Abstract

2D photonic crystal (2D PC) structures consisting in a square lattice of Indium Phosphide (InP) microrods bonded on a Silicon/Silica Bragg mirror are experimentally investigated. We focus on slow Bloch modes above the light line, especially at the Γ-point where a vertical emission can be obtained. Stimulated emission around 1.5µm is demonstrated in such structures, at room temperature, for the first time. In addition the achieved threshold power lies within the range reported for surface emitting devices based on conventional lattices of holes. It is shown that the laser mode is laterally confined by a carrier induced refractive index change, under pulsed excitation. It is also demonstrated that this type of 2D PC is well suited for sensors integrated in microfluidic sytems.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (5)

C. L. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomjenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, B. J. Eggleton, "Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities," Opt. Express 16, 15887-15896 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, J. Choi, S. Lee, S. Kim, S. Yang, Y. Lee, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, "Optofluidic integration of a photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express. 16, 6515-6527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ferrier, P. Rojo-Romeo, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, "Slow Bloch mode confinement in 2D photonic crystals for surface operating devices," Opt. Express 16, 3136-3145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Miyai1, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, "Linearly-Polarized Single-Lobed Beam in a Surface-Emitting Photonic-Crystal Laser," Appl. Phys. Express 1, 062002-062004 (2008)
[CrossRef]

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, "On-chip Si/SiOx microtube refractometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106-094108 (2008)
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. Fan, "Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors," Opt. Express 15, 9139-9146 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, M. V. Kotlyar, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, "Exploring light propagating in photonic crystals with Fourier optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 2964-2971 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. Ben Bakir, Ch. Seassal. X. Letartre and P. Viktorovitch, "Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081113-081115 (2006)
[CrossRef]

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, D. Psaltis, "Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits," Opt. Lett. 31, 59-61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

H.Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole-mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1067-1069 (2004)
[CrossRef]

D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, M. Imada and S. Noda, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of a surface-emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal diode laser," Opt. Express 12, 1562-1568 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. Mouette, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J.-L. Leclercq, P Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, E. Jalaguier, P. Perreau and H. Moriceau, "Very low threshold vertical emitting laser operation in InP graphite photonic crystal slab on silicon," IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 526-528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d’Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5102-5104 (2002)
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, "Very-low-threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476-3478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

M. Notomi, H. Susuki, and T. Tamamura, "Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325-1327 (2001)
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, "Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design," Science 293, 1123-1125 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, "Large spontaneous emission factor of 0.1 in a microdisk injection laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13,403-405 (2001)].
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, "Room-temperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2982-2984 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Aspar, B.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, "Large spontaneous emission factor of 0.1 in a microdisk injection laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13,403-405 (2001)].
[CrossRef]

Ben Bakir, B.

B. Ben Bakir, Ch. Seassal. X. Letartre and P. Viktorovitch, "Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081113-081115 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Benyoucef, M.

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, "On-chip Si/SiOx microtube refractometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106-094108 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Bernardi, A.

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, "On-chip Si/SiOx microtube refractometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106-094108 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Bog, U.

Choi, J.

S. Kim, J. Choi, S. Lee, S. Kim, S. Yang, Y. Lee, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, "Optofluidic integration of a photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express. 16, 6515-6527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, "Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design," Science 293, 1123-1125 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cojocaru, C.

Dale, P. S.

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dodabalapur, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Drouard, E.

Eggleton, B. J.

Emery, T.

Erickson, D.

Fan, X.

Ferrier, L.

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, "Large spontaneous emission factor of 0.1 in a microdisk injection laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13,403-405 (2001)].
[CrossRef]

Gendry, M.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

Han, I.-Y.

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, "Room-temperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2982-2984 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Hollinger, G.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Houdré, R.

N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, M. V. Kotlyar, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, "Exploring light propagating in photonic crystals with Fourier optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 2964-2971 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.-K.

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, "Room-temperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2982-2984 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Imada, M.

D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, M. Imada and S. Noda, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of a surface-emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal diode laser," Opt. Express 12, 1562-1568 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, "Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design," Science 293, 1123-1125 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalaguier, E.

J. Mouette, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J.-L. Leclercq, P Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, E. Jalaguier, P. Perreau and H. Moriceau, "Very low threshold vertical emitting laser operation in InP graphite photonic crystal slab on silicon," IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 526-528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Karnutsch, C.

Kim, I.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-S.

H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, "Very-low-threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476-3478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. Choi, S. Lee, S. Kim, S. Yang, Y. Lee, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, "Optofluidic integration of a photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express. 16, 6515-6527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, J. Choi, S. Lee, S. Kim, S. Yang, Y. Lee, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, "Optofluidic integration of a photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express. 16, 6515-6527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiravittaya, S.

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, "On-chip Si/SiOx microtube refractometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106-094108 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Kotlyar, M. V.

N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, M. V. Kotlyar, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, "Exploring light propagating in photonic crystals with Fourier optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 2964-2971 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Kuramoti, E.

H.Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole-mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1067-1069 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-H.

H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, "Very-low-threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476-3478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Le Thomas, N.

N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, M. V. Kotlyar, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, "Exploring light propagating in photonic crystals with Fourier optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 2964-2971 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leclercq, J.-L.

J. Mouette, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J.-L. Leclercq, P Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, E. Jalaguier, P. Perreau and H. Moriceau, "Very low threshold vertical emitting laser operation in InP graphite photonic crystal slab on silicon," IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 526-528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. W.

Lee, R. K.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

S. Kim, J. Choi, S. Lee, S. Kim, S. Yang, Y. Lee, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, "Optofluidic integration of a photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express. 16, 6515-6527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.

S. Kim, J. Choi, S. Lee, S. Kim, S. Yang, Y. Lee, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, "Optofluidic integration of a photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express. 16, 6515-6527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, "Very-low-threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476-3478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, "Room-temperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2982-2984 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, "Very-low-threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476-3478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Letartre, X.

L. Ferrier, P. Rojo-Romeo, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, "Slow Bloch mode confinement in 2D photonic crystals for surface operating devices," Opt. Express 16, 3136-3145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, and A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, "Tuning a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection," Opt. Lett. 30, 64 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mouette, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J.-L. Leclercq, P Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, E. Jalaguier, P. Perreau and H. Moriceau, "Very low threshold vertical emitting laser operation in InP graphite photonic crystal slab on silicon," IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 526-528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d’Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5102-5104 (2002)
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, A.

McPhedran, R. C.

Meier, M.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Miyai, E.

E. Miyai1, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, "Linearly-Polarized Single-Lobed Beam in a Surface-Emitting Photonic-Crystal Laser," Appl. Phys. Express 1, 062002-062004 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, M.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, "Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design," Science 293, 1123-1125 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monat, C.

C. L. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomjenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, B. J. Eggleton, "Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities," Opt. Express 16, 15887-15896 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007)
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d’Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5102-5104 (2002)
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Monnier, P.

Moriceau, H.

J. Mouette, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J.-L. Leclercq, P Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, E. Jalaguier, P. Perreau and H. Moriceau, "Very low threshold vertical emitting laser operation in InP graphite photonic crystal slab on silicon," IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 526-528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mouette, J.

J. Mouette, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J.-L. Leclercq, P Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, E. Jalaguier, P. Perreau and H. Moriceau, "Very low threshold vertical emitting laser operation in InP graphite photonic crystal slab on silicon," IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 526-528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nalamasu, O.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, M. Imada and S. Noda, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of a surface-emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal diode laser," Opt. Express 12, 1562-1568 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, "Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design," Science 293, 1123-1125 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

H.Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole-mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1067-1069 (2004)
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, H. Susuki, and T. Tamamura, "Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325-1327 (2001)
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D.

N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, M. V. Kotlyar, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, "Exploring light propagating in photonic crystals with Fourier optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 2964-2971 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

Ohnishi, D.

Okano, T.

Painter, O.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.-K.

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, "Room-temperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2982-2984 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Perreau, P.

J. Mouette, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J.-L. Leclercq, P Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, E. Jalaguier, P. Perreau and H. Moriceau, "Very low threshold vertical emitting laser operation in InP graphite photonic crystal slab on silicon," IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 526-528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pocas, S.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Raineri, F.

Raj, R.

Rastelli, A.

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, "On-chip Si/SiOx microtube refractometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106-094108 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P

J. Mouette, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J.-L. Leclercq, P Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, E. Jalaguier, P. Perreau and H. Moriceau, "Very low threshold vertical emitting laser operation in InP graphite photonic crystal slab on silicon," IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 526-528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P.

S. Kim, J. Choi, S. Lee, S. Kim, S. Yang, Y. Lee, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, "Optofluidic integration of a photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express. 16, 6515-6527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d’Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5102-5104 (2002)
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rockwood, T.

Rojo-Romeo, P.

L. Ferrier, P. Rojo-Romeo, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, "Slow Bloch mode confinement in 2D photonic crystals for surface operating devices," Opt. Express 16, 3136-3145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mouette, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J.-L. Leclercq, P Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, E. Jalaguier, P. Perreau and H. Moriceau, "Very low threshold vertical emitting laser operation in InP graphite photonic crystal slab on silicon," IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 526-528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d’Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5102-5104 (2002)
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H.Y.

H.Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole-mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1067-1069 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, "Very-low-threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476-3478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, "Room-temperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2982-2984 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, D. Psaltis, "Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits," Opt. Lett. 31, 59-61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, O. G.

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, "On-chip Si/SiOx microtube refractometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106-094108 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

S. Kim, J. Choi, S. Lee, S. Kim, S. Yang, Y. Lee, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, "Optofluidic integration of a photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express. 16, 6515-6527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, and A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, "Tuning a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection," Opt. Lett. 30, 64 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mouette, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J.-L. Leclercq, P Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, E. Jalaguier, P. Perreau and H. Moriceau, "Very low threshold vertical emitting laser operation in InP graphite photonic crystal slab on silicon," IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 526-528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d’Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5102-5104 (2002)
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, Ch.

B. Ben Bakir, Ch. Seassal. X. Letartre and P. Viktorovitch, "Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081113-081115 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Segawa, T.

H.Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole-mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1067-1069 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Slisher, R. E.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. L.

Song, D.-S.

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, "Room-temperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2982-2984 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Song, H.-W.

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, "Room-temperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2982-2984 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Songmuang, R.

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, "On-chip Si/SiOx microtube refractometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106-094108 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Susuki, H.

M. Notomi, H. Susuki, and T. Tamamura, "Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325-1327 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Suter, J. D.

Tamamura, T.

M. Notomi, H. Susuki, and T. Tamamura, "Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325-1327 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Thurmer, D. J.

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, "On-chip Si/SiOx microtube refractometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106-094108 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Timko, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Tomjenovic-Hanic, S.

Ushigome, R.

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, "Large spontaneous emission factor of 0.1 in a microdisk injection laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13,403-405 (2001)].
[CrossRef]

Viktorovitch, P.

S. Kim, J. Choi, S. Lee, S. Kim, S. Yang, Y. Lee, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, "Optofluidic integration of a photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express. 16, 6515-6527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ferrier, P. Rojo-Romeo, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, "Slow Bloch mode confinement in 2D photonic crystals for surface operating devices," Opt. Express 16, 3136-3145 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, and A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, "Tuning a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection," Opt. Lett. 30, 64 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mouette, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J.-L. Leclercq, P Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, E. Jalaguier, P. Perreau and H. Moriceau, "Very low threshold vertical emitting laser operation in InP graphite photonic crystal slab on silicon," IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 526-528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d’Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5102-5104 (2002)
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

Wu, D. K.

Yang, S.

S. Kim, J. Choi, S. Lee, S. Kim, S. Yang, Y. Lee, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, "Optofluidic integration of a photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express. 16, 6515-6527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, M.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, "Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design," Science 293, 1123-1125 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

E. Miyai1, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, "Linearly-Polarized Single-Lobed Beam in a Surface-Emitting Photonic-Crystal Laser," Appl. Phys. Express 1, 062002-062004 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

H.Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole-mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1067-1069 (2004)
[CrossRef]

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, "On-chip Si/SiOx microtube refractometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106-094108 (2008)
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999)
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, H. Susuki, and T. Tamamura, "Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325-1327 (2001)
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, "Very-low-threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476-3478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d’Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: In-plane Bloch mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5102-5104 (2002)
[CrossRef]

B. Ben Bakir, Ch. Seassal. X. Letartre and P. Viktorovitch, "Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081113-081115 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, "Room-temperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2982-2984 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Lett. (1)

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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, "Large spontaneous emission factor of 0.1 in a microdisk injection laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13,403-405 (2001)].
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S. Kim, J. Choi, S. Lee, S. Kim, S. Yang, Y. Lee, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, P. Viktorovitch, "Optofluidic integration of a photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express. 16, 6515-6527 (2008).
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http://alioth.debian.org/projects/tessa/

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

2D PC structures consisting in (a) a square lattice of high index microrods bonded on a low index layer and (b) a square lattice of air hole drilled in a high index layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Cross-section of the studied structures (b) Reciprocal space and band diagram (TE polarization) for a square lattice of dielectric rods embedded in silica (filling factors 50%): the studied A1 SBM is circled and its electric field intensity distribution is also given.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of the fabricated photonic crystal structure consisting of 30×30 microrods. The experimental lattice parameter is 720nm and the InP filling factor is approximately 46%.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Light-in Light-out curve under pulsed optical excitation at room temperature(b) PL spectrum of the device above threshold (1.4Pth)..

Fig 5.
Fig 5.

Experimental setup (F1 is the microscope objective focal length, F2 is the focal length of the achromatic lens L2): (a) Fourier space imaging of the light emitted from the sample; one emission direction corresponds to one point (kx,ky) on the image. (b) Real space imaging of the photoluminescence intensity emitted from the sample.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Angle resolved measurements: (a) photoluminescence emission intensity of the Bloch mode in real space and (b) far field pattern of the laser mode, above threshold.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Peak wavelength of the microlaser plotted versus the peak pump power.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Carrier induced optical confinement scheme in an optically pumped PC resonator. (b) Real space image of the field intensity repartition inside the PC structure.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured photoluminescence spectra of the microlaser (a) without PMMA (b) with a PPMA layer on top of the pillar photonic crystal.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Peak pump power at threshold for various type of 2D PC surface emitting microlasers.

Equations (1)

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μ2λ3μm

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