Abstract

The laser induced predissociation dynamics of the B Rydberg state of CH3I following two-photon absorption of a pump pulse was studied with femtosecond pump-probe photoelectron imaging coupled with time-resolved mass spectroscopy. The predissociation lifetime was measured to be 1.55 ps induced by the crossing between the B state and the repulsive A-band. Two possible predissociation channels were observed originating from (a) direct coupling between the B state and the repulsive 3 Q 0 state and (b) a second crossing between the 3 Q 0 and 1 Q 1 states after the coupling between the B and 3 Q 0 states, respectively.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. H. Paik, I.-R. Lee, D.-S. Yang, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Electrons in finite-sized water cavities: hydration dynamics observed in real time,” Science 306(5696), 672–675 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. D. J. Donaldson, M. S. Child, and V. Vaida, “Surface crossings and predissociation dynamics of methyl iodide Rydberg states,” J. Chem. Phys. 88(12), 7410–7417 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. D. Scott, W. S. Felps, G. L. Findley, and S. P. McGlynn, “Molecular Rydberg transitions. XII. Magnetic circular dichroism of methyl iodide,” J. Chem. Phys. 68(10), 4678–4687 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Tsubouchi, C. A. de Lange, and T. Suzuki, “Femtosecond time-resolved charged particle imaging studies of the ultraviolet photodissociation of the NO dimer,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(22), 11728–11739 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. P. Zhong and A. H. Zewail, “Femtosecond Real-Time Probing of Reactions. 23. Studies of Temporal, Velocity, Angular, and State Dynamics from Transition States to Final Products by Femtosecond-Resolved Mass Spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(23), 4031–4058 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2008

W. M. Kwok, C. Ma, and D. L. Phillips, “A doorway state leads to photostability or triplet photodamage in thymine DNA,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5131–5139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

N. K. Schwalb and F. Temps, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation in guanosine is promoted by hydrogen bonding with cytidine,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(30), 9272–9273 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. de Nalda, J. G. Izquierdo, J. Durá, and L. Bañares, “Femtosecond multichannel photodissociation dynamics of CH3I from the A band by velocity map imaging,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wei, F. Zhang, Y. Wang, and B. Zhang, “Predissociation Dynamics of B State of Methyl Iodide with Femtosecond Pump-probe Technique,” Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 20(4), 419–424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Wang, S. Zhang, Z. Wei, Q. Zheng, and B. Zhang, “Br(2Pj) atom formation dynamics in ultraviolet photodissociation of tert-butyl bromide and iso-butyl bromide,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(18), 184307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Gessner, A. M. D. Lee, J. P. Shaffer, H. Reisler, S. V. Levchenko, A. I. Krylov, J. G. Underwood, H. Shi, A. L. East, D. M. Wardlaw, E. T. Chrysostom, C. C. Hayden, and A. Stolow, “Femtosecond multidimensional imaging of a molecular dissociation,” Science 311(5758), 219–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. R. Ashfold, N. H. Nahler, A. J. Orr-Ewing, O. P. J. Vieuxmaire, R. L. Toomes, T. N. Kitsopoulos, I. A. Garcia, D. A. Chestakov, S.-M. Wu, and D. H. Parker, “Imaging the dynamics of gas phase reactions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(1), 26–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, S. Yoon, D. B. Wandschneider, and R. A. Mathies, “Structural observation of the primary isomerization in vision with femtosecond-stimulated Raman,” Science 310(5750), 1006–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Stolow, A. E. Bragg, and D. M. Neumark, “Femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1719–1757 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Paik, I.-R. Lee, D.-S. Yang, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Electrons in finite-sized water cavities: hydration dynamics observed in real time,” Science 306(5696), 672–675 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rijs, M. H. M. Janssen, E. T. Chrysostom, and C. C. Hayden, “Femtosecond coincidence imaging of multichannel multiphoton dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, and L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299(5606), 536–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tsubouchi, C. A. de Lange, and T. Suzuki, “Femtosecond time-resolved charged particle imaging studies of the ultraviolet photodissociation of the NO dimer,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(22), 11728–11739 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: Atomic-Scale Dynamics of the Chemical Bond Using Ultrafast Lasers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39(15), 2586–2631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: Atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond,” J. Chem. Phys. A 104(24), 5660–5694 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, “Energy partitioning following photodissociation of methyl iodide in the A band: A velocity mapping study,” J. Chem. Phys. 110(2), 832–844 (1999) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. P. Zhong and A. H. Zewail, “Femtosecond Real-Time Probing of Reactions. 23. Studies of Temporal, Velocity, Angular, and State Dynamics from Transition States to Final Products by Femtosecond-Resolved Mass Spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(23), 4031–4058 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Baronavski and J. C. Owrutsky, “Vibronic dependence of the B state lifetimes of CH3I and CD3I using femtosecond photoionization spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 108(9), 3445–3452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. R. Johnson, C. Kittrell, P. B. Kelly, and J. L. Kinsey, “Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Dissociative Polyatomic Molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(19), 7743–7764 (1996) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardi, M. Olivucci, and M. A. Robb, “Potential energy surface crossings in organic photochemistry,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 25(5), 321–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. D. Hammerich, U. Manthe, R. Kosloff, H.-D. Meyer, and L. S. Cederbaum, “Time-dependent photodissociation of methyl iodide with five active modes,” J. Chem. Phys. 101(7), 5623–5646 (1994) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. R. Dobber, W. J. Buma, and C. A. de Lange, “Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy on nanosecond and picosecond time scales of Rydberg states of methyl iodide,” J. Chem. Phys. 99(2), 836–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Syage, “Predissociation lifetimes of the B and C Rydberg states of CH3I,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 212(1-2), 124–128 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

P. G. Wang and L. D. Ziegler, “Mode-specific subpicosecond photodissociation dynamics of the methyl iodide B state,” J. Chem. Phys. 95(1), 288–296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. J. Donaldson, M. S. Child, and V. Vaida, “Surface crossings and predissociation dynamics of methyl iodide Rydberg states,” J. Chem. Phys. 88(12), 7410–7417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Zewail, “Laser Femtochemistry,” Science 242(4886), 1645–1653 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

J. D. Scott, W. S. Felps, G. L. Findley, and S. P. McGlynn, “Molecular Rydberg transitions. XII. Magnetic circular dichroism of methyl iodide,” J. Chem. Phys. 68(10), 4678–4687 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971

F. Brogli and E. Heilbronner, “The Competition between Spin Orbit Coupling and Conjugation in Alkyl Halides and its Repercussion on their Photoelectron Spectra,” Helv. Chim. Acta 54(5), 1423–1434 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1942

R. S. Mulliken and E. Teller, “Interpretation of the Methyl Iodide Absorption Bands Near λ2000,” Phys. Rev. 61(5-6), 283–296 (1942).
[CrossRef]

1940

R. S. Mulliken, “Intensities in Molecular Electronic Spectra X. Calculations on Mixed-Halogen, Hydrogen Halide, Alkyl Halide, and Hydroxyl Spectra,” J. Chem. Phys. 8(5), 382–395 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Ashfold, M. N. R.

M. N. R. Ashfold, N. H. Nahler, A. J. Orr-Ewing, O. P. J. Vieuxmaire, R. L. Toomes, T. N. Kitsopoulos, I. A. Garcia, D. A. Chestakov, S.-M. Wu, and D. H. Parker, “Imaging the dynamics of gas phase reactions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(1), 26–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, S.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bañares, L.

R. de Nalda, J. G. Izquierdo, J. Durá, and L. Bañares, “Femtosecond multichannel photodissociation dynamics of CH3I from the A band by velocity map imaging,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baronavski, A. P.

A. P. Baronavski and J. C. Owrutsky, “Vibronic dependence of the B state lifetimes of CH3I and CD3I using femtosecond photoionization spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 108(9), 3445–3452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baskin, J. S.

D. H. Paik, I.-R. Lee, D.-S. Yang, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Electrons in finite-sized water cavities: hydration dynamics observed in real time,” Science 306(5696), 672–675 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernardi, F.

F. Bernardi, M. Olivucci, and M. A. Robb, “Potential energy surface crossings in organic photochemistry,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 25(5), 321–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bragg, A. E.

A. Stolow, A. E. Bragg, and D. M. Neumark, “Femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1719–1757 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brogli, F.

F. Brogli and E. Heilbronner, “The Competition between Spin Orbit Coupling and Conjugation in Alkyl Halides and its Repercussion on their Photoelectron Spectra,” Helv. Chim. Acta 54(5), 1423–1434 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Buma, W. J.

M. R. Dobber, W. J. Buma, and C. A. de Lange, “Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy on nanosecond and picosecond time scales of Rydberg states of methyl iodide,” J. Chem. Phys. 99(2), 836–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cederbaum, L. S.

A. D. Hammerich, U. Manthe, R. Kosloff, H.-D. Meyer, and L. S. Cederbaum, “Time-dependent photodissociation of methyl iodide with five active modes,” J. Chem. Phys. 101(7), 5623–5646 (1994) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Chestakov, D. A.

M. N. R. Ashfold, N. H. Nahler, A. J. Orr-Ewing, O. P. J. Vieuxmaire, R. L. Toomes, T. N. Kitsopoulos, I. A. Garcia, D. A. Chestakov, S.-M. Wu, and D. H. Parker, “Imaging the dynamics of gas phase reactions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(1), 26–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Child, M. S.

D. J. Donaldson, M. S. Child, and V. Vaida, “Surface crossings and predissociation dynamics of methyl iodide Rydberg states,” J. Chem. Phys. 88(12), 7410–7417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chirila, C. C.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chrysostom, E. T.

O. Gessner, A. M. D. Lee, J. P. Shaffer, H. Reisler, S. V. Levchenko, A. I. Krylov, J. G. Underwood, H. Shi, A. L. East, D. M. Wardlaw, E. T. Chrysostom, C. C. Hayden, and A. Stolow, “Femtosecond multidimensional imaging of a molecular dissociation,” Science 311(5758), 219–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rijs, M. H. M. Janssen, E. T. Chrysostom, and C. C. Hayden, “Femtosecond coincidence imaging of multichannel multiphoton dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniel, C.

C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, and L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299(5606), 536–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Lange, C. A.

M. Tsubouchi, C. A. de Lange, and T. Suzuki, “Femtosecond time-resolved charged particle imaging studies of the ultraviolet photodissociation of the NO dimer,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(22), 11728–11739 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Dobber, W. J. Buma, and C. A. de Lange, “Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy on nanosecond and picosecond time scales of Rydberg states of methyl iodide,” J. Chem. Phys. 99(2), 836–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Nalda, R.

R. de Nalda, J. G. Izquierdo, J. Durá, and L. Bañares, “Femtosecond multichannel photodissociation dynamics of CH3I from the A band by velocity map imaging,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobber, M. R.

M. R. Dobber, W. J. Buma, and C. A. de Lange, “Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy on nanosecond and picosecond time scales of Rydberg states of methyl iodide,” J. Chem. Phys. 99(2), 836–853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Donaldson, D. J.

D. J. Donaldson, M. S. Child, and V. Vaida, “Surface crossings and predissociation dynamics of methyl iodide Rydberg states,” J. Chem. Phys. 88(12), 7410–7417 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Durá, J.

R. de Nalda, J. G. Izquierdo, J. Durá, and L. Bañares, “Femtosecond multichannel photodissociation dynamics of CH3I from the A band by velocity map imaging,” J. Chem. Phys. 126(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

East, A. L.

O. Gessner, A. M. D. Lee, J. P. Shaffer, H. Reisler, S. V. Levchenko, A. I. Krylov, J. G. Underwood, H. Shi, A. L. East, D. M. Wardlaw, E. T. Chrysostom, C. C. Hayden, and A. Stolow, “Femtosecond multidimensional imaging of a molecular dissociation,” Science 311(5758), 219–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eppink, A. T. J. B.

A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, “Energy partitioning following photodissociation of methyl iodide in the A band: A velocity mapping study,” J. Chem. Phys. 110(2), 832–844 (1999) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Felps, W. S.

J. D. Scott, W. S. Felps, G. L. Findley, and S. P. McGlynn, “Molecular Rydberg transitions. XII. Magnetic circular dichroism of methyl iodide,” J. Chem. Phys. 68(10), 4678–4687 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Findley, G. L.

J. D. Scott, W. S. Felps, G. L. Findley, and S. P. McGlynn, “Molecular Rydberg transitions. XII. Magnetic circular dichroism of methyl iodide,” J. Chem. Phys. 68(10), 4678–4687 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Full, J.

C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, and L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299(5606), 536–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, I. A.

M. N. R. Ashfold, N. H. Nahler, A. J. Orr-Ewing, O. P. J. Vieuxmaire, R. L. Toomes, T. N. Kitsopoulos, I. A. Garcia, D. A. Chestakov, S.-M. Wu, and D. H. Parker, “Imaging the dynamics of gas phase reactions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(1), 26–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gessner, O.

O. Gessner, A. M. D. Lee, J. P. Shaffer, H. Reisler, S. V. Levchenko, A. I. Krylov, J. G. Underwood, H. Shi, A. L. East, D. M. Wardlaw, E. T. Chrysostom, C. C. Hayden, and A. Stolow, “Femtosecond multidimensional imaging of a molecular dissociation,” Science 311(5758), 219–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

González, L.

C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, and L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299(5606), 536–539 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammerich, A. D.

A. D. Hammerich, U. Manthe, R. Kosloff, H.-D. Meyer, and L. S. Cederbaum, “Time-dependent photodissociation of methyl iodide with five active modes,” J. Chem. Phys. 101(7), 5623–5646 (1994) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Haworth, C. A.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayden, C. C.

O. Gessner, A. M. D. Lee, J. P. Shaffer, H. Reisler, S. V. Levchenko, A. I. Krylov, J. G. Underwood, H. Shi, A. L. East, D. M. Wardlaw, E. T. Chrysostom, C. C. Hayden, and A. Stolow, “Femtosecond multidimensional imaging of a molecular dissociation,” Science 311(5758), 219–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rijs, M. H. M. Janssen, E. T. Chrysostom, and C. C. Hayden, “Femtosecond coincidence imaging of multichannel multiphoton dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heilbronner, E.

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M. N. R. Ashfold, N. H. Nahler, A. J. Orr-Ewing, O. P. J. Vieuxmaire, R. L. Toomes, T. N. Kitsopoulos, I. A. Garcia, D. A. Chestakov, S.-M. Wu, and D. H. Parker, “Imaging the dynamics of gas phase reactions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(1), 26–53 (2006).
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P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, S. Yoon, D. B. Wandschneider, and R. A. Mathies, “Structural observation of the primary isomerization in vision with femtosecond-stimulated Raman,” Science 310(5750), 1006–1009 (2005).
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W. M. Kwok, C. Ma, and D. L. Phillips, “A doorway state leads to photostability or triplet photodamage in thymine DNA,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5131–5139 (2008).
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O. Gessner, A. M. D. Lee, J. P. Shaffer, H. Reisler, S. V. Levchenko, A. I. Krylov, J. G. Underwood, H. Shi, A. L. East, D. M. Wardlaw, E. T. Chrysostom, C. C. Hayden, and A. Stolow, “Femtosecond multidimensional imaging of a molecular dissociation,” Science 311(5758), 219–222 (2006).
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D. H. Paik, I.-R. Lee, D.-S. Yang, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Electrons in finite-sized water cavities: hydration dynamics observed in real time,” Science 306(5696), 672–675 (2004).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
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O. Gessner, A. M. D. Lee, J. P. Shaffer, H. Reisler, S. V. Levchenko, A. I. Krylov, J. G. Underwood, H. Shi, A. L. East, D. M. Wardlaw, E. T. Chrysostom, C. C. Hayden, and A. Stolow, “Femtosecond multidimensional imaging of a molecular dissociation,” Science 311(5758), 219–222 (2006).
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C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, and L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299(5606), 536–539 (2003).
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W. M. Kwok, C. Ma, and D. L. Phillips, “A doorway state leads to photostability or triplet photodamage in thymine DNA,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5131–5139 (2008).
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A. D. Hammerich, U. Manthe, R. Kosloff, H.-D. Meyer, and L. S. Cederbaum, “Time-dependent photodissociation of methyl iodide with five active modes,” J. Chem. Phys. 101(7), 5623–5646 (1994) (and references therein).
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C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, and L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299(5606), 536–539 (2003).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
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P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, S. Yoon, D. B. Wandschneider, and R. A. Mathies, “Structural observation of the primary isomerization in vision with femtosecond-stimulated Raman,” Science 310(5750), 1006–1009 (2005).
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P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, S. Yoon, D. B. Wandschneider, and R. A. Mathies, “Structural observation of the primary isomerization in vision with femtosecond-stimulated Raman,” Science 310(5750), 1006–1009 (2005).
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C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, and L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299(5606), 536–539 (2003).
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A. D. Hammerich, U. Manthe, R. Kosloff, H.-D. Meyer, and L. S. Cederbaum, “Time-dependent photodissociation of methyl iodide with five active modes,” J. Chem. Phys. 101(7), 5623–5646 (1994) (and references therein).
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A. Stolow, A. E. Bragg, and D. M. Neumark, “Femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1719–1757 (2004).
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M. N. R. Ashfold, N. H. Nahler, A. J. Orr-Ewing, O. P. J. Vieuxmaire, R. L. Toomes, T. N. Kitsopoulos, I. A. Garcia, D. A. Chestakov, S.-M. Wu, and D. H. Parker, “Imaging the dynamics of gas phase reactions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(1), 26–53 (2006).
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A. P. Baronavski and J. C. Owrutsky, “Vibronic dependence of the B state lifetimes of CH3I and CD3I using femtosecond photoionization spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 108(9), 3445–3452 (1998).
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D. H. Paik, I.-R. Lee, D.-S. Yang, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Electrons in finite-sized water cavities: hydration dynamics observed in real time,” Science 306(5696), 672–675 (2004).
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M. N. R. Ashfold, N. H. Nahler, A. J. Orr-Ewing, O. P. J. Vieuxmaire, R. L. Toomes, T. N. Kitsopoulos, I. A. Garcia, D. A. Chestakov, S.-M. Wu, and D. H. Parker, “Imaging the dynamics of gas phase reactions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(1), 26–53 (2006).
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W. M. Kwok, C. Ma, and D. L. Phillips, “A doorway state leads to photostability or triplet photodamage in thymine DNA,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5131–5139 (2008).
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O. Gessner, A. M. D. Lee, J. P. Shaffer, H. Reisler, S. V. Levchenko, A. I. Krylov, J. G. Underwood, H. Shi, A. L. East, D. M. Wardlaw, E. T. Chrysostom, C. C. Hayden, and A. Stolow, “Femtosecond multidimensional imaging of a molecular dissociation,” Science 311(5758), 219–222 (2006).
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A. M. Rijs, M. H. M. Janssen, E. T. Chrysostom, and C. C. Hayden, “Femtosecond coincidence imaging of multichannel multiphoton dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123002 (2004).
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F. Bernardi, M. Olivucci, and M. A. Robb, “Potential energy surface crossings in organic photochemistry,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 25(5), 321–328 (1996).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
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N. K. Schwalb and F. Temps, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation in guanosine is promoted by hydrogen bonding with cytidine,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(30), 9272–9273 (2007).
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O. Gessner, A. M. D. Lee, J. P. Shaffer, H. Reisler, S. V. Levchenko, A. I. Krylov, J. G. Underwood, H. Shi, A. L. East, D. M. Wardlaw, E. T. Chrysostom, C. C. Hayden, and A. Stolow, “Femtosecond multidimensional imaging of a molecular dissociation,” Science 311(5758), 219–222 (2006).
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O. Gessner, A. M. D. Lee, J. P. Shaffer, H. Reisler, S. V. Levchenko, A. I. Krylov, J. G. Underwood, H. Shi, A. L. East, D. M. Wardlaw, E. T. Chrysostom, C. C. Hayden, and A. Stolow, “Femtosecond multidimensional imaging of a molecular dissociation,” Science 311(5758), 219–222 (2006).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
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O. Gessner, A. M. D. Lee, J. P. Shaffer, H. Reisler, S. V. Levchenko, A. I. Krylov, J. G. Underwood, H. Shi, A. L. East, D. M. Wardlaw, E. T. Chrysostom, C. C. Hayden, and A. Stolow, “Femtosecond multidimensional imaging of a molecular dissociation,” Science 311(5758), 219–222 (2006).
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J. A. Syage, “Predissociation lifetimes of the B and C Rydberg states of CH3I,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 212(1-2), 124–128 (1993).
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R. S. Mulliken and E. Teller, “Interpretation of the Methyl Iodide Absorption Bands Near λ2000,” Phys. Rev. 61(5-6), 283–296 (1942).
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N. K. Schwalb and F. Temps, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation in guanosine is promoted by hydrogen bonding with cytidine,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(30), 9272–9273 (2007).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
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M. N. R. Ashfold, N. H. Nahler, A. J. Orr-Ewing, O. P. J. Vieuxmaire, R. L. Toomes, T. N. Kitsopoulos, I. A. Garcia, D. A. Chestakov, S.-M. Wu, and D. H. Parker, “Imaging the dynamics of gas phase reactions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(1), 26–53 (2006).
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M. Tsubouchi, C. A. de Lange, and T. Suzuki, “Femtosecond time-resolved charged particle imaging studies of the ultraviolet photodissociation of the NO dimer,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(22), 11728–11739 (2003).
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O. Gessner, A. M. D. Lee, J. P. Shaffer, H. Reisler, S. V. Levchenko, A. I. Krylov, J. G. Underwood, H. Shi, A. L. East, D. M. Wardlaw, E. T. Chrysostom, C. C. Hayden, and A. Stolow, “Femtosecond multidimensional imaging of a molecular dissociation,” Science 311(5758), 219–222 (2006).
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C. Daniel, J. Full, L. González, C. Lupulescu, J. Manz, A. Merli, Š. Vajda, and L. Wöste, “Deciphering the reaction dynamics underlying optimal control laser fields,” Science 299(5606), 536–539 (2003).
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M. N. R. Ashfold, N. H. Nahler, A. J. Orr-Ewing, O. P. J. Vieuxmaire, R. L. Toomes, T. N. Kitsopoulos, I. A. Garcia, D. A. Chestakov, S.-M. Wu, and D. H. Parker, “Imaging the dynamics of gas phase reactions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(1), 26–53 (2006).
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P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, S. Yoon, D. B. Wandschneider, and R. A. Mathies, “Structural observation of the primary isomerization in vision with femtosecond-stimulated Raman,” Science 310(5750), 1006–1009 (2005).
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P. G. Wang and L. D. Ziegler, “Mode-specific subpicosecond photodissociation dynamics of the methyl iodide B state,” J. Chem. Phys. 95(1), 288–296 (1991).
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Wang, Y.

Z. Wei, F. Zhang, Y. Wang, and B. Zhang, “Predissociation Dynamics of B State of Methyl Iodide with Femtosecond Pump-probe Technique,” Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 20(4), 419–424 (2007).
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Y. Wang, S. Zhang, Z. Wei, Q. Zheng, and B. Zhang, “Br(2Pj) atom formation dynamics in ultraviolet photodissociation of tert-butyl bromide and iso-butyl bromide,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(18), 184307 (2006).
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O. Gessner, A. M. D. Lee, J. P. Shaffer, H. Reisler, S. V. Levchenko, A. I. Krylov, J. G. Underwood, H. Shi, A. L. East, D. M. Wardlaw, E. T. Chrysostom, C. C. Hayden, and A. Stolow, “Femtosecond multidimensional imaging of a molecular dissociation,” Science 311(5758), 219–222 (2006).
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Z. Wei, F. Zhang, Y. Wang, and B. Zhang, “Predissociation Dynamics of B State of Methyl Iodide with Femtosecond Pump-probe Technique,” Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 20(4), 419–424 (2007).
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Y. Wang, S. Zhang, Z. Wei, Q. Zheng, and B. Zhang, “Br(2Pj) atom formation dynamics in ultraviolet photodissociation of tert-butyl bromide and iso-butyl bromide,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(18), 184307 (2006).
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M. N. R. Ashfold, N. H. Nahler, A. J. Orr-Ewing, O. P. J. Vieuxmaire, R. L. Toomes, T. N. Kitsopoulos, I. A. Garcia, D. A. Chestakov, S.-M. Wu, and D. H. Parker, “Imaging the dynamics of gas phase reactions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(1), 26–53 (2006).
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D. H. Paik, I.-R. Lee, D.-S. Yang, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Electrons in finite-sized water cavities: hydration dynamics observed in real time,” Science 306(5696), 672–675 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, S. Yoon, D. B. Wandschneider, and R. A. Mathies, “Structural observation of the primary isomerization in vision with femtosecond-stimulated Raman,” Science 310(5750), 1006–1009 (2005).
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D. H. Paik, I.-R. Lee, D.-S. Yang, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Electrons in finite-sized water cavities: hydration dynamics observed in real time,” Science 306(5696), 672–675 (2004).
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D. P. Zhong and A. H. Zewail, “Femtosecond Real-Time Probing of Reactions. 23. Studies of Temporal, Velocity, Angular, and State Dynamics from Transition States to Final Products by Femtosecond-Resolved Mass Spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(23), 4031–4058 (1998).
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Z. Wei, F. Zhang, Y. Wang, and B. Zhang, “Predissociation Dynamics of B State of Methyl Iodide with Femtosecond Pump-probe Technique,” Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 20(4), 419–424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, S. Zhang, Z. Wei, Q. Zheng, and B. Zhang, “Br(2Pj) atom formation dynamics in ultraviolet photodissociation of tert-butyl bromide and iso-butyl bromide,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(18), 184307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

Z. Wei, F. Zhang, Y. Wang, and B. Zhang, “Predissociation Dynamics of B State of Methyl Iodide with Femtosecond Pump-probe Technique,” Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 20(4), 419–424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

Y. Wang, S. Zhang, Z. Wei, Q. Zheng, and B. Zhang, “Br(2Pj) atom formation dynamics in ultraviolet photodissociation of tert-butyl bromide and iso-butyl bromide,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(18), 184307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Q.

Y. Wang, S. Zhang, Z. Wei, Q. Zheng, and B. Zhang, “Br(2Pj) atom formation dynamics in ultraviolet photodissociation of tert-butyl bromide and iso-butyl bromide,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(18), 184307 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, D. P.

D. P. Zhong and A. H. Zewail, “Femtosecond Real-Time Probing of Reactions. 23. Studies of Temporal, Velocity, Angular, and State Dynamics from Transition States to Final Products by Femtosecond-Resolved Mass Spectrometry,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(23), 4031–4058 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, L. D.

P. G. Wang and L. D. Ziegler, “Mode-specific subpicosecond photodissociation dynamics of the methyl iodide B state,” J. Chem. Phys. 95(1), 288–296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.

A. H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: Atomic-Scale Dynamics of the Chemical Bond Using Ultrafast Lasers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39(15), 2586–2631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

J. A. Syage, “Predissociation lifetimes of the B and C Rydberg states of CH3I,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 212(1-2), 124–128 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

A. Stolow, A. E. Bragg, and D. M. Neumark, “Femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1719–1757 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Soc. Rev.

F. Bernardi, M. Olivucci, and M. A. Robb, “Potential energy surface crossings in organic photochemistry,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 25(5), 321–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chin. J. Chem. Phys.

Z. Wei, F. Zhang, Y. Wang, and B. Zhang, “Predissociation Dynamics of B State of Methyl Iodide with Femtosecond Pump-probe Technique,” Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 20(4), 419–424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Helv. Chim. Acta

F. Brogli and E. Heilbronner, “The Competition between Spin Orbit Coupling and Conjugation in Alkyl Halides and its Repercussion on their Photoelectron Spectra,” Helv. Chim. Acta 54(5), 1423–1434 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

N. K. Schwalb and F. Temps, “Ultrafast electronic relaxation in guanosine is promoted by hydrogen bonding with cytidine,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(30), 9272–9273 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Kwok, C. Ma, and D. L. Phillips, “A doorway state leads to photostability or triplet photodamage in thymine DNA,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5131–5139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The total CH3I+ and CH3 + ion signals recorded as a function of the pump-probe delay. Open circles indicate the experimental data. The best fits (solid lines) yield the corresponding time constants.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A series of time-resolved photoelectron images. The left parts are raw images and the right parts are inverse-Abel transformed ones.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The photoelectron energy distributions at different pump-probe delays. Six peaks centered at 0.48, 0.66, 0.94, 1.12, 1.99 and 2.69 eV are observed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The ion counts of each peak in the raw images.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The possible ionization schemes of CH3I via B and higher Rydberg states. The blue arrow means 400nm (pump) photon absorption and the red one 800nm (probe) photon absorption. Peak 1 and 4 are from the (2 + 3) scheme via two pump photons absorption followed by three probe photons. Peak 5 and 6 come from the (3 + 2) ionization mechanism through three pump photons absorption followed by two probe photons. Peak 2 and 3 are from the predissociation channels via the non-adiabatic coupling between the B state and A-band following the two pump photons absorption. The ionization was achieved by three probe photons when the wave packets evolve on the involved 3 Q 0 and 1 Q 1 states.

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