Abstract

We demonstrate a coherent intermodal coupling in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (PBGF) using an acoustic grating. A theoretical study on the properties of acoustic and optical wave propagating the PBGF is performed indicating that the applied frequency higher than 10 MHz is required to obtain the acousto-optic interaction at the wavelength around 1550 nm. Wavelength-tunable coupling from fundamental mode to higher-order core modes is achieved with more than 90% coupling efficiency at the applied frequency of 11.54 MHz. The low dispersive properties and the mode filed distributions of the higher-order guided modes of the air-core PBGF in the experiment show reasonable agreement with the simulation results.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Leakage loss and group velocity dispersion in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 3100–3109 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

2000

1999

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1996

1988

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, “Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(3), 428–436 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, F. R.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, D. C.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Azaña, J.

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhagwat, A. R.

Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

Blake, J. N.

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, “Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(3), 428–436 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, J. A.

Borrelli, N. F.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwmans, G.

Couny, F.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Sterke, C. M.

Diez, A.

Eggleton, B. J.

Engan, H. E.

M. W. Haakestad and H. E. Engan, “Acoustooptic properties of a weakly multimode solid core photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(2), 838–845 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, “Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(3), 428–436 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Farr, L.

Florous, N. J.

Gaeta, A. L.

A. R. Bhagwat and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(7), 5035–5047 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, M. T.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haakestad, M. W.

Hansen, T.

Ho, H. L.

Hong, K. S.

K. S. Hong, H. C. Park, I. K. Hwang, W. Jin, J. Ju, D. I. Yeom, and B. Y. Kim, “1000 nm tunable acousto-optic filter based on photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, G.

Hwang, I. K.

Jin, W.

K. S. Hong, H. C. Park, I. K. Hwang, W. Jin, J. Ju, D. I. Yeom, and B. Y. Kim, “1000 nm tunable acousto-optic filter based on photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, and D. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2784–2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J.

Johnson, S.

Ju, J.

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, and D. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2784–2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Hong, H. C. Park, I. K. Hwang, W. Jin, J. Ju, D. I. Yeom, and B. Y. Kim, “1000 nm tunable acousto-optic filter based on photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, H. S.

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Visualizing the photonic band gap in hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 13(2), 558–563 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. S. Russell, D. P. Williams, P. J. Roberts, and B. J. Mangan, “Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1477–1484 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, K. W.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshiba, M.

Kulishov, M.

Kwang, I. K.

Lim, S. D.

Luan, F.

Ludvigsen, H.

Mangan, B.

Mangan, B. J.

Mason, M.

Mortensen, N.

Müller, D.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murao, T.

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H. C.

S. D. Lim, H. C. Park, I. K. Hwang, and B. Y. Kim, “Combined effects of optical and acoustic birefringence on acousto-optic mode coupling in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6125–6133 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Hong, H. C. Park, I. K. Hwang, W. Jin, J. Ju, D. I. Yeom, and B. Y. Kim, “1000 nm tunable acousto-optic filter based on photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J.

Reeves, W. H.

Ritari, T.

Roberts, P.

Roberts, P. J.

Russell, P. S.

Russell, P. S. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sabert, H.

Saitoh, K.

Shaw, H. J.

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, “Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(3), 428–436 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Silcox, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonsen, H.

Smith, C. M.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sørensen, T.

Steinvurzel, P.

Thomas, M. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, A.

Tsoy, E. N.

Tuominen, J.

Venkataraman, N.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

Wang, Y.

West, J. A.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D.

Williams, D. P.

Xiao, L.

Xuan, H.

Yeom, D. I.

K. S. Hong, H. C. Park, I. K. Hwang, W. Jin, J. Ju, D. I. Yeom, and B. Y. Kim, “1000 nm tunable acousto-optic filter based on photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, D.-I.

Yun, S. H.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. S. Hong, H. C. Park, I. K. Hwang, W. Jin, J. Ju, D. I. Yeom, and B. Y. Kim, “1000 nm tunable acousto-optic filter based on photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nature

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Müller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424(6949), 657–659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. S. Russell, D. P. Williams, P. J. Roberts, and B. J. Mangan, “Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1477–1484 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13, 236–244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Bhagwat and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(7), 5035–5047 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. Hansen, and H. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 4080–4087 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, H. Sabert, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, A. Tomlinson, B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Visualizing the photonic band gap in hollow core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 13(2), 558–563 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Bolger, F. Luan, D.-I. Yeom, E. N. Tsoy, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, “Tunable enhancement of a soliton spectrum using an acoustic long-period grating,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13457–13462 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Johnson and J. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8(3), 173–190 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Lim, H. C. Park, I. K. Hwang, and B. Y. Kim, “Combined effects of optical and acoustic birefringence on acousto-optic mode coupling in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6125–6133 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Leakage loss and group velocity dispersion in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 3100–3109 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh, N. Mortensen, and M. Koshiba, “Air-core photonic band-gap fibers: the impact of surface modes,” Opt. Express 12(3), 394–400 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-I. Yeom, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, S. D. Lim, and B. Y. Kim, “Tunable acoustic gratings in solid-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3513–3518 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, and D. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2784–2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Karl. F. Graff, Wave Motion in Elastic Solids. (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1975).

H. C. Park, “Acousto-optic filter properties of elliptical core and photonic crystal two-mode fiber,” Ph. D. Thesis, KAIST, Korea (2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Comparison of the exact solution of acoustic dispersion with that using Euler-Bernoulli theory in a conventional silica fiber and a silica cylindrical shell (approximation of the HC-PBGF). (b) Image of fiber cross-section used in the experiment (HC 1550-02, the picture was obtained from www.crystal-fiber.com) (c) Simplified PBGF structure as a silica cylindrical shell model

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation of field distribution and polarization direction of (a) the fundamental (HE11-like) core-mode and (b) higher-order (TM01-like) core-mode in the HC-PBGF. (c) Comparison of acoustic dispersion and optical beat length between two coupled modes at the wavelength around 1550 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematics of the AOTF using the PBGF. Optical transmission spectrum of the AO device for different polarization states of (b) polarization 1 and (c) polarization 2. The inset figures show the near field images at the resonance in the absence (or presence) of the acoustic grating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Tuning properties of the AO devices for two polarization states. (b) estimated optical beatlength as a function of the wavelength.

Equations (4)

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ωa2=IEρAeffka4
IE=AE(x,y)(xcosθ+ysinθ)2dxdy
λa=[(faRct)ctcext1R2π]12
λa=[(faRct)ctcext1RR0π]12

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