Abstract

In this paper, we report a linear polarization-discriminatory state inverter made of three-layer sculpture thin film fabricated by oblique angle deposition technique. The first and third layers are quarter-wave plates of zigzag structure and the middle of them is a circular Bragg reflector of left-handed helical structure. It is found that the normal incidence of P-polarized light on this polarization-discriminatory state inverter becomes the S-polarized light at output, while the incident S-polarized light of wavelength lying in the Bragg regime is reflected. The microstructure of the linear polarization-discriminatory state inverter is also investigated by using a scanning electron microscope.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. O. Young and J. Kowal, "Optically active fluorite films," Nature 183, 104-105 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, "Microfractography of thin films," Philips Tech. Rev. 27,87-91 (1966).
  3. K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "First thin film realization of a helicoidal bianisotropic medium," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2991-2993 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "Chiral sculptured thin films," Nature 384, 616 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Lakhtakia "Sculptured thin films: accomplishments and emerging uses," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 19, 427-434 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Lakhtakia and R. Messier, Sculptured Thin Films: Nanoengineered Morphology and Optics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. M. Pursel, M. W. Horn, M. C. Demirel, and A. Lakhtakia, "Growth of sculptured polymer submicron wire assemblies by vapor deposition," Polymer 46, 9544-9548 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115-1122 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S.-H. Woo and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical Anisotropy of Microstructure-Controlled TiO2 Films Fabricated by Glancing-Angle Deposition (GLAD)," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1199-1204 (2006).
  10. V. C. Venugopal and A. Lakhtakia, "Dielectric sculptured nematic thin films for rugate-like filters," Opt. Commun. 149, 217-222 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Wu, I. J. Hodgkinson, and A. Lakhtakia, "Circular polarization filters made of chiral sculptured thin films: experimental and simulation results," Opt. Eng. 39, 1863-1868 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Robbie and M. Brett, "Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460-1465 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. V. Popta, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Optical properties of porous helical thin films," Appl. Opt. 43,3632-3639 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Wideband circular polarization reflector fabricated by glancing angle deposition," Opt. Express 16, 5186-5192 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, H. Miguez, O. Toader, and S. John, "Optical properties of a three-dimensional silicon square spiral photonic crystal," Photon. 1, 37-42 (2003).
  16. S.R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, "Porous Broadband Antireflection Coating by Glancing Angle Deposition," Appl. Opt. 42, 4573-4579 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Lakhtakia, "On determining gas concentrations using thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium bilayers," Sens. Actuators B 52, 243-250 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. J. Steel, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Lakhtakia and M. W. McCall, "Simple expressions for Bragg reflection from axially excited chiral sculptured thin films," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1525-1535 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. W. McCall, "Axial electromagnetic wave propagation in inhomogeneous dielectrics," Math. Comput. Model. 34, 1483-1497 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Willey, New York, 1988).
  22. I. J. Hodgkinson, A. Lakhtakia, and Q. Wu, "Experimental realization of sculptured-thin-film polarization-discriminatory light-handedness inverters," Opt. Eng. 39, 2831-2834 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Lakhtakia, "Dielectric sculptured thin films for polarization-discriminatory handedness-inversion of circularly polarized light," Opt. Eng. 38, 1596-1602 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

S.-H. Woo and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical Anisotropy of Microstructure-Controlled TiO2 Films Fabricated by Glancing-Angle Deposition (GLAD)," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1199-1204 (2006).

J. J. Steel, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. M. Pursel, M. W. Horn, M. C. Demirel, and A. Lakhtakia, "Growth of sculptured polymer submicron wire assemblies by vapor deposition," Polymer 46, 9544-9548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, H. Miguez, O. Toader, and S. John, "Optical properties of a three-dimensional silicon square spiral photonic crystal," Photon. 1, 37-42 (2003).

S.R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, "Porous Broadband Antireflection Coating by Glancing Angle Deposition," Appl. Opt. 42, 4573-4579 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

A. Lakhtakia and M. W. McCall, "Simple expressions for Bragg reflection from axially excited chiral sculptured thin films," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1525-1535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia "Sculptured thin films: accomplishments and emerging uses," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 19, 427-434 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. W. McCall, "Axial electromagnetic wave propagation in inhomogeneous dielectrics," Math. Comput. Model. 34, 1483-1497 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

I. J. Hodgkinson, A. Lakhtakia, and Q. Wu, "Experimental realization of sculptured-thin-film polarization-discriminatory light-handedness inverters," Opt. Eng. 39, 2831-2834 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, I. J. Hodgkinson, and A. Lakhtakia, "Circular polarization filters made of chiral sculptured thin films: experimental and simulation results," Opt. Eng. 39, 1863-1868 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Lakhtakia, "Dielectric sculptured thin films for polarization-discriminatory handedness-inversion of circularly polarized light," Opt. Eng. 38, 1596-1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

A. Lakhtakia, "On determining gas concentrations using thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium bilayers," Sens. Actuators B 52, 243-250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115-1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Venugopal and A. Lakhtakia, "Dielectric sculptured nematic thin films for rugate-like filters," Opt. Commun. 149, 217-222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Robbie and M. Brett, "Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460-1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "Chiral sculptured thin films," Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "First thin film realization of a helicoidal bianisotropic medium," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2991-2993 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, "Microfractography of thin films," Philips Tech. Rev. 27,87-91 (1966).

1959 (1)

N. O. Young and J. Kowal, "Optically active fluorite films," Nature 183, 104-105 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M.

K. Robbie and M. Brett, "Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460-1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

J. J. Steel, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Popta, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Optical properties of porous helical thin films," Appl. Opt. 43,3632-3639 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, H. Miguez, O. Toader, and S. John, "Optical properties of a three-dimensional silicon square spiral photonic crystal," Photon. 1, 37-42 (2003).

S.R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, "Porous Broadband Antireflection Coating by Glancing Angle Deposition," Appl. Opt. 42, 4573-4579 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115-1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "Chiral sculptured thin films," Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "First thin film realization of a helicoidal bianisotropic medium," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2991-2993 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Demirel, M. C.

S. M. Pursel, M. W. Horn, M. C. Demirel, and A. Lakhtakia, "Growth of sculptured polymer submicron wire assemblies by vapor deposition," Polymer 46, 9544-9548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haanstra, H. B.

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, "Microfractography of thin films," Philips Tech. Rev. 27,87-91 (1966).

Hawkeye, M. M.

J. J. Steel, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkinson, I. J.

Q. Wu, I. J. Hodgkinson, and A. Lakhtakia, "Circular polarization filters made of chiral sculptured thin films: experimental and simulation results," Opt. Eng. 39, 1863-1868 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson, A. Lakhtakia, and Q. Wu, "Experimental realization of sculptured-thin-film polarization-discriminatory light-handedness inverters," Opt. Eng. 39, 2831-2834 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horn, M. W.

S. M. Pursel, M. W. Horn, M. C. Demirel, and A. Lakhtakia, "Growth of sculptured polymer submicron wire assemblies by vapor deposition," Polymer 46, 9544-9548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hwangbo, C. K.

Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Wideband circular polarization reflector fabricated by glancing angle deposition," Opt. Express 16, 5186-5192 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Woo and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical Anisotropy of Microstructure-Controlled TiO2 Films Fabricated by Glancing-Angle Deposition (GLAD)," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1199-1204 (2006).

John, S.

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, H. Miguez, O. Toader, and S. John, "Optical properties of a three-dimensional silicon square spiral photonic crystal," Photon. 1, 37-42 (2003).

Kennedy, S. R.

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, H. Miguez, O. Toader, and S. John, "Optical properties of a three-dimensional silicon square spiral photonic crystal," Photon. 1, 37-42 (2003).

Kennedy, S.R.

Kowal, J.

N. O. Young and J. Kowal, "Optically active fluorite films," Nature 183, 104-105 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Lakhtakia, A.

S. M. Pursel, M. W. Horn, M. C. Demirel, and A. Lakhtakia, "Growth of sculptured polymer submicron wire assemblies by vapor deposition," Polymer 46, 9544-9548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia "Sculptured thin films: accomplishments and emerging uses," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 19, 427-434 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia and M. W. McCall, "Simple expressions for Bragg reflection from axially excited chiral sculptured thin films," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1525-1535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson, A. Lakhtakia, and Q. Wu, "Experimental realization of sculptured-thin-film polarization-discriminatory light-handedness inverters," Opt. Eng. 39, 2831-2834 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, I. J. Hodgkinson, and A. Lakhtakia, "Circular polarization filters made of chiral sculptured thin films: experimental and simulation results," Opt. Eng. 39, 1863-1868 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, "Dielectric sculptured thin films for polarization-discriminatory handedness-inversion of circularly polarized light," Opt. Eng. 38, 1596-1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, "On determining gas concentrations using thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium bilayers," Sens. Actuators B 52, 243-250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Venugopal and A. Lakhtakia, "Dielectric sculptured nematic thin films for rugate-like filters," Opt. Commun. 149, 217-222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "Chiral sculptured thin films," Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "First thin film realization of a helicoidal bianisotropic medium," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2991-2993 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCall, M. W.

A. Lakhtakia and M. W. McCall, "Simple expressions for Bragg reflection from axially excited chiral sculptured thin films," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1525-1535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McCall, "Axial electromagnetic wave propagation in inhomogeneous dielectrics," Math. Comput. Model. 34, 1483-1497 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miguez, H.

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, H. Miguez, O. Toader, and S. John, "Optical properties of a three-dimensional silicon square spiral photonic crystal," Photon. 1, 37-42 (2003).

Nieuwenhuizen, J. M.

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, "Microfractography of thin films," Philips Tech. Rev. 27,87-91 (1966).

Park, Y. J.

Popta, A. V.

Pursel, S. M.

S. M. Pursel, M. W. Horn, M. C. Demirel, and A. Lakhtakia, "Growth of sculptured polymer submicron wire assemblies by vapor deposition," Polymer 46, 9544-9548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robbie, K.

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115-1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie and M. Brett, "Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460-1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "Chiral sculptured thin films," Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "First thin film realization of a helicoidal bianisotropic medium," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2991-2993 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sit, J. C.

J. J. Steel, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Popta, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Optical properties of porous helical thin films," Appl. Opt. 43,3632-3639 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115-1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sobahan, K. M. A.

Steel, J. J.

J. J. Steel, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toader, O.

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, H. Miguez, O. Toader, and S. John, "Optical properties of a three-dimensional silicon square spiral photonic crystal," Photon. 1, 37-42 (2003).

van Popta, A. C.

J. J. Steel, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Venugopal, V. C.

V. C. Venugopal and A. Lakhtakia, "Dielectric sculptured nematic thin films for rugate-like filters," Opt. Commun. 149, 217-222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woo, S.-H.

S.-H. Woo and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical Anisotropy of Microstructure-Controlled TiO2 Films Fabricated by Glancing-Angle Deposition (GLAD)," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1199-1204 (2006).

Wu, Q.

I. J. Hodgkinson, A. Lakhtakia, and Q. Wu, "Experimental realization of sculptured-thin-film polarization-discriminatory light-handedness inverters," Opt. Eng. 39, 2831-2834 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, I. J. Hodgkinson, and A. Lakhtakia, "Circular polarization filters made of chiral sculptured thin films: experimental and simulation results," Opt. Eng. 39, 1863-1868 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Young, N. O.

N. O. Young and J. Kowal, "Optically active fluorite films," Nature 183, 104-105 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

S.-H. Woo and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical Anisotropy of Microstructure-Controlled TiO2 Films Fabricated by Glancing-Angle Deposition (GLAD)," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1199-1204 (2006).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Lakhtakia and M. W. McCall, "Simple expressions for Bragg reflection from axially excited chiral sculptured thin films," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1525-1535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

K. Robbie and M. Brett, "Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460-1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "First thin film realization of a helicoidal bianisotropic medium," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2991-2993 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115-1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. C (1)

A. Lakhtakia "Sculptured thin films: accomplishments and emerging uses," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 19, 427-434 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Math. Comput. Model. (1)

M. W. McCall, "Axial electromagnetic wave propagation in inhomogeneous dielectrics," Math. Comput. Model. 34, 1483-1497 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "Chiral sculptured thin films," Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. O. Young and J. Kowal, "Optically active fluorite films," Nature 183, 104-105 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. C. Venugopal and A. Lakhtakia, "Dielectric sculptured nematic thin films for rugate-like filters," Opt. Commun. 149, 217-222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

Q. Wu, I. J. Hodgkinson, and A. Lakhtakia, "Circular polarization filters made of chiral sculptured thin films: experimental and simulation results," Opt. Eng. 39, 1863-1868 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson, A. Lakhtakia, and Q. Wu, "Experimental realization of sculptured-thin-film polarization-discriminatory light-handedness inverters," Opt. Eng. 39, 2831-2834 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, "Dielectric sculptured thin films for polarization-discriminatory handedness-inversion of circularly polarized light," Opt. Eng. 38, 1596-1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Philips Tech. Rev. (1)

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, "Microfractography of thin films," Philips Tech. Rev. 27,87-91 (1966).

Photon. (1)

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, H. Miguez, O. Toader, and S. John, "Optical properties of a three-dimensional silicon square spiral photonic crystal," Photon. 1, 37-42 (2003).

Polymer (1)

S. M. Pursel, M. W. Horn, M. C. Demirel, and A. Lakhtakia, "Growth of sculptured polymer submicron wire assemblies by vapor deposition," Polymer 46, 9544-9548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (2)

A. Lakhtakia, "On determining gas concentrations using thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium bilayers," Sens. Actuators B 52, 243-250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Steel, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sens. Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Willey, New York, 1988).

A. Lakhtakia and R. Messier, Sculptured Thin Films: Nanoengineered Morphology and Optics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of glancing angle deposition.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Circular Bragg reflector of 5 left-handed structural periods: (a) Cross-section SEM image and (b) transmittance spectra (TRCP, TLCP, and TRCP – TLCP).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Quarter-wave plate of zigzag structure: (a) Cross-section SEM image and (b) normalized intensity as a function of rotation angle.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Linear polarization-discriminatory state inverter of three-layer structure: (a) Cross-section SEM image, (b) measured transmittance spectra (TPS, TSP, TSS, and TPP), (c) measured and simulated selective transmittance spectra (TSP - TPS), and (d) simulated transmittance spectra (TPS, TSP, TSS, and TPP).

Equations (1)

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