Abstract

The performance of an external cavity diode laser based noise immune cavity enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometer is presented. To reduce the noise on the signal a ring cavity and a circuit to remove residual amplitude modulation on the pre-cavity laser radiation was implemented. We demonstrate a sensitivity of 4 x 10−11 cm−1 Hz-1/2 using a cavity with a finesse of 2600 on a Doppler-broadened transition of CH4 at 6610.063 cm−1.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (4)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(8), 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3457–3468 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. van Leeuwen, H. G. Kjaergaard, D. L. Howard, and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of ultraweak transitions in the visible region of molecular oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 83–91 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. J. van Leeuwen and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of pressure-broadened, ultraweak transitions with noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(10), 1713–1721 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, “Laser frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, 2827–2829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. H. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Axner, O.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bood, J.

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(8), 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewer, R. G.

R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, “Laser frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, 2827–2829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, B. D.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3457–3468 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Z.-S.

L.-H. Deng, X.-M. Gao, Z.-S. Cao, W.-D. Chen, W.-J. Zhang, and Z.-B. Gong, “Empirical line intensities of methane at 1.51 μm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(2), 402–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-D.

L.-H. Deng, X.-M. Gao, Z.-S. Cao, W.-D. Chen, W.-J. Zhang, and Z.-B. Gong, “Empirical line intensities of methane at 1.51 μm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(2), 402–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deng, L.-H.

L.-H. Deng, X.-M. Gao, Z.-S. Cao, W.-D. Chen, W.-J. Zhang, and Z.-B. Gong, “Empirical line intensities of methane at 1.51 μm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(2), 402–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DeVoe, R. G.

R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, “Laser frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, 2827–2829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. H. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dube, P.

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foltynowicz, A.

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. H. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fox, R. W.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.-M.

L.-H. Deng, X.-M. Gao, Z.-S. Cao, W.-D. Chen, W.-J. Zhang, and Z.-B. Gong, “Empirical line intensities of methane at 1.51 μm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(2), 402–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gianfrani, L.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Z.-B.

L.-H. Deng, X.-M. Gao, Z.-S. Cao, W.-D. Chen, W.-J. Zhang, and Z.-B. Gong, “Empirical line intensities of methane at 1.51 μm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(2), 402–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Hall, J. L. H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. H. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. H. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Howard, D. L.

N. J. van Leeuwen, H. G. Kjaergaard, D. L. Howard, and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of ultraweak transitions in the visible region of molecular oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 83–91 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, C.

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, “Highly sensitive cavity-enhanced sub-Doppler spectroscopy of a molecular overtone band with a 1.66 mm tunable diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No 2A), 920–922 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kjaergaard, H. G.

N. J. van Leeuwen, H. G. Kjaergaard, D. L. Howard, and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of ultraweak transitions in the visible region of molecular oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 83–91 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. H. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lock, T.

Ma, L. S.

Ma, L.-S.

Ma, W.

Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McIlroy, A.

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(8), 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. H. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Myers, T. L.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3457–3468 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, D. L.

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(8), 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sasada, H.

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, “Highly sensitive cavity-enhanced sub-Doppler spectroscopy of a molecular overtone band with a 1.66 mm tunable diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No 2A), 920–922 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F.

Schmidt, F. M.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M. S.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3457–3468 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tolchenov, R. N.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, N. J.

N. J. van Leeuwen, H. G. Kjaergaard, D. L. Howard, and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of ultraweak transitions in the visible region of molecular oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 83–91 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. J. van Leeuwen and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of pressure-broadened, ultraweak transitions with noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(10), 1713–1721 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. H. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. M.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3457–3468 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, A. C.

N. J. van Leeuwen and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of pressure-broadened, ultraweak transitions with noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(10), 1713–1721 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. J. van Leeuwen, H. G. Kjaergaard, D. L. Howard, and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of ultraweak transitions in the visible region of molecular oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 83–91 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wong, N. C.

Ye, J.

Zhang, W.-J.

L.-H. Deng, X.-M. Gao, Z.-S. Cao, W.-D. Chen, W.-J. Zhang, and Z.-B. Gong, “Empirical line intensities of methane at 1.51 μm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(2), 402–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. H. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(8), 084311 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

N. J. van Leeuwen, H. G. Kjaergaard, D. L. Howard, and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of ultraweak transitions in the visible region of molecular oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 83–91 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (8)

N. J. van Leeuwen and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of pressure-broadened, ultraweak transitions with noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(10), 1713–1721 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 1156–1165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry for Doppler-broadened detection of C2H2 in the parts per trillion range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(6), 1392–1405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, and J. L. Hall, “Ultrasensitive frequency-modulation spectroscopy enhanced by a high-finesse optical cavity: theory and application to overtone transitions of C2H2 and C2HD,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(12), 2255–2268 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Gianfrani, R. W. Fox, and L. Hollberg, “Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of molecular oxygen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(12), 2247–2254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Ultrasensitive detections in atomic and molecular physics: demonstration in molecular overtone spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(1), 6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Wong and J. L. Hall, “Servo control of amplitude modulation in frequency-modulation spectroscopy: demonstration of shot-noise-limited detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2(9), 1527–1533 (1985).
[CrossRef]

O. Axner, W. Ma, and A. Foltynowicz, “Sub-Dopplerdispersion and noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy revised,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 1166–1177 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (2)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J. M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. Deng, X.-M. Gao, Z.-S. Cao, W.-D. Chen, W.-J. Zhang, and Z.-B. Gong, “Empirical line intensities of methane at 1.51 μm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(2), 402–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Ishibashi and H. Sasada, “Highly sensitive cavity-enhanced sub-Doppler spectroscopy of a molecular overtone band with a 1.66 mm tunable diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No 2A), 920–922 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, “Laser frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, 2827–2829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. (1)

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3457–3468 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

– Experimental setup for the NICE-OHMS experiments detailing the ring cavity and a schematic diagram of the RAM circuit and electronics. (ECDL – External Cavity Diode Laser; EOM – Electro-Optical Modulator; PD1, PD2 and PD3 - photodiodes 1, 2 and 3 respectively; PZT1 and PZT2 - piezoelectric transducers)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

– (a) fm-NICE-OHMS signal with the RAM reduction circuit on and off for a 0.2 Torr sample of CH4 at 6610.063cm−1 (traces offset for clarity), (b) wm-NICE-OHMS signal for a 0.04 Torr sample of CH4 probing the same line.

Equations (1)

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(αL)min=π2F(2eηP0)1/22J0(β)J1(β),

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