Abstract

A dielectric liquid microlens with a well-shaped electrode is demonstrated. The bottom well-shaped electrode and the top planar electrode induce an inhomogeneous electric field when a voltage is applied, which causes the focal length to change. Adaptive microlenses and microlens arrays with well-shaped electrode are fabricated and their performance is evaluated. The bi-convex structure introduces a larger optical power. Compared with common planar-electrodes liquid lenses, this well-shaped electrode not only inhibits drifting of the liquid but also reduces the operating voltage.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Nose and S. Sato, “A liquid crystal microlens obtained with a non-uniform electric field,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1425–1433 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Ren, D. Fox, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability and low operating voltage,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11328–11335 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Chronis, G. L. Liu, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, “Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2370–2378 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. H. Jeong, G. L. Liu, N. Chronis, and L. P. Lee, “Tunable microdoublet lens array,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2494–2500 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8031–8036 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Variable-focus liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15(10), 5931–5936 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Grilli, L. Miccio, V. Vespini, A. Finizio, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, “Liquid micro-lens array activated by selective electrowetting on lithium niobate substrates,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8084–8093 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Miccio, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, V. Vespini, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, “Tunable liquid microlens arrays in electrode-less configuration and their accurate characterization by interference microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2487–2499 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Volvelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer (Guildf.) 37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, “Dielectrically actuated liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7140–7145 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid microlens array using dielectrophoretic effect,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2646–2652 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Ren, H. Xianyu, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Adaptive dielectric liquid lens,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14954–14960 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. S. Sridharamurthy, L. Dong, and H. Jiang, “Microfluidic chemical/biological sensing system based on membrane-dissolution and optical absorption,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(1), 201–207 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Reza and N. A. Riza, “A liquid lens-based broadband variable fiber optical attenuator,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1298–1303 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. A. Haus, and J. R. Melcher, “Electromagnetic fields and energy,” Chap. 11, http://web.mit.edu/6.013_book/www/chapter11/11.9.html

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8031–8036 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. H. Jeong, G. L. Liu, N. Chronis, and L. P. Lee, “Tunable microdoublet lens array,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2494–2500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

N. Chronis, G. L. Liu, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, “Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2370–2378 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Volvelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer (Guildf.) 37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

T. Nose and S. Sato, “A liquid crystal microlens obtained with a non-uniform electric field,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1425–1433 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. K.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, P. A.

Beebe, D. J.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berge, B.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Volvelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer (Guildf.) 37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. C.

Chronis, N.

De Nicola, S.

Dong, L.

S. S. Sridharamurthy, L. Dong, and H. Jiang, “Microfluidic chemical/biological sensing system based on membrane-dissolution and optical absorption,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(1), 201–207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Y. H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

Finizio, A.

Fox, D.

Grilli, S.

Jeong, K. H.

Jiang, H.

S. S. Sridharamurthy, L. Dong, and H. Jiang, “Microfluidic chemical/biological sensing system based on membrane-dissolution and optical absorption,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(1), 201–207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, L. P.

Liu, G. L.

Miccio, L.

Nose, T.

T. Nose and S. Sato, “A liquid crystal microlens obtained with a non-uniform electric field,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1425–1433 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Paturzo, M.

Ren, H.

Reza, S.

S. Reza and N. A. Riza, “A liquid lens-based broadband variable fiber optical attenuator,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1298–1303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

S. Reza and N. A. Riza, “A liquid lens-based broadband variable fiber optical attenuator,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1298–1303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

T. Nose and S. Sato, “A liquid crystal microlens obtained with a non-uniform electric field,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1425–1433 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sridharamurthy, S. S.

S. S. Sridharamurthy, L. Dong, and H. Jiang, “Microfluidic chemical/biological sensing system based on membrane-dissolution and optical absorption,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(1), 201–207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vallet, M.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Volvelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer (Guildf.) 37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Varahramyan, K.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vespini, V.

Volvelle, L.

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Volvelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer (Guildf.) 37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

Wu, S. T.

Xianyu, H.

Xu, S.

Yeh, J. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

T. Nose and S. Sato, “A liquid crystal microlens obtained with a non-uniform electric field,” Liq. Cryst. 5(5), 1425–1433 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. S. Sridharamurthy, L. Dong, and H. Jiang, “Microfluidic chemical/biological sensing system based on membrane-dissolution and optical absorption,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(1), 201–207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Reza and N. A. Riza, “A liquid lens-based broadband variable fiber optical attenuator,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1298–1303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (10)

H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8031–8036 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Variable-focus liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15(10), 5931–5936 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, “Dielectrically actuated liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7140–7145 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid microlens array using dielectrophoretic effect,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2646–2652 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, H. Xianyu, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Adaptive dielectric liquid lens,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14954–14960 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Grilli, L. Miccio, V. Vespini, A. Finizio, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, “Liquid micro-lens array activated by selective electrowetting on lithium niobate substrates,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8084–8093 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Miccio, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, V. Vespini, M. Paturzo, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, “Tunable liquid microlens arrays in electrode-less configuration and their accurate characterization by interference microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2487–2499 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, D. Fox, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability and low operating voltage,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11328–11335 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Chronis, G. L. Liu, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, “Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2370–2378 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Jeong, G. L. Liu, N. Chronis, and L. P. Lee, “Tunable microdoublet lens array,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2494–2500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polymer (Guildf.) (1)

M. Vallet, B. Berge, and L. Volvelle, “Electrowetting of water and aqueous solutions on poly (ethylene terephthalate) insulating films,” Polymer (Guildf.) 37(12), 2465–2470 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. A. Haus, and J. R. Melcher, “Electromagnetic fields and energy,” Chap. 11, http://web.mit.edu/6.013_book/www/chapter11/11.9.html

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (1490 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1932 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Side-view structure of the lens cell: (a) Voltage off, and (b) Voltage on.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation results of the electric field of the two structures at V = 100Vrms (a) common planar-electrodes, and (b) top planar-electrode and bottom well-shaped electrode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Side view of the device fabrication procedure: (a) Making lens cell and UV exposure, (b) Peeling off the stamper, (c) Coating Au + Pd electrode, and (d) Dropping liquids and sealing the cell.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The image of the lens cell at the position of surface focus, (b)At the position of the smallest spot size, (c) Image at focus, (d) Resolution test, and (e) Tunable state of the lens driven from 0 to 88Vrms (Media 1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured focal length of the microlens at different driving voltages, and (b) Lens structure and parameters for ZEMAX simulation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Imaging properties of the microlens array, (b) Microlens array, and (c) Tunable state of the lens driven between 0Vand 88Vrms (Media 2).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Properties of liquid-1, liquid-2, and polymer well.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F=ε02(ε1ε2)(EE) ,

Metrics