based resonator using rectangular geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. G.

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klingshirn, C.

I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, U. Koren, and B. I. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaAs/InP quantum wells grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(15), 1010 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kocabas, S. E.

S. E. Kocabas, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Transmission line and equivalent circuit models for plasmonic waveguide components,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1462–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koel, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koren, U.

I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, U. Koren, and B. I. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaAs/InP quantum wells grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(15), 1010 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Krasavin, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin and N. I. Zheludev, “Active plasmonics: Controlling signals in Au/Ga waveguide using nanoscale structural transformations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1416–1418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

H. A. Haus and Y. Lai, “Theory of Cascaded Quarter Wave Shifted Distributed Feedback Resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 205–213 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus and Y. Lai, “Narrow-band distributed feedback reflector design,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9(6), 754–760 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamprecht, B.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lereu, A. L.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic Modulation in Thin Film Barium Titanate Plasmonic Interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4058–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and J. Weiner, “Quantitative determination of optical transmission through subwavelength slit arrays in Ag films: Role of surface wave interference and local coupling between adjacent slits,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, L. A. Sweatlock, R. J. Walters, and H. A. Atwater, “Universal optical transmission features in periodic and quasiperiodic hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9222–9238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. S.

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

MacDonald, K. F.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manipatruni, S.

Massoud, Y.

A. Hosseini and Y. Massoud, “Nanoscale surface plasmon based resonator using rectangular geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsuzaki, Y.

Melosh, N. A.

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, “A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B. I.

I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, U. Koren, and B. I. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaAs/InP quantum wells grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(15), 1010 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

S. E. Kocabas, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Transmission line and equivalent circuit models for plasmonic waveguide components,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1462–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, U. Koren, and B. I. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaAs/InP quantum wells grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(15), 1010 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Min, C.

Ming, H.

Nakagaki, M.

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ning, T.

Okamoto, T.

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacifici, D.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic Modulation in Thin Film Barium Titanate Plasmonic Interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4058–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and J. Weiner, “Quantitative determination of optical transmission through subwavelength slit arrays in Ag films: Role of surface wave interference and local coupling between adjacent slits,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, L. A. Sweatlock, R. J. Walters, and H. A. Atwater, “Universal optical transmission features in periodic and quasiperiodic hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9222–9238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pala, R. A.

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, “A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passian, A.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pollard, R. J.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Povinelli, M. L.

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salerno, M.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sámson, Z. L.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, S.

Schider, G.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Selker, M. D.

Shakya, J.

Shimizu, K. T.

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, “A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, L. A. Sweatlock, R. J. Walters, and H. A. Atwater, “Universal optical transmission features in periodic and quasiperiodic hole arrays,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9222–9238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic Modulation in Thin Film Barium Titanate Plasmonic Interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4058–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thundat, T.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Gain-induced switching in metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Kocabas, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Transmission line and equivalent circuit models for plasmonic waveguide components,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1462–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in subwavelength metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walters, R. J.

Wang, P.

Weiner, J.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and J. Weiner, “Quantitative determination of optical transmission through subwavelength slit arrays in Ag films: Role of surface wave interference and local coupling between adjacent slits,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G. A.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Wurtz and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 125–135 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yang, G.

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Gain-induced switching in metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Wurtz and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 125–135 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and N. I. Zheludev, “Active plasmonics: Controlling signals in Au/Ga waveguide using nanoscale structural transformations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1416–1418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(12), 2442–2446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. V. Krasavin and N. I. Zheludev, “Active plasmonics: Controlling signals in Au/Ga waveguide using nanoscale structural transformations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1416–1418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J.-P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Gain-induced switching in metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in subwavelength metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini and Y. Massoud, “Nanoscale surface plasmon based resonator using rectangular geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Bar-Joseph, C. Klingshirn, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, U. Koren, and B. I. Miller, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaAs/InP quantum wells grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(15), 1010 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

H. A. Haus and Y. Lai, “Narrow-band distributed feedback reflector design,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9(6), 754–760 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. A. Haus and Y. Lai, “Theory of Cascaded Quarter Wave Shifted Distributed Feedback Resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 205–213 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. E. Kocabas, G. Veronis, D. A. B. Miller, and S. Fan, “Transmission line and equivalent circuit models for plasmonic waveguide components,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1462–1472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Laser Photon. Rev.

G. A. Wurtz and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 125–135 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic Modulation in Thin Film Barium Titanate Plasmonic Interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4058–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, “A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and J. Weiner, “Quantitative determination of optical transmission through subwavelength slit arrays in Ag films: Role of surface wave interference and local coupling between adjacent slits,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am.

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–63 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: fundamentals and applications, (Springer, New York, 2007).

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, L. A. Sweatlock, C. D. Ruiter, V. Ferry, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical plasmonic modulators and interconnects,” in Plasmonic nanoguides and circuits, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, ed. (World Scientific, 2009).

D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, (Wiley, New York, 1998).

G. Veronis, and S. Fan, “Overview of Simulation Techniques for Plasmonic Devices,” in Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics, Mark L. Brongersma and Pieter G. Kik, ed. (Springer, 2007).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (Academic, New York, 1985).

J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics, (Wiley, New York, 2002).

S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery, and T. Van Duzer, Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics, (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a switch consisting of a silver-air-silver MDM plasmonic waveguide directly coupled to a cavity filled with a material with refractive index n = 2.02 + iκ. The imaginary part κ of the refractive index can be modified with an external control beam. (b) Transmission of the switch as a function of the length L of the cavity at λ 0 = 1.55μm in the absence of pumping (κ = 0) calculated using FDFD. Results are shown for w 0 = 50nm. (c) Same as (b), except that there is pumping of the material filling the cavity (κ = 1). (d) Modulation depth of the switch T(κ = 0)/T(κ = 1) as a function of L calculated using FDFD (dots). We also show the modulation depth calculated using transmission line theory (solid line). All other parameters are as in (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of a switch consisting of a silver-air-silver MDM plasmonic waveguide side-coupled to a cavity filled with an absorbing material as in Fig. 1(a). (b) Transmission spectra of the switch calculated using FDFD. Results are shown for w = 50nm, L = 120nm, κ = 0 (black curve), w = 50nm, L = 405nm, κ = 0 (red curve), w = 200nm, L = 175nm, κ = 0 (green curve), and w = 50nm, L = 120nm, κ = 0.1 (blue curve). All other parameters are as in Fig. 1(b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Modulation depth T(κ = 1)/T(κ = 0) of the side-coupled-cavity switch (Fig. 2(a)) as a function of the stub length L calculated using FDFD (black curve), and transmission line theory (red curve). Results are shown for w = 50nm. All other parameters are as in Fig. 2(b). (b) Magnetic field profile of the switch for L = 120nm in the absence of pumping (κ = 0). All other parameters are as in (a). (c) Magnetic field profile of the switch in the presence of pumping (κ = 1). All other parameters are as in (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modulation depth T(κ = 1)/T(κ = 0) (black curve) and insertion loss (red curve) of the side-coupled-cavity switch (Fig. 2(a)) as a function of the stub width w. For each stub width w, the stub length L is equal to the first resonant length of the cavity. All other parameters are as in Fig. 2(b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Modulation depth T(κ)/T(κ = 0) of the side-coupled-cavity switch (Fig. 2(a)) as a function of the imaginary part κ of the refractive index. Results are shown for w = 300nm, L = 210nm. All other parameters are as in Fig. 2(b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Modulation depth T(κ = 1)/T(κ = 0) of the side-coupled-cavity switch (Fig. 2(a)) as a function of wavelength. All other parameters are as in Fig. 5.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Zi=γijωεiwi,i=1,2
T=|cosh(γ2L)+12(Z1Z2+Z2Z1)sinh(γ2L)|2.
T=|1+Z22Z1tanh(γ2L)|2
T(ω)(ωω0)2+(ω02Q0)2(ωω0)2+(ω02Q0+ω02Qe)2,
Q0=ω02α2vg , Qe=Z1Z2ω0LNvg ,
T(ω0)(rr+1)2,r=QeQ0=Z1Z22α2LN

Metrics