Abstract

Optical transmission measurements were made on 98% porosity silica aerogel samples under various degrees of uniaxial strain. Uniaxially compressed aerogels exhibit large birefringence, proportional to the amount of compression, up to the 15% strain studied. The birefringence is mostly reversible and reproducible through multiple compression-decompression cycles. Our study demonstrates that uniaxially strained high porosity aerogels can be used as tunable waveplates in a broad spectral range.

© 2009 OSA

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2009

W.P. Halperin, H. Choi, J. P. Davis, and J. Pollanen, “Impurity effects of aerogel in superfluid 3He,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 111002 1–6 (2009).

2008

J. Pollanen, K. R. Shirer, S. Blinstein, J. P. Davis, H. Choi, T. M. Lippman, W. P. Halperin, and L. B. Lurio, “Globally anisotropic high porosity silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(40-41), 4668–4674 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. L. Vicente, H. C. Choi, J. S. Xia, W. P. Halperin, N. Mulders, and Y. Lee, “A-B transition of superfluid 3He in aerogel and the effect of anisotropic scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 094519 (2005).

2002

M. Reim, A. Beck, W. Körner, R. Petricevic, M. Glora, M. Weth, T. Schliermann, J. Fricke, Ch. Schmidt, and F. J. Pötter, “Highly insulating aerogel glazing for solar energy usage,” Sol. Energy 72(1), 21–29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. I. Merzbacher, S. R. Meier, J. R. Pierce, and M. L. Korwin, “Carbon aerogels as broadband non-reflective materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285(1-3), 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Venkateswara Rao, G. M. Pajonk, D. Haranath, and P. B. Wagh, “Effect of sol-gel processing parameters on optical properties of TMOS silica aerogels,” J. Mater. Synth. Process. 6(1), 37–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Chan, N. Mulders, and J. Reppy, “Helium in aerogel,” Phys. Today 49(8), 30–38 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. Fricke and A. Emmerling, “Aerogels—Preparation, properties, applications,” Struct. Bonding 77, 37–87 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, W. Körner, A. Emmerling, A. Beck, J. Kuhn, and J. Fricke, “Optical investigations of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 141–145 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Tillotson and L. W. Hrubesh, “Transparent ultralow-density silica aerogels prepared by a two-step sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 44–50 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. Gross, G. Reichenauer, and J. Fricke, “Mechanical properties of SiO2 aerogels,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 21(9), 1447–1451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Büttner, R. Caps, U. Heinemann, E. Hümmer, A. Kadur, and J. Fricke, “Thermal loss coefficients of low-density silica aerogel tiles,” Sol. Energy 40(1), 13–15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Fricke, Sci. Am. 258, 92 (1988).

1984

1975

D. Stroud, “Generalized effective-medium approach to the conductivity of an inhomogeneous material,” Phys. Rev. B 12(8), 3368–3373 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

M. Cantin, M. Casse, L. Koch, R. Jouan, P. Mestreau, D. Roussel, F. Bonnin, J. Moutel, and S. J. Teichner, “Silica aerogels used as Cherenkov radiators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 118(1), 177–182 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1945

J. A. Osborn, “Demagnetizing factors of the general ellipsoid,” Phys. Rev. 67(11-12), 351–357 (1945).
[CrossRef]

1931

S. S. Kistler, “Coherent expanded aerogels and jellies,” Nature 127(3211), 741 (1931).
[CrossRef]

1871

W. Sellmeier, Annalen der Physik und Chemie 143, 271 (1871).

Beck, A.

M. Reim, A. Beck, W. Körner, R. Petricevic, M. Glora, M. Weth, T. Schliermann, J. Fricke, Ch. Schmidt, and F. J. Pötter, “Highly insulating aerogel glazing for solar energy usage,” Sol. Energy 72(1), 21–29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, W. Körner, A. Emmerling, A. Beck, J. Kuhn, and J. Fricke, “Optical investigations of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 141–145 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Blinstein, S.

J. Pollanen, K. R. Shirer, S. Blinstein, J. P. Davis, H. Choi, T. M. Lippman, W. P. Halperin, and L. B. Lurio, “Globally anisotropic high porosity silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(40-41), 4668–4674 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonnin, F.

M. Cantin, M. Casse, L. Koch, R. Jouan, P. Mestreau, D. Roussel, F. Bonnin, J. Moutel, and S. J. Teichner, “Silica aerogels used as Cherenkov radiators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 118(1), 177–182 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Büttner, D.

D. Büttner, R. Caps, U. Heinemann, E. Hümmer, A. Kadur, and J. Fricke, “Thermal loss coefficients of low-density silica aerogel tiles,” Sol. Energy 40(1), 13–15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cantin, M.

M. Cantin, M. Casse, L. Koch, R. Jouan, P. Mestreau, D. Roussel, F. Bonnin, J. Moutel, and S. J. Teichner, “Silica aerogels used as Cherenkov radiators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 118(1), 177–182 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Caps, R.

D. Büttner, R. Caps, U. Heinemann, E. Hümmer, A. Kadur, and J. Fricke, “Thermal loss coefficients of low-density silica aerogel tiles,” Sol. Energy 40(1), 13–15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Casse, M.

M. Cantin, M. Casse, L. Koch, R. Jouan, P. Mestreau, D. Roussel, F. Bonnin, J. Moutel, and S. J. Teichner, “Silica aerogels used as Cherenkov radiators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 118(1), 177–182 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chan, M.

M. Chan, N. Mulders, and J. Reppy, “Helium in aerogel,” Phys. Today 49(8), 30–38 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

W.P. Halperin, H. Choi, J. P. Davis, and J. Pollanen, “Impurity effects of aerogel in superfluid 3He,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 111002 1–6 (2009).

J. Pollanen, K. R. Shirer, S. Blinstein, J. P. Davis, H. Choi, T. M. Lippman, W. P. Halperin, and L. B. Lurio, “Globally anisotropic high porosity silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(40-41), 4668–4674 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. C.

C. L. Vicente, H. C. Choi, J. S. Xia, W. P. Halperin, N. Mulders, and Y. Lee, “A-B transition of superfluid 3He in aerogel and the effect of anisotropic scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 094519 (2005).

Davis, J. P.

W.P. Halperin, H. Choi, J. P. Davis, and J. Pollanen, “Impurity effects of aerogel in superfluid 3He,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 111002 1–6 (2009).

J. Pollanen, K. R. Shirer, S. Blinstein, J. P. Davis, H. Choi, T. M. Lippman, W. P. Halperin, and L. B. Lurio, “Globally anisotropic high porosity silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(40-41), 4668–4674 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Efron, U.

Emmerling, A.

J. Fricke and A. Emmerling, “Aerogels—Preparation, properties, applications,” Struct. Bonding 77, 37–87 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, W. Körner, A. Emmerling, A. Beck, J. Kuhn, and J. Fricke, “Optical investigations of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 141–145 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fricke, J.

M. Reim, A. Beck, W. Körner, R. Petricevic, M. Glora, M. Weth, T. Schliermann, J. Fricke, Ch. Schmidt, and F. J. Pötter, “Highly insulating aerogel glazing for solar energy usage,” Sol. Energy 72(1), 21–29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, W. Körner, A. Emmerling, A. Beck, J. Kuhn, and J. Fricke, “Optical investigations of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 141–145 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Fricke and A. Emmerling, “Aerogels—Preparation, properties, applications,” Struct. Bonding 77, 37–87 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Fricke, Sci. Am. 258, 92 (1988).

J. Gross, G. Reichenauer, and J. Fricke, “Mechanical properties of SiO2 aerogels,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 21(9), 1447–1451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Büttner, R. Caps, U. Heinemann, E. Hümmer, A. Kadur, and J. Fricke, “Thermal loss coefficients of low-density silica aerogel tiles,” Sol. Energy 40(1), 13–15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Glora, M.

M. Reim, A. Beck, W. Körner, R. Petricevic, M. Glora, M. Weth, T. Schliermann, J. Fricke, Ch. Schmidt, and F. J. Pötter, “Highly insulating aerogel glazing for solar energy usage,” Sol. Energy 72(1), 21–29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gross, J.

J. Gross, G. Reichenauer, and J. Fricke, “Mechanical properties of SiO2 aerogels,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 21(9), 1447–1451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Halperin, W. P.

J. Pollanen, K. R. Shirer, S. Blinstein, J. P. Davis, H. Choi, T. M. Lippman, W. P. Halperin, and L. B. Lurio, “Globally anisotropic high porosity silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(40-41), 4668–4674 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Vicente, H. C. Choi, J. S. Xia, W. P. Halperin, N. Mulders, and Y. Lee, “A-B transition of superfluid 3He in aerogel and the effect of anisotropic scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 094519 (2005).

Halperin, W.P.

W.P. Halperin, H. Choi, J. P. Davis, and J. Pollanen, “Impurity effects of aerogel in superfluid 3He,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 111002 1–6 (2009).

Haranath, D.

A. Venkateswara Rao, G. M. Pajonk, D. Haranath, and P. B. Wagh, “Effect of sol-gel processing parameters on optical properties of TMOS silica aerogels,” J. Mater. Synth. Process. 6(1), 37–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heinemann, U.

D. Büttner, R. Caps, U. Heinemann, E. Hümmer, A. Kadur, and J. Fricke, “Thermal loss coefficients of low-density silica aerogel tiles,” Sol. Energy 40(1), 13–15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hess, L. D.

Hrubesh, L. W.

T. M. Tillotson and L. W. Hrubesh, “Transparent ultralow-density silica aerogels prepared by a two-step sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 44–50 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hümmer, E.

D. Büttner, R. Caps, U. Heinemann, E. Hümmer, A. Kadur, and J. Fricke, “Thermal loss coefficients of low-density silica aerogel tiles,” Sol. Energy 40(1), 13–15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jouan, R.

M. Cantin, M. Casse, L. Koch, R. Jouan, P. Mestreau, D. Roussel, F. Bonnin, J. Moutel, and S. J. Teichner, “Silica aerogels used as Cherenkov radiators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 118(1), 177–182 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kadur, A.

D. Büttner, R. Caps, U. Heinemann, E. Hümmer, A. Kadur, and J. Fricke, “Thermal loss coefficients of low-density silica aerogel tiles,” Sol. Energy 40(1), 13–15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kistler, S. S.

S. S. Kistler, “Coherent expanded aerogels and jellies,” Nature 127(3211), 741 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Koch, L.

M. Cantin, M. Casse, L. Koch, R. Jouan, P. Mestreau, D. Roussel, F. Bonnin, J. Moutel, and S. J. Teichner, “Silica aerogels used as Cherenkov radiators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 118(1), 177–182 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Körner, W.

M. Reim, A. Beck, W. Körner, R. Petricevic, M. Glora, M. Weth, T. Schliermann, J. Fricke, Ch. Schmidt, and F. J. Pötter, “Highly insulating aerogel glazing for solar energy usage,” Sol. Energy 72(1), 21–29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, W. Körner, A. Emmerling, A. Beck, J. Kuhn, and J. Fricke, “Optical investigations of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 141–145 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Korwin, M. L.

C. I. Merzbacher, S. R. Meier, J. R. Pierce, and M. L. Korwin, “Carbon aerogels as broadband non-reflective materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285(1-3), 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, J.

P. Wang, W. Körner, A. Emmerling, A. Beck, J. Kuhn, and J. Fricke, “Optical investigations of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 141–145 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

C. L. Vicente, H. C. Choi, J. S. Xia, W. P. Halperin, N. Mulders, and Y. Lee, “A-B transition of superfluid 3He in aerogel and the effect of anisotropic scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 094519 (2005).

Lippman, T. M.

J. Pollanen, K. R. Shirer, S. Blinstein, J. P. Davis, H. Choi, T. M. Lippman, W. P. Halperin, and L. B. Lurio, “Globally anisotropic high porosity silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(40-41), 4668–4674 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lurio, L. B.

J. Pollanen, K. R. Shirer, S. Blinstein, J. P. Davis, H. Choi, T. M. Lippman, W. P. Halperin, and L. B. Lurio, “Globally anisotropic high porosity silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(40-41), 4668–4674 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meier, S. R.

C. I. Merzbacher, S. R. Meier, J. R. Pierce, and M. L. Korwin, “Carbon aerogels as broadband non-reflective materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285(1-3), 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Merzbacher, C. I.

C. I. Merzbacher, S. R. Meier, J. R. Pierce, and M. L. Korwin, “Carbon aerogels as broadband non-reflective materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285(1-3), 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mestreau, P.

M. Cantin, M. Casse, L. Koch, R. Jouan, P. Mestreau, D. Roussel, F. Bonnin, J. Moutel, and S. J. Teichner, “Silica aerogels used as Cherenkov radiators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 118(1), 177–182 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Moutel, J.

M. Cantin, M. Casse, L. Koch, R. Jouan, P. Mestreau, D. Roussel, F. Bonnin, J. Moutel, and S. J. Teichner, “Silica aerogels used as Cherenkov radiators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 118(1), 177–182 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mulders, N.

C. L. Vicente, H. C. Choi, J. S. Xia, W. P. Halperin, N. Mulders, and Y. Lee, “A-B transition of superfluid 3He in aerogel and the effect of anisotropic scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 094519 (2005).

M. Chan, N. Mulders, and J. Reppy, “Helium in aerogel,” Phys. Today 49(8), 30–38 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, J. A.

J. A. Osborn, “Demagnetizing factors of the general ellipsoid,” Phys. Rev. 67(11-12), 351–357 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Pajonk, G. M.

A. Venkateswara Rao, G. M. Pajonk, D. Haranath, and P. B. Wagh, “Effect of sol-gel processing parameters on optical properties of TMOS silica aerogels,” J. Mater. Synth. Process. 6(1), 37–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petricevic, R.

M. Reim, A. Beck, W. Körner, R. Petricevic, M. Glora, M. Weth, T. Schliermann, J. Fricke, Ch. Schmidt, and F. J. Pötter, “Highly insulating aerogel glazing for solar energy usage,” Sol. Energy 72(1), 21–29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, J. R.

C. I. Merzbacher, S. R. Meier, J. R. Pierce, and M. L. Korwin, “Carbon aerogels as broadband non-reflective materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285(1-3), 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pollanen, J.

W.P. Halperin, H. Choi, J. P. Davis, and J. Pollanen, “Impurity effects of aerogel in superfluid 3He,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 111002 1–6 (2009).

J. Pollanen, K. R. Shirer, S. Blinstein, J. P. Davis, H. Choi, T. M. Lippman, W. P. Halperin, and L. B. Lurio, “Globally anisotropic high porosity silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(40-41), 4668–4674 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pötter, F. J.

M. Reim, A. Beck, W. Körner, R. Petricevic, M. Glora, M. Weth, T. Schliermann, J. Fricke, Ch. Schmidt, and F. J. Pötter, “Highly insulating aerogel glazing for solar energy usage,” Sol. Energy 72(1), 21–29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reichenauer, G.

J. Gross, G. Reichenauer, and J. Fricke, “Mechanical properties of SiO2 aerogels,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 21(9), 1447–1451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reim, M.

M. Reim, A. Beck, W. Körner, R. Petricevic, M. Glora, M. Weth, T. Schliermann, J. Fricke, Ch. Schmidt, and F. J. Pötter, “Highly insulating aerogel glazing for solar energy usage,” Sol. Energy 72(1), 21–29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reppy, J.

M. Chan, N. Mulders, and J. Reppy, “Helium in aerogel,” Phys. Today 49(8), 30–38 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roussel, D.

M. Cantin, M. Casse, L. Koch, R. Jouan, P. Mestreau, D. Roussel, F. Bonnin, J. Moutel, and S. J. Teichner, “Silica aerogels used as Cherenkov radiators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 118(1), 177–182 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Schliermann, T.

M. Reim, A. Beck, W. Körner, R. Petricevic, M. Glora, M. Weth, T. Schliermann, J. Fricke, Ch. Schmidt, and F. J. Pötter, “Highly insulating aerogel glazing for solar energy usage,” Sol. Energy 72(1), 21–29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, Ch.

M. Reim, A. Beck, W. Körner, R. Petricevic, M. Glora, M. Weth, T. Schliermann, J. Fricke, Ch. Schmidt, and F. J. Pötter, “Highly insulating aerogel glazing for solar energy usage,” Sol. Energy 72(1), 21–29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sellmeier, W.

W. Sellmeier, Annalen der Physik und Chemie 143, 271 (1871).

Shirer, K. R.

J. Pollanen, K. R. Shirer, S. Blinstein, J. P. Davis, H. Choi, T. M. Lippman, W. P. Halperin, and L. B. Lurio, “Globally anisotropic high porosity silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(40-41), 4668–4674 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stroud, D.

D. Stroud, “Generalized effective-medium approach to the conductivity of an inhomogeneous material,” Phys. Rev. B 12(8), 3368–3373 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Teichner, S. J.

M. Cantin, M. Casse, L. Koch, R. Jouan, P. Mestreau, D. Roussel, F. Bonnin, J. Moutel, and S. J. Teichner, “Silica aerogels used as Cherenkov radiators,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 118(1), 177–182 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tillotson, T. M.

T. M. Tillotson and L. W. Hrubesh, “Transparent ultralow-density silica aerogels prepared by a two-step sol-gel process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 44–50 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswara Rao, A.

A. Venkateswara Rao, G. M. Pajonk, D. Haranath, and P. B. Wagh, “Effect of sol-gel processing parameters on optical properties of TMOS silica aerogels,” J. Mater. Synth. Process. 6(1), 37–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vicente, C. L.

C. L. Vicente, H. C. Choi, J. S. Xia, W. P. Halperin, N. Mulders, and Y. Lee, “A-B transition of superfluid 3He in aerogel and the effect of anisotropic scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 094519 (2005).

Wagh, P. B.

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J. Pollanen, K. R. Shirer, S. Blinstein, J. P. Davis, H. Choi, T. M. Lippman, W. P. Halperin, and L. B. Lurio, “Globally anisotropic high porosity silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(40-41), 4668–4674 (2008).
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W.P. Halperin, H. Choi, J. P. Davis, and J. Pollanen, “Impurity effects of aerogel in superfluid 3He,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 111002 1–6 (2009).

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C. L. Vicente, H. C. Choi, J. S. Xia, W. P. Halperin, N. Mulders, and Y. Lee, “A-B transition of superfluid 3He in aerogel and the effect of anisotropic scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 094519 (2005).

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