Abstract

We demonstrate design, fabrication, and ray trace observation of negative refraction of near-infrared light in a two-dimensional square lattice of air holes etched into an air-bridged silicon slab. Special surface morphologies are designed to reduce the impedance mismatch when light refracts from a homogeneous silicon slab into the photonic crystal slab. We clearly observed negative refraction of infrared light for TE-like modes in a broad wavelength range by using scanning near-field optical microscopy technology. The experimental results are in good agreement with finite-difference time-domain simulations. The results indicate the designed photonic crystal structure can serve as polarization beam splitter.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  6. Q1. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index," Nature (London) 455, 376-U332 (2008).
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  7. J. Yao, Z. W. Liu, Y. M. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).
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  8. M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Ren, Z. Y. Li, X. B. Ren, S. Feng, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Three-dimensional light focusing in inverse opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B. Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C.W. Wong, "Achieving subdiffraction imaging through bound surface states in negative refraction photonic crystals in the near-infrared range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (5)

Q1. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index," Nature (London) 455, 376-U332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, Z. W. Liu, Y. M. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, "Optical near-field microscopy of light focusing through a photonic crystal flat lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B. Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C.W. Wong, "Achieving subdiffraction imaging through bound surface states in negative refraction photonic crystals in the near-infrared range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tian, M. Yan, M. Qiu, C. G. Ribbing, Y. Z. Liu, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, "Direct characterization of focusing light by negative refraction in a photonic crystal flat lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Z. Liu, S. Feng, J. Tian, C. Ren, H. H. Tao, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, and Q. Luo, "Multichannel filters with shape designing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ren, Z. Y. Li, X. B. Ren, S. Feng, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Three-dimensional light focusing in inverse opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. T. Rakich, M. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. Kolodziejski, and E. Ippen, "Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nat. Mater. 5, 93-96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Matsumoto, K. S. Eom, and T. Baba, "Focusing of light by negative refraction in a photonic crystal slab superlens on silicon-on-insulator substrate," Opt. Lett. 31, 2786-2788 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

T. Baba, T. Matsumoto, and M. Echizen, "Finite difference time domain study of high efficiency photonic crystal superprisms," Opt. Express 12, 4608-4613 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

Z. Y. Li, and L. L. Lin, "Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 68, 245110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and left-handed behavior in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of Sigma and Mu," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

Bartal, G.

Q1. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index," Nature (London) 455, 376-U332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, Z. W. Liu, Y. M. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berrier, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W. S.

Chatterjee, R.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B. Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C.W. Wong, "Achieving subdiffraction imaging through bound surface states in negative refraction photonic crystals in the near-infrared range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, B. Y.

K. Ren, Z. Y. Li, X. B. Ren, S. Feng, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Three-dimensional light focusing in inverse opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Liu, S. Feng, J. Tian, C. Ren, H. H. Tao, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, and Q. Luo, "Multichannel filters with shape designing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Cluzel, B.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, "Optical near-field microscopy of light focusing through a photonic crystal flat lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dahlem, M.

P. T. Rakich, M. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. Kolodziejski, and E. Ippen, "Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nat. Mater. 5, 93-96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Fornel, F.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, "Optical near-field microscopy of light focusing through a photonic crystal flat lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dios, Z.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B. Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C.W. Wong, "Achieving subdiffraction imaging through bound surface states in negative refraction photonic crystals in the near-infrared range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doan, M. T.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B. Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C.W. Wong, "Achieving subdiffraction imaging through bound surface states in negative refraction photonic crystals in the near-infrared range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

Echizen, M.

Eom, K. S.

Fabre, N.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, "Optical near-field microscopy of light focusing through a photonic crystal flat lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

Y. Z. Liu, S. Feng, J. Tian, C. Ren, H. H. Tao, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, and Q. Luo, "Multichannel filters with shape designing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ren, Z. Y. Li, X. B. Ren, S. Feng, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Three-dimensional light focusing in inverse opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Foteinopoulou, S.

S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and left-handed behavior in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

Q1. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index," Nature (London) 455, 376-U332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

P. T. Rakich, M. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. Kolodziejski, and E. Ippen, "Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nat. Mater. 5, 93-96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E.

P. T. Rakich, M. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. Kolodziejski, and E. Ippen, "Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nat. Mater. 5, 93-96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

P. T. Rakich, M. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. Kolodziejski, and E. Ippen, "Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nat. Mater. 5, 93-96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufman, L. J.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B. Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C.W. Wong, "Achieving subdiffraction imaging through bound surface states in negative refraction photonic crystals in the near-infrared range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kolodziejski, L.

P. T. Rakich, M. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. Kolodziejski, and E. Ippen, "Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nat. Mater. 5, 93-96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalouat, L.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, "Optical near-field microscopy of light focusing through a photonic crystal flat lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z. Y.

J. Tian, M. Yan, M. Qiu, C. G. Ribbing, Y. Z. Liu, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, "Direct characterization of focusing light by negative refraction in a photonic crystal flat lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Liu, S. Feng, J. Tian, C. Ren, H. H. Tao, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, and Q. Luo, "Multichannel filters with shape designing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ren, Z. Y. Li, X. B. Ren, S. Feng, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Three-dimensional light focusing in inverse opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li, and L. L. Lin, "Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 68, 245110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. L.

Z. Y. Li, and L. L. Lin, "Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 68, 245110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lippens, D.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, "Optical near-field microscopy of light focusing through a photonic crystal flat lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, K.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B. Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C.W. Wong, "Achieving subdiffraction imaging through bound surface states in negative refraction photonic crystals in the near-infrared range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. M.

J. Yao, Z. W. Liu, Y. M. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. Z.

J. Tian, M. Yan, M. Qiu, C. G. Ribbing, Y. Z. Liu, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, "Direct characterization of focusing light by negative refraction in a photonic crystal flat lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Liu, S. Feng, J. Tian, C. Ren, H. H. Tao, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, and Q. Luo, "Multichannel filters with shape designing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. W.

J. Yao, Z. W. Liu, Y. M. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, C.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

Y. Z. Liu, S. Feng, J. Tian, C. Ren, H. H. Tao, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, and Q. Luo, "Multichannel filters with shape designing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

Melique, X.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, "Optical near-field microscopy of light focusing through a photonic crystal flat lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulot, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B. Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C.W. Wong, "Achieving subdiffraction imaging through bound surface states in negative refraction photonic crystals in the near-infrared range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B. Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C.W. Wong, "Achieving subdiffraction imaging through bound surface states in negative refraction photonic crystals in the near-infrared range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrich, G.

P. T. Rakich, M. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. Kolodziejski, and E. Ippen, "Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nat. Mater. 5, 93-96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, M.

J. Tian, M. Yan, M. Qiu, C. G. Ribbing, Y. Z. Liu, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, "Direct characterization of focusing light by negative refraction in a photonic crystal flat lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakich, P. T.

P. T. Rakich, M. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. Kolodziejski, and E. Ippen, "Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nat. Mater. 5, 93-96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramakrishna, S. A.

S. A. Ramakrishna, "Physics of negative refractive index materials," Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 449 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Ren, C.

Y. Z. Liu, S. Feng, J. Tian, C. Ren, H. H. Tao, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, and Q. Luo, "Multichannel filters with shape designing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ren, K.

K. Ren, Z. Y. Li, X. B. Ren, S. Feng, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Three-dimensional light focusing in inverse opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ren, X. B.

K. Ren, Z. Y. Li, X. B. Ren, S. Feng, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Three-dimensional light focusing in inverse opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ribbing, C. G.

J. Tian, M. Yan, M. Qiu, C. G. Ribbing, Y. Z. Liu, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, "Direct characterization of focusing light by negative refraction in a photonic crystal flat lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

P. T. Rakich, M. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. Kolodziejski, and E. Ippen, "Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nat. Mater. 5, 93-96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and left-handed behavior in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stacy, A. M.

J. Yao, Z. W. Liu, Y. M. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

J. Yao, Z. W. Liu, Y. M. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swillo, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talneau, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tandon, S.

P. T. Rakich, M. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. Kolodziejski, and E. Ippen, "Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nat. Mater. 5, 93-96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, H. H.

Y. Z. Liu, S. Feng, J. Tian, C. Ren, H. H. Tao, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, and Q. Luo, "Multichannel filters with shape designing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thylén, L.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, J.

J. Tian, M. Yan, M. Qiu, C. G. Ribbing, Y. Z. Liu, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, "Direct characterization of focusing light by negative refraction in a photonic crystal flat lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Liu, S. Feng, J. Tian, C. Ren, H. H. Tao, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, and Q. Luo, "Multichannel filters with shape designing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

Q1. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index," Nature (London) 455, 376-U332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, J.

Q1. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index," Nature (London) 455, 376-U332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vanbesien, O.

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, "Optical near-field microscopy of light focusing through a photonic crystal flat lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of Sigma and Mu," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

J. Yao, Z. W. Liu, Y. M. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, C.W.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B. Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C.W. Wong, "Achieving subdiffraction imaging through bound surface states in negative refraction photonic crystals in the near-infrared range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, M.

J. Tian, M. Yan, M. Qiu, C. G. Ribbing, Y. Z. Liu, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, "Direct characterization of focusing light by negative refraction in a photonic crystal flat lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, Z. W. Liu, Y. M. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, M. B.

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B. Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C.W. Wong, "Achieving subdiffraction imaging through bound surface states in negative refraction photonic crystals in the near-infrared range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H. K.

Zentgraf, T.

Q1. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index," Nature (London) 455, 376-U332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. Z.

J. Tian, M. Yan, M. Qiu, C. G. Ribbing, Y. Z. Liu, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, "Direct characterization of focusing light by negative refraction in a photonic crystal flat lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Liu, S. Feng, J. Tian, C. Ren, H. H. Tao, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, and Q. Luo, "Multichannel filters with shape designing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ren, Z. Y. Li, X. B. Ren, S. Feng, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Three-dimensional light focusing in inverse opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

Q1. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index," Nature (London) 455, 376-U332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Q1. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index," Nature (London) 455, 376-U332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, Z. W. Liu, Y. M. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Tian, M. Yan, M. Qiu, C. G. Ribbing, Y. Z. Liu, D. Z. Zhang, and Z. Y. Li, "Direct characterization of focusing light by negative refraction in a photonic crystal flat lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Z. Liu, S. Feng, J. Tian, C. Ren, H. H. Tao, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, and Q. Luo, "Multichannel filters with shape designing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

P. T. Rakich, M. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. Kolodziejski, and E. Ippen, "Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nat. Mater. 5, 93-96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (London) (2)

Q1. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index," Nature (London) 455, 376-U332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

K. Ren, Z. Y. Li, X. B. Ren, S. Feng, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Three-dimensional light focusing in inverse opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li, and L. L. Lin, "Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 68, 245110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and left-handed behavior in two-dimensional photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fabre, L. Lalouat, B. Cluzel, X. Melique, D. Lippens, F. de Fornel, and O. Vanbesien, "Optical near-field microscopy of light focusing through a photonic crystal flat lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 073901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chatterjee, N. C. Panoiu, K. Liu, Z. Dios, M. B. Yu, M. T. Doan, L. J. Kaufman, R. M. Osgood, and C.W. Wong, "Achieving subdiffraction imaging through bound surface states in negative refraction photonic crystals in the near-infrared range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 187401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

S. A. Ramakrishna, "Physics of negative refractive index materials," Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 449 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. Yao, Z. W. Liu, Y. M. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, "Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of Sigma and Mu," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Taflove, and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, Second Edition (Artech House Publishers, Boston, 2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Photonic band structure of TE-like and TM-like bands for an air-holes square-lattice PhC slab with the air-hole diameter 0.478a (a is the lattice constant), the thickness and refractive index of the slab as 0.478a and 3.4, respectively. The normalized frequency area indicated by the red dotted lines shows the experimentally available wavelength range. (b) EFS contours of the TE-like second band for the same PhC show that negative refraction can occur in the direction around the ΓM direction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic view of the negative refraction PhC structure. (a) Top view of the whole structure with the waveguide and PhC structure with tapered air-hole interface that helps to reduce impedance mismatch. Detailed geometric parameters of the interface layer are depicted explicitly in the picture. The surface normal of the PhC structure is along the ΓM direction. The angle of incidence is fixed at 10°. (b) Side view for the same structure shows clearly the air-bridged geometry formed by using HF wet etching.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

3D FDTD simulation of the field intensity distribution in the xy plane at 1503 nm. A ray tracing is superimposed on the structure to illustrate the direction of the light. (a) Light intensity distribution of TE-like modes for PhC without tapered air-holes interface. (b) Light intensity distribution of TE-like modes for PhC with deliberately designed tapered air-holes interface. (c)Light intensity distribution of TM-like modes for PhC with tapered surface.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). SEM picture of the PhC structure and an input waveguide. The width of the waveguide d is 2 µm. (b) Schematic of the near-field experimental setup.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Directly observed pattern of the radiated light of 1500 λ=nm from the top using an objective lens. (b) SNOM picture of the negative refraction of the same wavelength. In each picture, the boundary of the PhC structure is superimposed as solid lines.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(Color online) SNOM pictures of electric field intensity distribution for different wavelengths. The boundary of the PhC structure is superimposed as solid lines.

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