Abstract

A spectroscopic technique based on a full four port modeling and measurement is developed and utilized to study a tapered- fiber photonic crystal waveguide coupler. The coupler is made by directly situating the tapered fiber on the defect region of a silicon membrane photonic crystal waveguide. The waveguide is lithographically terminated resulting a Fabry- Perot cavity. It turns out that the line-shape of the resonances is not merely a Lorentzian but can be constructed from that of the unloaded waveguide resonator. By knowing how the resonances broaden the experimental data is then fit and the coupling efficiency is extracted for the entire spectrum.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Joannopoulos, P. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light," Nature 386,143-149 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Krauss, "Planar photonic crystal waveguide devices for integrated optics," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 197, 688-702 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Kuang, C. Kim, A. Stapleton, and J. O’Brien, "Grating-assisted coupling of optical fibers and photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 27, 1602-1606 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, "Design of photonic crystal waveguide for evanescent coupling to optical fiber tapers and integration with high-Q cavities," Opt. Express 20, 2274-2284 (2003).
  5. P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter "Efficient input and output fiber coupling to a photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Lett. 29, 697-699 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I.-K. Hwang, G.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, "Optimization of coupling between photonic crystal resonators and curved microfiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 131-136 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Lee, C . Grillet, C . Poulton, C. Monat, C . Smith, E. Magi, D . Freeman, S . Madden, B. Luther-Davis, and B . Eggleton, "Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an extended k-space evanescent coupling technique," Opt. Express 16, 13800-13808 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Love,W. Henry,W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier,"Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. 138, 343-354 (1991).
  9. R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, J. Love, "Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part2: Experimental and theoretical qualification," IEE Proc. J. 138, 355-364 (1991).
  10. F. Sanchez, "Matrix algebra for all-fiber optical resonators," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 838-844 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of optical waveguides (Academic Press, 2000)
  12. V. Cooper, "Analysis of Fabry-Perot interferograms by means of their Fourier transforms," Appl. Opt. 10, 525-530 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Hakki, T. Paoli, "Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers," Appl. Phys. 46, 1299-1306 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Natomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, " Extremely large group velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett.  87, 253902-1-253902-3 (2001).
  15. A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O’Brien, L. O’Faolain, A. Miller and T. Krauss, "Direct measurement of the group index of photonic crystal waveguides via Fourier transform spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 261107-1-261107-3 (2007).

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

I.-K. Hwang, G.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, "Optimization of coupling between photonic crystal resonators and curved microfiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 131-136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

T. Krauss, "Planar photonic crystal waveguide devices for integrated optics," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 197, 688-702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, "Design of photonic crystal waveguide for evanescent coupling to optical fiber tapers and integration with high-Q cavities," Opt. Express 20, 2274-2284 (2003).

2002 (1)

W. Kuang, C. Kim, A. Stapleton, and J. O’Brien, "Grating-assisted coupling of optical fibers and photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 27, 1602-1606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Joannopoulos, P. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light," Nature 386,143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

J. Love,W. Henry,W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier,"Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. 138, 343-354 (1991).

R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, J. Love, "Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part2: Experimental and theoretical qualification," IEE Proc. J. 138, 355-364 (1991).

F. Sanchez, "Matrix algebra for all-fiber optical resonators," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 838-844 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

B. Hakki, T. Paoli, "Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers," Appl. Phys. 46, 1299-1306 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

Barclay, P.

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter "Efficient input and output fiber coupling to a photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Lett. 29, 697-699 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, "Design of photonic crystal waveguide for evanescent coupling to optical fiber tapers and integration with high-Q cavities," Opt. Express 20, 2274-2284 (2003).

Black, R.

J. Love,W. Henry,W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier,"Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. 138, 343-354 (1991).

R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, J. Love, "Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part2: Experimental and theoretical qualification," IEE Proc. J. 138, 355-364 (1991).

Borselli, M.

Cooper, V.

Eggleton, B

Fan, S.

J. Joannopoulos, P. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light," Nature 386,143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, D

Gonthier, F.

J. Love,W. Henry,W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier,"Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. 138, 343-354 (1991).

R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, J. Love, "Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part2: Experimental and theoretical qualification," IEE Proc. J. 138, 355-364 (1991).

Grillet, C

Hakki, B.

B. Hakki, T. Paoli, "Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers," Appl. Phys. 46, 1299-1306 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Henry, W.

J. Love,W. Henry,W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier,"Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. 138, 343-354 (1991).

Hwang, I.-K.

I.-K. Hwang, G.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, "Optimization of coupling between photonic crystal resonators and curved microfiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 131-136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J.

J. Joannopoulos, P. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light," Nature 386,143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

W. Kuang, C. Kim, A. Stapleton, and J. O’Brien, "Grating-assisted coupling of optical fibers and photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 27, 1602-1606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-H.

I.-K. Hwang, G.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, "Optimization of coupling between photonic crystal resonators and curved microfiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 131-136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T.

T. Krauss, "Planar photonic crystal waveguide devices for integrated optics," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 197, 688-702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, W.

W. Kuang, C. Kim, A. Stapleton, and J. O’Brien, "Grating-assisted coupling of optical fibers and photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 27, 1602-1606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, S.

J. Love,W. Henry,W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier,"Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. 138, 343-354 (1991).

R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, J. Love, "Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part2: Experimental and theoretical qualification," IEE Proc. J. 138, 355-364 (1991).

Lee, M.

Lee, Y.-H.

I.-K. Hwang, G.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, "Optimization of coupling between photonic crystal resonators and curved microfiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 131-136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Love, J.

J. Love,W. Henry,W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier,"Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. 138, 343-354 (1991).

R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, J. Love, "Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part2: Experimental and theoretical qualification," IEE Proc. J. 138, 355-364 (1991).

Luther-Davis, B.

Madden, S

Magi, E.

Monat, C.

O’Brien, J.

W. Kuang, C. Kim, A. Stapleton, and J. O’Brien, "Grating-assisted coupling of optical fibers and photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 27, 1602-1606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter "Efficient input and output fiber coupling to a photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Lett. 29, 697-699 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, "Design of photonic crystal waveguide for evanescent coupling to optical fiber tapers and integration with high-Q cavities," Opt. Express 20, 2274-2284 (2003).

Paoli, T.

B. Hakki, T. Paoli, "Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers," Appl. Phys. 46, 1299-1306 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C

Sanchez, F.

F. Sanchez, "Matrix algebra for all-fiber optical resonators," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 838-844 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C

Srinivasan, K.

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter "Efficient input and output fiber coupling to a photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Lett. 29, 697-699 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, "Design of photonic crystal waveguide for evanescent coupling to optical fiber tapers and integration with high-Q cavities," Opt. Express 20, 2274-2284 (2003).

Stapleton, A.

W. Kuang, C. Kim, A. Stapleton, and J. O’Brien, "Grating-assisted coupling of optical fibers and photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 27, 1602-1606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W.

J. Love,W. Henry,W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier,"Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. 138, 343-354 (1991).

Villeneuve, P.

J. Joannopoulos, P. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light," Nature 386,143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Hakki, T. Paoli, "Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers," Appl. Phys. 46, 1299-1306 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. J. (2)

J. Love,W. Henry,W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier,"Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. 138, 343-354 (1991).

R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, J. Love, "Tapered single-mode fibers and devices; Part2: Experimental and theoretical qualification," IEE Proc. J. 138, 355-364 (1991).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I.-K. Hwang, G.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, "Optimization of coupling between photonic crystal resonators and curved microfiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 131-136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

F. Sanchez, "Matrix algebra for all-fiber optical resonators," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 838-844 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Joannopoulos, P. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light," Nature 386,143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, "Design of photonic crystal waveguide for evanescent coupling to optical fiber tapers and integration with high-Q cavities," Opt. Express 20, 2274-2284 (2003).

M. Lee, C . Grillet, C . Poulton, C. Monat, C . Smith, E. Magi, D . Freeman, S . Madden, B. Luther-Davis, and B . Eggleton, "Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an extended k-space evanescent coupling technique," Opt. Express 16, 13800-13808 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter "Efficient input and output fiber coupling to a photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Lett. 29, 697-699 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Kuang, C. Kim, A. Stapleton, and J. O’Brien, "Grating-assisted coupling of optical fibers and photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 27, 1602-1606 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) (1)

T. Krauss, "Planar photonic crystal waveguide devices for integrated optics," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 197, 688-702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of optical waveguides (Academic Press, 2000)

M. Natomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, " Extremely large group velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett.  87, 253902-1-253902-3 (2001).

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O’Brien, L. O’Faolain, A. Miller and T. Krauss, "Direct measurement of the group index of photonic crystal waveguides via Fourier transform spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 261107-1-261107-3 (2007).

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