Abstract

Effect of filler metals (Bi, 80Au-20Sn alloy, Sn, and In) on the temperature sensitivity of a birefringent side-hole fiber was investigated. The temperature sensitivity of the fiber was found to increase by introduction of the filler metals and the sensitivity gradually increased with the increase of the thermal expansion coefficient of metals. The sensitivity was larger for the filler metals with the larger thermal expansion coefficient.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Nada, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071-1088 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. H. Kim and J. U. Kang, "Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity," Opt. Express 12, 4490-4495 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, "Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113-151115 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, A. Lin, C.-L. Lee, J. Lee, and W.-T. Han, "Large temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on the birefringent holey fiber filled with metal indium," Opt. Express 17, 1789-1794 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. S. Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, Y.-G. Han, W.-T. Han, and Y. Chung, "The temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining side-hole fiber," Opt. Express 12, 7962-7967 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, "Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors," Sensors 7, 2970-2983 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. De la Rosa, L. A. Zenteno, A. N. Starodumov, and D. Monzon, "All-fiber absolute temperature sensor using an unbalanced high-birefringence Sagnac loop," Opt. Lett. 22, 481-483 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Fokine, L. E. Nilsson, A. Claesson, D. Berlemont, L. Kjellberg, L. Krummenacher, and W. Margulis, "Integrated fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for electro-optic switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 1643-1645 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, "Large electro optic modulation in a thermally-poled germanosilicate fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1177-1179 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. H. Kim, S. Moon, U. C. Paek, and W. T. Han, "All fiber polarimetric modulation using an electro-optic fiber with internal Pb-Sn electrodes," Opt. Express 14, 11234-11241 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Li, N. Myrén, W. Margulis, B. Ortega, G. Puerto, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, "Systems measurement of 2x2 poled fiber switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2571-2573 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Myrén and W. Margulis, "All-fiber electrooptical mode-locking and tuning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 2047-2049 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Tarasenko, N. Myren, W. Margulis, and I. C. S. Carvalho, "All-fiber electrooptical polarization control," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2006) paper OWE3.
  15. G. Chesini, C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, M. Fokine, I. C. S. Carvalho, and J. C. Knight, "All-fiber devices based on photonic crystal fibers with integrated electrodes," Opt. Express 17, 1660-1665 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, R. M. Sova, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, and J. U. Kang, "Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot-Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269-271 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC press, 2000), Sec. 8.
  18. D. R. Olsen and H. M. Berg, "Properties of die bond alloys relating to thermal fatigue," IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. 2, 257-263 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2007

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, "Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113-151115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, Y.-G. Han, W.-T. Han, and Y. Chung, "The temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining side-hole fiber," Opt. Express 12, 7962-7967 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, "Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors," Sensors 7, 2970-2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

J. Li, N. Myrén, W. Margulis, B. Ortega, G. Puerto, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, "Systems measurement of 2x2 poled fiber switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2571-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Myrén and W. Margulis, "All-fiber electrooptical mode-locking and tuning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 2047-2049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kim and J. U. Kang, "Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity," Opt. Express 12, 4490-4495 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, R. M. Sova, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, and J. U. Kang, "Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot-Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1997

1995

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, "Large electro optic modulation in a thermally-poled germanosilicate fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1177-1179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. Nada, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071-1088 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. R. Olsen and H. M. Berg, "Properties of die bond alloys relating to thermal fatigue," IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. 2, 257-263 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, J. M.

O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, "Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors," Sensors 7, 2970-2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Belmonte, M.

J. Li, N. Myrén, W. Margulis, B. Ortega, G. Puerto, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, "Systems measurement of 2x2 poled fiber switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2571-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berg, H. M.

D. R. Olsen and H. M. Berg, "Properties of die bond alloys relating to thermal fatigue," IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. 2, 257-263 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Berlemont, D.

Capmany, J.

J. Li, N. Myrén, W. Margulis, B. Ortega, G. Puerto, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, "Systems measurement of 2x2 poled fiber switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2571-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, I. C. S.

Chesini, G.

Chung, Y.

D. S. Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, Y.-G. Han, W.-T. Han, and Y. Chung, "The temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining side-hole fiber," Opt. Express 12, 7962-7967 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, R. M. Sova, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, and J. U. Kang, "Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot-Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Claesson, A.

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

De la Rosa, E.

de Matos, C. J. S.

Demokan, M. S.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, "Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113-151115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, S.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, "Large electro optic modulation in a thermally-poled germanosilicate fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1177-1179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fokine, M.

Frazao, O.

O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, "Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors," Sensors 7, 2970-2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, T.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, "Large electro optic modulation in a thermally-poled germanosilicate fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1177-1179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Han, W. T.

Han, W.-T.

B. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, A. Lin, C.-L. Lee, J. Lee, and W.-T. Han, "Large temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on the birefringent holey fiber filled with metal indium," Opt. Express 17, 1789-1794 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, Y.-G. Han, W.-T. Han, and Y. Chung, "The temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining side-hole fiber," Opt. Express 12, 7962-7967 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. G.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, R. M. Sova, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, and J. U. Kang, "Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot-Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.-G.

D. S. Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, Y.-G. Han, W.-T. Han, and Y. Chung, "The temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining side-hole fiber," Opt. Express 12, 7962-7967 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

D. H. Kim and J. U. Kang, "Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity," Opt. Express 12, 4490-4495 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, R. M. Sova, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, and J. U. Kang, "Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot-Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

Kim, C. S.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, R. M. Sova, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, and J. U. Kang, "Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot-Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. H.

Kjellberg, L.

Knight, J. C.

Krummenacher, L.

Lee, C.-L.

Lee, J.

Lee, S. H.

Li, J.

J. Li, N. Myrén, W. Margulis, B. Ortega, G. Puerto, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, "Systems measurement of 2x2 poled fiber switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2571-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, A.

B. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, A. Lin, C.-L. Lee, J. Lee, and W.-T. Han, "Large temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on the birefringent holey fiber filled with metal indium," Opt. Express 17, 1789-1794 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, Y.-G. Han, W.-T. Han, and Y. Chung, "The temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining side-hole fiber," Opt. Express 12, 7962-7967 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

N. Myrén and W. Margulis, "All-fiber electrooptical mode-locking and tuning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 2047-2049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, N. Myrén, W. Margulis, B. Ortega, G. Puerto, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, "Systems measurement of 2x2 poled fiber switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2571-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fokine, L. E. Nilsson, A. Claesson, D. Berlemont, L. Kjellberg, L. Krummenacher, and W. Margulis, "Integrated fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for electro-optic switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 1643-1645 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Monzon, D.

Moon, D. S.

D. S. Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, Y.-G. Han, W.-T. Han, and Y. Chung, "The temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining side-hole fiber," Opt. Express 12, 7962-7967 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S.

Myrén, N.

N. Myrén and W. Margulis, "All-fiber electrooptical mode-locking and tuning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 2047-2049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, N. Myrén, W. Margulis, B. Ortega, G. Puerto, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, "Systems measurement of 2x2 poled fiber switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2571-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nada, J.

J. Nada, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071-1088 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, L. E.

Okamoto, K.

J. Nada, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071-1088 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, D. R.

D. R. Olsen and H. M. Berg, "Properties of die bond alloys relating to thermal fatigue," IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. 2, 257-263 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, B.

J. Li, N. Myrén, W. Margulis, B. Ortega, G. Puerto, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, "Systems measurement of 2x2 poled fiber switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2571-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

B. H. Kim, S. Moon, U. C. Paek, and W. T. Han, "All fiber polarimetric modulation using an electro-optic fiber with internal Pb-Sn electrodes," Opt. Express 14, 11234-11241 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, R. M. Sova, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, and J. U. Kang, "Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot-Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pastor, D.

J. Li, N. Myrén, W. Margulis, B. Ortega, G. Puerto, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, "Systems measurement of 2x2 poled fiber switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2571-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

J. Li, N. Myrén, W. Margulis, B. Ortega, G. Puerto, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, "Systems measurement of 2x2 poled fiber switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2571-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Puerto, G.

J. Li, N. Myrén, W. Margulis, B. Ortega, G. Puerto, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, "Systems measurement of 2x2 poled fiber switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2571-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, "Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors," Sensors 7, 2970-2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

J. Nada, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071-1088 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, "Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113-151115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sova, R. M.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, R. M. Sova, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, and J. U. Kang, "Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot-Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Starodumov, A. N.

Sun, G.

D. S. Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, Y.-G. Han, W.-T. Han, and Y. Chung, "The temperature sensitivity of Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining side-hole fiber," Opt. Express 12, 7962-7967 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, "Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113-151115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wong, D.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, "Large electro optic modulation in a thermally-poled germanosilicate fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1177-1179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zenteno, L. A.

Zhao, C.-L.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, "Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113-151115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, N. Myrén, W. Margulis, B. Ortega, G. Puerto, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, "Systems measurement of 2x2 poled fiber switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2571-2573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Myrén and W. Margulis, "All-fiber electrooptical mode-locking and tuning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 2047-2049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, and S. Fleming, "Large electro optic modulation in a thermally-poled germanosilicate fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1177-1179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, R. M. Sova, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, and J. U. Kang, "Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot-Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol.

D. R. Olsen and H. M. Berg, "Properties of die bond alloys relating to thermal fatigue," IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. 2, 257-263 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Nada, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071-1088 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Sensors

O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, "Recent advances in high-birefringence fiber loop mirror sensors," Sensors 7, 2970-2983 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC press, 2000), Sec. 8.

O. Tarasenko, N. Myren, W. Margulis, and I. C. S. Carvalho, "All-fiber electrooptical polarization control," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2006) paper OWE3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images of the cut end-faces of the birefringent side-hole fibers filled with the different filler metals (a) In, (b) Sn, (c) 80Au-20Sn alloy, and (d) Bi, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic setup to measure the temperature sensitivity of the birefringent side-hole fiber filled with the filler metals. (Lengths of each sections of the fiber: Lm=20 cm, Ln=30 cm, Lo=10 cm) and (b) optical transmission spectra of the SLIs based on the side-hole fibers without and with the various filler metals at 25.4 °C.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Wavelength shift of the interference fringe with temperature from 28.4 to 83.4 °C in the SLI based on the fiber filled with 80Au-20Sn alloy and (b) wavelength shift of the fringe induced solely by 80Au-20Sn alloy. (The solid line represents linear fitting of the wavelength shift in the range from 29.5 °C to 83.4 °C.)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase shift solely due to the filler metals of the side-hole fibers with temperature. Solid lines represent linear fitting.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Metal induced temperature sensitivity of birefringence of the side-hole fibers filled with metals with the various thermal expansion coefficients. The solid line indicates the polynomial fit curve.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Phase shift sensitivity and temperature sensitivity of birefringence induced by the filler metal of the side-hole fiber.

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