Abstract

In keeping with consumers’ preferences for electronic products of ever smaller size and enhanced functionality, it is necessary to reduce the profile of the auto-focusing actuators used in camera phones without sacrificing their performance. Accordingly, this study modifies the Voice Coil Motor (VCM) actuator proposed by the current group in a previous study (C. S. Liu and P. D. Lin, Opt. Express, 16, 2533–2540, 2008) to accomplish a miniaturized auto-focusing actuator for cell phone camera modules with minimal power consumption. The proposed device comprises a VCM, a closed-loop position control system, a magnetoconductive plate, and a lens support structure to drive the lens to the optimal focusing position. The experimental results show that the actuator has a zero holding current when maintaining the lens in the specified focusing position. Overall, it is shown that compared to existing VCM actuators, the proposed actuator has both a higher power efficiency and an improved positioning repeatability.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. M. Sohn, S. H. Yang, S. W. Kim, K. H. Baek, and W. H. Paik, "SoC design of an auto-focus driving image signal processor for mobile camera applications," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 52, 10-16 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. W. Chiu, P. C. P. Chao, and D.Y. Wu, "Optimal design of magnetically actuated optical image stabilizer mechanism for cameras in mobile phones via genetic algorithm," IEEE Trans. Magn. 43, 2582-2584 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Chung, "Development of compact auto focus actuator for camera phone by applying new electromagnetic configuration," Proc. SPIE 6048, 60480J-1-60480J-9 (2005).
  4. S. Manabu and Y. Morimasa, "Lens drive device," PAJ 2002-365514 (2002).
  5. S. K. Lin, C. M. Wang, and S. J. Wang, "Design and implementation of antihandshaking position control for a voice coil motor," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F128-1-07F128-3 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. C.-P. Chao, C. W. Chiu, H. K. Liang, and N. Y.-Y. Kao, "Intelligent actuation strategy via image feedbacks for a magnetically actuated autofocusing module in mobile phones," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F123-1-07F123-3 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. W. Chiu, P. C.-P. Chao, N. Y.-Y. Kao, and F. K. Young, "Optimal design and experimental verification of a magnetically actuated optical image stabilization system for cameras in mobile phones," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F136-1-07F136-3 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. J. Wang, M. L. Lai, J. J. Ju, D. R. Huang, and S. K. Lin, "Design of a voice coil motor used in the focusing system of a digital video camera," IEEE Trans. Magn. 41, 3979-3981 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. K. Lin, L.T. Kuo, S. J. Wang, J. J. Ju, and D. R. Huang, "Low power consumption focusing actuator for a mini video camera," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08R901-1-08R901-3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. C. Yu and T. S. Liu, "Adaptive model-following control for slim voice coil motor type optical image stabilization actuator," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F114-1-07F114-3 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. P. Ko, S. Kim, S. N. Borodinas, P. E. Vasiljev, C. Y. Kang, and S. J. Yoon, "A novel tiny ultrasonic linear motor using the radial mode of a bimorph," Sens. Actuators A 125, 477-481 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. http://www.1limited.co.uk/
  13. http://www.newscaletech.com/
  14. C. C. Cheng, C. A. Chang, and J. A. Yeh, "Variable focus dielectric liquid droplet lens," Opt. Express 14, 4101-4106 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Nose, S Masuda, and S Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Z. Feng, S. Feng, Z. Y. Li, K. Ren, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Influence of surface termination morphologies on the imaging properties of a composite two-dimensional photonic crystal lens," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053702-1-053702-3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Choi, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, and S. D. Lee, "Fabrication of a focal length variable microlens array based on a nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Mater. 21, 643-646 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, "Liquid-crystal microlens arrays using patterned polymer networks," Opt. Lett. 29, 1608-1610 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. Ren, D. W. Fox, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability and low operating voltage," Opt. Express 15, 11328-11335 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, "Realization of liquid crystal lens of large aperture and low driving voltages using thin layer of weakly conductive material," Opt. Express 16, 4302-4308 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor," Opt. Express 14, 8031-8036 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Variable-focus liquid lens," Opt. Express 15, 5931-5936 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Reichelt and H. Zappe, "Design of spherically corrected, achromatic variable-focus liquid lenses," Opt. Express 15, 14146-14154 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. Ren, H. Xianyu, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, "Adaptive dielectric liquid lens," Opt. Express 19, 14954-14960 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. W. Lee and S. S. Lee, "Focal tunable liquid lens integrated with an electromagnetic actuator," Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 121129-1-121129-3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. J. Chang, K. Mohseni, and V. M. Bright, "Fabrication of tapered SU-8 structure and effect of sidewall angle for a variable focus microlens using EWOD," Sens. Actuators A 136, 546-553 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C. S. Liu, and P. D. Lin, "A miniaturized low-power VCM actuator for auto-focusing applications," Opt. Express 16, 2533-2540 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Standard Mobile Imaging Architecture, http://www.smia-forum.org/.
  30. http://www.shicoh.com/e/index.ht.
  31. M. Murphy, M. Conway, and G. Casey, "Lens drivers focus on performance in high-resolution camera modules," Analog Dialogue40-11, 1-3 (2006).
  32. C. S. Liu and P. D. Lin, "High positioning repeatability of miniature actuator," Sens. Mater. 20, 319-326 (2008).

2008 (8)

S. K. Lin, C. M. Wang, and S. J. Wang, "Design and implementation of antihandshaking position control for a voice coil motor," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F128-1-07F128-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. C.-P. Chao, C. W. Chiu, H. K. Liang, and N. Y.-Y. Kao, "Intelligent actuation strategy via image feedbacks for a magnetically actuated autofocusing module in mobile phones," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F123-1-07F123-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chiu, P. C.-P. Chao, N. Y.-Y. Kao, and F. K. Young, "Optimal design and experimental verification of a magnetically actuated optical image stabilization system for cameras in mobile phones," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F136-1-07F136-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu and T. S. Liu, "Adaptive model-following control for slim voice coil motor type optical image stabilization actuator," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F114-1-07F114-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, "Realization of liquid crystal lens of large aperture and low driving voltages using thin layer of weakly conductive material," Opt. Express 16, 4302-4308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, H. Xianyu, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, "Adaptive dielectric liquid lens," Opt. Express 19, 14954-14960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, and P. D. Lin, "A miniaturized low-power VCM actuator for auto-focusing applications," Opt. Express 16, 2533-2540 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Liu and P. D. Lin, "High positioning repeatability of miniature actuator," Sens. Mater. 20, 319-326 (2008).

2007 (6)

H. Ren, D. W. Fox, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability and low operating voltage," Opt. Express 15, 11328-11335 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Lee and S. S. Lee, "Focal tunable liquid lens integrated with an electromagnetic actuator," Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 121129-1-121129-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chang, K. Mohseni, and V. M. Bright, "Fabrication of tapered SU-8 structure and effect of sidewall angle for a variable focus microlens using EWOD," Sens. Actuators A 136, 546-553 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Variable-focus liquid lens," Opt. Express 15, 5931-5936 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Reichelt and H. Zappe, "Design of spherically corrected, achromatic variable-focus liquid lenses," Opt. Express 15, 14146-14154 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Chiu, P. C. P. Chao, and D.Y. Wu, "Optimal design of magnetically actuated optical image stabilizer mechanism for cameras in mobile phones via genetic algorithm," IEEE Trans. Magn. 43, 2582-2584 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (8)

S. M. Sohn, S. H. Yang, S. W. Kim, K. H. Baek, and W. H. Paik, "SoC design of an auto-focus driving image signal processor for mobile camera applications," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 52, 10-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Feng, S. Feng, Z. Y. Li, K. Ren, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Influence of surface termination morphologies on the imaging properties of a composite two-dimensional photonic crystal lens," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053702-1-053702-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor," Opt. Express 14, 8031-8036 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. K. Lin, L.T. Kuo, S. J. Wang, J. J. Ju, and D. R. Huang, "Low power consumption focusing actuator for a mini video camera," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08R901-1-08R901-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ko, S. Kim, S. N. Borodinas, P. E. Vasiljev, C. Y. Kang, and S. J. Yoon, "A novel tiny ultrasonic linear motor using the radial mode of a bimorph," Sens. Actuators A 125, 477-481 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Cheng, C. A. Chang, and J. A. Yeh, "Variable focus dielectric liquid droplet lens," Opt. Express 14, 4101-4106 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Murphy, M. Conway, and G. Casey, "Lens drivers focus on performance in high-resolution camera modules," Analog Dialogue40-11, 1-3 (2006).

2005 (1)

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. J. Wang, M. L. Lai, J. J. Ju, D. R. Huang, and S. K. Lin, "Design of a voice coil motor used in the focusing system of a digital video camera," IEEE Trans. Magn. 41, 3979-3981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

Y. Choi, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, and S. D. Lee, "Fabrication of a focal length variable microlens array based on a nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Mater. 21, 643-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. Nose, S Masuda, and S Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aizenberg, J.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P. A.

Baek, K. H.

S. M. Sohn, S. H. Yang, S. W. Kim, K. H. Baek, and W. H. Paik, "SoC design of an auto-focus driving image signal processor for mobile camera applications," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 52, 10-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borodinas, S. N.

H. P. Ko, S. Kim, S. N. Borodinas, P. E. Vasiljev, C. Y. Kang, and S. J. Yoon, "A novel tiny ultrasonic linear motor using the radial mode of a bimorph," Sens. Actuators A 125, 477-481 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bright, V. M.

Y. J. Chang, K. Mohseni, and V. M. Bright, "Fabrication of tapered SU-8 structure and effect of sidewall angle for a variable focus microlens using EWOD," Sens. Actuators A 136, 546-553 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Casey, G.

M. Murphy, M. Conway, and G. Casey, "Lens drivers focus on performance in high-resolution camera modules," Analog Dialogue40-11, 1-3 (2006).

Chandra, D.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. A.

Chang, Y. J.

Y. J. Chang, K. Mohseni, and V. M. Bright, "Fabrication of tapered SU-8 structure and effect of sidewall angle for a variable focus microlens using EWOD," Sens. Actuators A 136, 546-553 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chao, P. C. P.

C. W. Chiu, P. C. P. Chao, and D.Y. Wu, "Optimal design of magnetically actuated optical image stabilizer mechanism for cameras in mobile phones via genetic algorithm," IEEE Trans. Magn. 43, 2582-2584 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chao, P. C.-P.

P. C.-P. Chao, C. W. Chiu, H. K. Liang, and N. Y.-Y. Kao, "Intelligent actuation strategy via image feedbacks for a magnetically actuated autofocusing module in mobile phones," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F123-1-07F123-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chiu, P. C.-P. Chao, N. Y.-Y. Kao, and F. K. Young, "Optimal design and experimental verification of a magnetically actuated optical image stabilization system for cameras in mobile phones," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F136-1-07F136-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B. Y.

Z. Feng, S. Feng, Z. Y. Li, K. Ren, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Influence of surface termination morphologies on the imaging properties of a composite two-dimensional photonic crystal lens," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053702-1-053702-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. C.

Chiu, C. W.

P. C.-P. Chao, C. W. Chiu, H. K. Liang, and N. Y.-Y. Kao, "Intelligent actuation strategy via image feedbacks for a magnetically actuated autofocusing module in mobile phones," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F123-1-07F123-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chiu, P. C.-P. Chao, N. Y.-Y. Kao, and F. K. Young, "Optimal design and experimental verification of a magnetically actuated optical image stabilization system for cameras in mobile phones," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F136-1-07F136-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chiu, P. C. P. Chao, and D.Y. Wu, "Optimal design of magnetically actuated optical image stabilizer mechanism for cameras in mobile phones via genetic algorithm," IEEE Trans. Magn. 43, 2582-2584 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, and S. D. Lee, "Fabrication of a focal length variable microlens array based on a nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Mater. 21, 643-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Conway, M.

M. Murphy, M. Conway, and G. Casey, "Lens drivers focus on performance in high-resolution camera modules," Analog Dialogue40-11, 1-3 (2006).

Fan, Y. H.

Feng, S.

Z. Feng, S. Feng, Z. Y. Li, K. Ren, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Influence of surface termination morphologies on the imaging properties of a composite two-dimensional photonic crystal lens," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053702-1-053702-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z.

Z. Feng, S. Feng, Z. Y. Li, K. Ren, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Influence of surface termination morphologies on the imaging properties of a composite two-dimensional photonic crystal lens," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053702-1-053702-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fox, D.

Fox, D. W.

Hong, K. S.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D. R.

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. K. Lin, L.T. Kuo, S. J. Wang, J. J. Ju, and D. R. Huang, "Low power consumption focusing actuator for a mini video camera," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08R901-1-08R901-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. J. Wang, M. L. Lai, J. J. Ju, D. R. Huang, and S. K. Lin, "Design of a voice coil motor used in the focusing system of a digital video camera," IEEE Trans. Magn. 41, 3979-3981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J. J.

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. K. Lin, L.T. Kuo, S. J. Wang, J. J. Ju, and D. R. Huang, "Low power consumption focusing actuator for a mini video camera," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08R901-1-08R901-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. J. Wang, M. L. Lai, J. J. Ju, D. R. Huang, and S. K. Lin, "Design of a voice coil motor used in the focusing system of a digital video camera," IEEE Trans. Magn. 41, 3979-3981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, C. Y.

H. P. Ko, S. Kim, S. N. Borodinas, P. E. Vasiljev, C. Y. Kang, and S. J. Yoon, "A novel tiny ultrasonic linear motor using the radial mode of a bimorph," Sens. Actuators A 125, 477-481 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kao, N. Y.-Y.

P. C.-P. Chao, C. W. Chiu, H. K. Liang, and N. Y.-Y. Kao, "Intelligent actuation strategy via image feedbacks for a magnetically actuated autofocusing module in mobile phones," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F123-1-07F123-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chiu, P. C.-P. Chao, N. Y.-Y. Kao, and F. K. Young, "Optimal design and experimental verification of a magnetically actuated optical image stabilization system for cameras in mobile phones," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F136-1-07F136-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

Y. Choi, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, and S. D. Lee, "Fabrication of a focal length variable microlens array based on a nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Mater. 21, 643-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

H. P. Ko, S. Kim, S. N. Borodinas, P. E. Vasiljev, C. Y. Kang, and S. J. Yoon, "A novel tiny ultrasonic linear motor using the radial mode of a bimorph," Sens. Actuators A 125, 477-481 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

S. M. Sohn, S. H. Yang, S. W. Kim, K. H. Baek, and W. H. Paik, "SoC design of an auto-focus driving image signal processor for mobile camera applications," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 52, 10-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H. P.

H. P. Ko, S. Kim, S. N. Borodinas, P. E. Vasiljev, C. Y. Kang, and S. J. Yoon, "A novel tiny ultrasonic linear motor using the radial mode of a bimorph," Sens. Actuators A 125, 477-481 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, L.T.

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. K. Lin, L.T. Kuo, S. J. Wang, J. J. Ju, and D. R. Huang, "Low power consumption focusing actuator for a mini video camera," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08R901-1-08R901-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lai, M. L.

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. J. Wang, M. L. Lai, J. J. Ju, D. R. Huang, and S. K. Lin, "Design of a voice coil motor used in the focusing system of a digital video camera," IEEE Trans. Magn. 41, 3979-3981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. D.

Y. Choi, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, and S. D. Lee, "Fabrication of a focal length variable microlens array based on a nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Mater. 21, 643-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

S. W. Lee and S. S. Lee, "Focal tunable liquid lens integrated with an electromagnetic actuator," Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 121129-1-121129-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. W.

S. W. Lee and S. S. Lee, "Focal tunable liquid lens integrated with an electromagnetic actuator," Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 121129-1-121129-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. Y.

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. K. Lin, L.T. Kuo, S. J. Wang, J. J. Ju, and D. R. Huang, "Low power consumption focusing actuator for a mini video camera," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08R901-1-08R901-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. J. Wang, M. L. Lai, J. J. Ju, D. R. Huang, and S. K. Lin, "Design of a voice coil motor used in the focusing system of a digital video camera," IEEE Trans. Magn. 41, 3979-3981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

Z. Feng, S. Feng, Z. Y. Li, K. Ren, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Influence of surface termination morphologies on the imaging properties of a composite two-dimensional photonic crystal lens," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053702-1-053702-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. K.

P. C.-P. Chao, C. W. Chiu, H. K. Liang, and N. Y.-Y. Kao, "Intelligent actuation strategy via image feedbacks for a magnetically actuated autofocusing module in mobile phones," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F123-1-07F123-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, P. D.

C. S. Liu, and P. D. Lin, "A miniaturized low-power VCM actuator for auto-focusing applications," Opt. Express 16, 2533-2540 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Liu and P. D. Lin, "High positioning repeatability of miniature actuator," Sens. Mater. 20, 319-326 (2008).

Lin, S. K.

S. K. Lin, C. M. Wang, and S. J. Wang, "Design and implementation of antihandshaking position control for a voice coil motor," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F128-1-07F128-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. K. Lin, L.T. Kuo, S. J. Wang, J. J. Ju, and D. R. Huang, "Low power consumption focusing actuator for a mini video camera," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08R901-1-08R901-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. J. Wang, M. L. Lai, J. J. Ju, D. R. Huang, and S. K. Lin, "Design of a voice coil motor used in the focusing system of a digital video camera," IEEE Trans. Magn. 41, 3979-3981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. S.

C. S. Liu and P. D. Lin, "High positioning repeatability of miniature actuator," Sens. Mater. 20, 319-326 (2008).

C. S. Liu, and P. D. Lin, "A miniaturized low-power VCM actuator for auto-focusing applications," Opt. Express 16, 2533-2540 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T. S.

H. C. Yu and T. S. Liu, "Adaptive model-following control for slim voice coil motor type optical image stabilization actuator," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F114-1-07F114-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, S

T. Nose, S Masuda, and S Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mohseni, K.

Y. J. Chang, K. Mohseni, and V. M. Bright, "Fabrication of tapered SU-8 structure and effect of sidewall angle for a variable focus microlens using EWOD," Sens. Actuators A 136, 546-553 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, M.

M. Murphy, M. Conway, and G. Casey, "Lens drivers focus on performance in high-resolution camera modules," Analog Dialogue40-11, 1-3 (2006).

Nose, T.

T. Nose, S Masuda, and S Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paik, W. H.

S. M. Sohn, S. H. Yang, S. W. Kim, K. H. Baek, and W. H. Paik, "SoC design of an auto-focus driving image signal processor for mobile camera applications," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 52, 10-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

Y. Choi, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, and S. D. Lee, "Fabrication of a focal length variable microlens array based on a nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Mater. 21, 643-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reichelt, S.

Ren, H.

Ren, K.

Z. Feng, S. Feng, Z. Y. Li, K. Ren, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Influence of surface termination morphologies on the imaging properties of a composite two-dimensional photonic crystal lens," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053702-1-053702-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S

T. Nose, S Masuda, and S Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

Sharonov, A.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, S. M.

S. M. Sohn, S. H. Yang, S. W. Kim, K. H. Baek, and W. H. Paik, "SoC design of an auto-focus driving image signal processor for mobile camera applications," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 52, 10-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vasiljev, P. E.

H. P. Ko, S. Kim, S. N. Borodinas, P. E. Vasiljev, C. Y. Kang, and S. J. Yoon, "A novel tiny ultrasonic linear motor using the radial mode of a bimorph," Sens. Actuators A 125, 477-481 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

Wang, C. M.

S. K. Lin, C. M. Wang, and S. J. Wang, "Design and implementation of antihandshaking position control for a voice coil motor," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F128-1-07F128-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. J.

S. K. Lin, C. M. Wang, and S. J. Wang, "Design and implementation of antihandshaking position control for a voice coil motor," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F128-1-07F128-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. K. Lin, L.T. Kuo, S. J. Wang, J. J. Ju, and D. R. Huang, "Low power consumption focusing actuator for a mini video camera," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08R901-1-08R901-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. J. Wang, M. L. Lai, J. J. Ju, D. R. Huang, and S. K. Lin, "Design of a voice coil motor used in the focusing system of a digital video camera," IEEE Trans. Magn. 41, 3979-3981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

Wu, D.Y.

C. W. Chiu, P. C. P. Chao, and D.Y. Wu, "Optimal design of magnetically actuated optical image stabilizer mechanism for cameras in mobile phones via genetic algorithm," IEEE Trans. Magn. 43, 2582-2584 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Xianyu, H.

H. Ren, H. Xianyu, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, "Adaptive dielectric liquid lens," Opt. Express 19, 14954-14960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

H. Ren, H. Xianyu, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, "Adaptive dielectric liquid lens," Opt. Express 19, 14954-14960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. H.

S. M. Sohn, S. H. Yang, S. W. Kim, K. H. Baek, and W. H. Paik, "SoC design of an auto-focus driving image signal processor for mobile camera applications," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 52, 10-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ye, M.

Yeh, J. A.

Yoon, S. J.

H. P. Ko, S. Kim, S. N. Borodinas, P. E. Vasiljev, C. Y. Kang, and S. J. Yoon, "A novel tiny ultrasonic linear motor using the radial mode of a bimorph," Sens. Actuators A 125, 477-481 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Young, F. K.

C. W. Chiu, P. C.-P. Chao, N. Y.-Y. Kao, and F. K. Young, "Optimal design and experimental verification of a magnetically actuated optical image stabilization system for cameras in mobile phones," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F136-1-07F136-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. C.

H. C. Yu and T. S. Liu, "Adaptive model-following control for slim voice coil motor type optical image stabilization actuator," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F114-1-07F114-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. K. Lin, L.T. Kuo, S. J. Wang, J. J. Ju, and D. R. Huang, "Low power consumption focusing actuator for a mini video camera," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08R901-1-08R901-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. J. Wang, M. L. Lai, J. J. Ju, D. R. Huang, and S. K. Lin, "Design of a voice coil motor used in the focusing system of a digital video camera," IEEE Trans. Magn. 41, 3979-3981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zappe, H.

Zhang, D. Z.

Z. Feng, S. Feng, Z. Y. Li, K. Ren, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Influence of surface termination morphologies on the imaging properties of a composite two-dimensional photonic crystal lens," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053702-1-053702-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Analog Dialogue (1)

M. Murphy, M. Conway, and G. Casey, "Lens drivers focus on performance in high-resolution camera modules," Analog Dialogue40-11, 1-3 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. W. Lee and S. S. Lee, "Focal tunable liquid lens integrated with an electromagnetic actuator," Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 121129-1-121129-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. (1)

S. M. Sohn, S. H. Yang, S. W. Kim, K. H. Baek, and W. H. Paik, "SoC design of an auto-focus driving image signal processor for mobile camera applications," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 52, 10-16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn. (2)

C. W. Chiu, P. C. P. Chao, and D.Y. Wu, "Optimal design of magnetically actuated optical image stabilizer mechanism for cameras in mobile phones via genetic algorithm," IEEE Trans. Magn. 43, 2582-2584 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. J. Wang, M. L. Lai, J. J. Ju, D. R. Huang, and S. K. Lin, "Design of a voice coil motor used in the focusing system of a digital video camera," IEEE Trans. Magn. 41, 3979-3981 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

H. C. Yu, T. Y. Lee, S. K. Lin, L.T. Kuo, S. J. Wang, J. J. Ju, and D. R. Huang, "Low power consumption focusing actuator for a mini video camera," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08R901-1-08R901-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu and T. S. Liu, "Adaptive model-following control for slim voice coil motor type optical image stabilization actuator," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F114-1-07F114-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Lin, C. M. Wang, and S. J. Wang, "Design and implementation of antihandshaking position control for a voice coil motor," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F128-1-07F128-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. C.-P. Chao, C. W. Chiu, H. K. Liang, and N. Y.-Y. Kao, "Intelligent actuation strategy via image feedbacks for a magnetically actuated autofocusing module in mobile phones," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F123-1-07F123-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chiu, P. C.-P. Chao, N. Y.-Y. Kao, and F. K. Young, "Optimal design and experimental verification of a magnetically actuated optical image stabilization system for cameras in mobile phones," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07F136-1-07F136-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Feng, S. Feng, Z. Y. Li, K. Ren, B. Y. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Influence of surface termination morphologies on the imaging properties of a composite two-dimensional photonic crystal lens," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 053702-1-053702-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

K. S. Hong, J. Wang, A. Sharonov, D. Chandra, J. Aizenberg, and S. Yang, "Tunable microfluidic optical devices with an integrated microlens array," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1660-1666 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Nose, S Masuda, and S Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. Choi, J. H. Park, J. H. Kim, and S. D. Lee, "Fabrication of a focal length variable microlens array based on a nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Mater. 21, 643-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (2)

Y. J. Chang, K. Mohseni, and V. M. Bright, "Fabrication of tapered SU-8 structure and effect of sidewall angle for a variable focus microlens using EWOD," Sens. Actuators A 136, 546-553 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ko, S. Kim, S. N. Borodinas, P. E. Vasiljev, C. Y. Kang, and S. J. Yoon, "A novel tiny ultrasonic linear motor using the radial mode of a bimorph," Sens. Actuators A 125, 477-481 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Mater. (1)

C. S. Liu and P. D. Lin, "High positioning repeatability of miniature actuator," Sens. Mater. 20, 319-326 (2008).

Other (6)

Standard Mobile Imaging Architecture, http://www.smia-forum.org/.

http://www.shicoh.com/e/index.ht.

http://www.1limited.co.uk/

http://www.newscaletech.com/

M. J. Chung, "Development of compact auto focus actuator for camera phone by applying new electromagnetic configuration," Proc. SPIE 6048, 60480J-1-60480J-9 (2005).

S. Manabu and Y. Morimasa, "Lens drive device," PAJ 2002-365514 (2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Image quality of 2 M pixel lens module (a) without and (b) with auto-focusing function enabled, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Free-body force diagram of support structure of VCM actuator in vertical orientation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Structure of modified VCM actuator with magnetoconductive plate.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Forces acting in modified VCM actuator.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Forces acting on modified VCM actuator when in a vertical orientation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Magnetic flux distribution in modified VCM actuator.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulation results obtained for variation of maximal Lorentz force FVCM and magnetic attraction force with lens holder displacement.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Photograph of VCM actuator prototype.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Block diagram showing experiment setup used to characterize VCM actuator.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Variation of measured output displacement with input displacement command (from δ=0.1mm to δ=0.3mm for three different actuator postures.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Design parameters of modified VCM actuator.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

FVCM=FW+FF
FF=μ FMA .
FVCM=FW+μFMA .
FW=FF
FMA=FN.
FW=μ FMA .

Metrics