Abstract

Quantum dot (QD) semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) offer a larger design freedom than standard quantum well (QW) SESAMs. QD density, QD growth conditions, number of QD-layers, and post-growth annealing were optimized to independently reduce the saturation fluence and adjust the modulation depth for an antiresonant SESAM that supported for the first time passive modelocking of a vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) with the same spot size on gain and absorber. The same spot size is a requirement for the modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser (MIXSEL) concept which enables wafer-scale fabrication of the ultrafast semiconductor laser. The antiresonant SESAM design has low dispersion, is less susceptible to growth errors, and is therefore very promising for short pulse generation and MIXSEL integration.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Rudin, A. Rutz, M. Hoffmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, E. Gini, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Highly efficient optically pumped vertical emitting semiconductor laser with more than 20-W average output power in a fundamental transverse mode,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2719–2721 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Chilla, S. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. Charles, A. Caprara, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli “High Power Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers,” in Photonics West 2004, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, in Proc. SPIE 5332, H. J. H. R. Scheps, ed. (2004), 143–150.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Lumb, D. Farrell, E. Clarke, M. Damzen, and R. Murray, “Post-growth tailoring of quantum-dot saturable absorber mirrors by chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 393–398 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt 80, 151–158 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, S41–S49 (2000).
  23. D.J.H.C Maas, MIXSEL - a new class of ultrafast semiconductor lasers, (Hartung-Gorre Verlag, Konstanz, 2009), Chap. 3.
  24. D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16, 7571–7579 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Malik, C. Roberts, R. Murray, and M. Pate, “Tuning self-assembled InAs quantum dots by rapid thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1987–1989 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (MIXSEL),” IET Optoelectronics 3, 61–72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Lumb, D. Farrell, E. Clarke, M. Damzen, and R. Murray, “Post-growth tailoring of quantum-dot saturable absorber mirrors by chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 393–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.J.H.C Maas, MIXSEL - a new class of ultrafast semiconductor lasers, (Hartung-Gorre Verlag, Konstanz, 2009), Chap. 3.

2008 (4)

2007 (2)

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 88, 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Scurtescu, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Alcock, R. Fedosejevs, M. Blumin, I. Saveliev, S. Yang, H. Ruda, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Quantum dot saturable absorber for passive mode locking of Nd : YVO4 lasers at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 671–675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429, 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30, 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chilla, S. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. Charles, A. Caprara, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli “High Power Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers,” in Photonics West 2004, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, in Proc. SPIE 5332, H. J. H. R. Scheps, ed. (2004), 143–150.

J. Chilla, S. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. Charles, A. Caprara, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli “High Power Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers,” in Photonics West 2004, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, in Proc. SPIE 5332, H. J. H. R. Scheps, ed. (2004), 143–150.

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, S41–S49 (2000).

1997 (2)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Malik, C. Roberts, R. Murray, and M. Pate, “Tuning self-assembled InAs quantum dots by rapid thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1987–1989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alcock, J.

C. Scurtescu, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Alcock, R. Fedosejevs, M. Blumin, I. Saveliev, S. Yang, H. Ruda, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Quantum dot saturable absorber for passive mode locking of Nd : YVO4 lasers at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 671–675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aschwanden, A.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barbarin, Y.

Bellancourt, A. R.

Bellancourt, A.-R.

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (MIXSEL),” IET Optoelectronics 3, 61–72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16, 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rudin, A. Rutz, M. Hoffmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, E. Gini, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Highly efficient optically pumped vertical emitting semiconductor laser with more than 20-W average output power in a fundamental transverse mode,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2719–2721 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 88, 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Block, B.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, Alexandra Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O Technology for Tera-Scale Computing,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference 2009 (2009).

Blumin, M.

C. Scurtescu, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Alcock, R. Fedosejevs, M. Blumin, I. Saveliev, S. Yang, H. Ruda, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Quantum dot saturable absorber for passive mode locking of Nd : YVO4 lasers at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 671–675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Butterworth, S.

J. Chilla, S. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. Charles, A. Caprara, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli “High Power Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers,” in Photonics West 2004, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, in Proc. SPIE 5332, H. J. H. R. Scheps, ed. (2004), 143–150.

Caprara, A.

J. Chilla, S. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. Charles, A. Caprara, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli “High Power Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers,” in Photonics West 2004, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, in Proc. SPIE 5332, H. J. H. R. Scheps, ed. (2004), 143–150.

Chang, P.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, Alexandra Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O Technology for Tera-Scale Computing,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference 2009 (2009).

Charles, J.

J. Chilla, S. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. Charles, A. Caprara, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli “High Power Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers,” in Photonics West 2004, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, in Proc. SPIE 5332, H. J. H. R. Scheps, ed. (2004), 143–150.

Chilla, J.

J. Chilla, S. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. Charles, A. Caprara, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli “High Power Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers,” in Photonics West 2004, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, in Proc. SPIE 5332, H. J. H. R. Scheps, ed. (2004), 143–150.

Clarke, E.

M. Lumb, D. Farrell, E. Clarke, M. Damzen, and R. Murray, “Post-growth tailoring of quantum-dot saturable absorber mirrors by chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 393–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Damzen, M.

M. Lumb, D. Farrell, E. Clarke, M. Damzen, and R. Murray, “Post-growth tailoring of quantum-dot saturable absorber mirrors by chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 393–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Daniell, G. J.

Ebling, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elsmere, S.

Farrell, D.

M. Lumb, D. Farrell, E. Clarke, M. Damzen, and R. Murray, “Post-growth tailoring of quantum-dot saturable absorber mirrors by chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 393–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Farrer, I.

Fedosejevs, R.

C. Scurtescu, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Alcock, R. Fedosejevs, M. Blumin, I. Saveliev, S. Yang, H. Ruda, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Quantum dot saturable absorber for passive mode locking of Nd : YVO4 lasers at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 671–675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, J. M. Gerard, V. Thierry-Mieg, and J. S. Roberts, “Pico-second passively mode locked surface-emitting laser with self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot absorber,” in CLEO/Europe-EQEC, p. postdeadline paper. (2001)

Gerard, J. M.

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, J. M. Gerard, V. Thierry-Mieg, and J. S. Roberts, “Pico-second passively mode locked surface-emitting laser with self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot absorber,” in CLEO/Europe-EQEC, p. postdeadline paper. (2001)

Gini, E.

Golling, M.

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (MIXSEL),” IET Optoelectronics 3, 61–72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16, 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 88, 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grange, R.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haiml, M.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Häring, R.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoogland, S.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, J. M. Gerard, V. Thierry-Mieg, and J. S. Roberts, “Pico-second passively mode locked surface-emitting laser with self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot absorber,” in CLEO/Europe-EQEC, p. postdeadline paper. (2001)

Ippen, E. P.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, S41–S49 (2000).

Iwaniuk, D.

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, S41–S49 (2000).

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (MIXSEL),” IET Optoelectronics 3, 61–72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16, 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16, 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Rudin, A. Rutz, M. Hoffmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, E. Gini, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Highly efficient optically pumped vertical emitting semiconductor laser with more than 20-W average output power in a fundamental transverse mode,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2719–2721 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 88, 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429, 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30, 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller “Ultrafast solid-state lasers,” in Landolt-Börnstein. Laser Physics and Applications. Sub volume B: Laser Systems. Part I. , G. Herziger, H. Weber, and R. Proprawe, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 2007), 33–167.

Kern, Alexandra

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, Alexandra Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O Technology for Tera-Scale Computing,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference 2009 (2009).

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lagatsky, A. A.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, J.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, Alexandra Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O Technology for Tera-Scale Computing,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference 2009 (2009).

Livshits, D. A.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lorenser, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30, 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lumb, M.

M. Lumb, D. Farrell, E. Clarke, M. Damzen, and R. Murray, “Post-growth tailoring of quantum-dot saturable absorber mirrors by chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 393–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maas, D. J. H. C.

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (MIXSEL),” IET Optoelectronics 3, 61–72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16, 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16, 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Rudin, A. Rutz, M. Hoffmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, E. Gini, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Highly efficient optically pumped vertical emitting semiconductor laser with more than 20-W average output power in a fundamental transverse mode,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2719–2721 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 88, 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maas, D.J.H.C

D.J.H.C Maas, MIXSEL - a new class of ultrafast semiconductor lasers, (Hartung-Gorre Verlag, Konstanz, 2009), Chap. 3.

Malik, S.

S. Malik, C. Roberts, R. Murray, and M. Pate, “Tuning self-assembled InAs quantum dots by rapid thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1987–1989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marchese, S. V.

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mihoubi, Z.

Miller, A.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mohammed, E.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, Alexandra Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O Technology for Tera-Scale Computing,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference 2009 (2009).

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murray, R.

M. Lumb, D. Farrell, E. Clarke, M. Damzen, and R. Murray, “Post-growth tailoring of quantum-dot saturable absorber mirrors by chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 393–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Malik, C. Roberts, R. Murray, and M. Pate, “Tuning self-assembled InAs quantum dots by rapid thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1987–1989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ostinelli, O.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palermo, S.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, Alexandra Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O Technology for Tera-Scale Computing,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference 2009 (2009).

Paschotta, R.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30, 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pate, M.

S. Malik, C. Roberts, R. Murray, and M. Pate, “Tuning self-assembled InAs quantum dots by rapid thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1987–1989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quarterman, A.

Rafailov, E. U.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reed, M.

J. Chilla, S. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. Charles, A. Caprara, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli “High Power Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers,” in Photonics West 2004, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, in Proc. SPIE 5332, H. J. H. R. Scheps, ed. (2004), 143–150.

Reshotko, M.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, Alexandra Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O Technology for Tera-Scale Computing,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference 2009 (2009).

Ritchie, D. A.

Roberts, C.

S. Malik, C. Roberts, R. Murray, and M. Pate, “Tuning self-assembled InAs quantum dots by rapid thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1987–1989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. S.

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, J. M. Gerard, V. Thierry-Mieg, and J. S. Roberts, “Pico-second passively mode locked surface-emitting laser with self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot absorber,” in CLEO/Europe-EQEC, p. postdeadline paper. (2001)

Ruda, H.

C. Scurtescu, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Alcock, R. Fedosejevs, M. Blumin, I. Saveliev, S. Yang, H. Ruda, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Quantum dot saturable absorber for passive mode locking of Nd : YVO4 lasers at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 671–675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rudin, B.

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (MIXSEL),” IET Optoelectronics 3, 61–72 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16, 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16, 18646–18656 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Rudin, A. Rutz, M. Hoffmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, E. Gini, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Highly efficient optically pumped vertical emitting semiconductor laser with more than 20-W average output power in a fundamental transverse mode,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2719–2721 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 88, 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rutz, A.

Saveliev, I.

C. Scurtescu, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Alcock, R. Fedosejevs, M. Blumin, I. Saveliev, S. Yang, H. Ruda, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Quantum dot saturable absorber for passive mode locking of Nd : YVO4 lasers at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 671–675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scheps, H. J. H. R.

J. Chilla, S. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. Charles, A. Caprara, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli “High Power Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers,” in Photonics West 2004, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, in Proc. SPIE 5332, H. J. H. R. Scheps, ed. (2004), 143–150.

Schibli, T. R.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, S41–S49 (2000).

Scurtescu, C.

C. Scurtescu, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Alcock, R. Fedosejevs, M. Blumin, I. Saveliev, S. Yang, H. Ruda, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Quantum dot saturable absorber for passive mode locking of Nd : YVO4 lasers at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 671–675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, L.

J. Chilla, S. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. Charles, A. Caprara, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli “High Power Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers,” in Photonics West 2004, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, in Proc. SPIE 5332, H. J. H. R. Scheps, ed. (2004), 143–150.

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spuhler, G. J.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Südmeyer, T.

Thierry-Mieg, V.

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, J. M. Gerard, V. Thierry-Mieg, and J. S. Roberts, “Pico-second passively mode locked surface-emitting laser with self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot absorber,” in CLEO/Europe-EQEC, p. postdeadline paper. (2001)

Thoen, E. R.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, S41–S49 (2000).

Tropper, A.

Tropper, A. C.

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429, 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, J. M. Gerard, V. Thierry-Mieg, and J. S. Roberts, “Pico-second passively mode locked surface-emitting laser with self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot absorber,” in CLEO/Europe-EQEC, p. postdeadline paper. (2001)

Tsui, Y. Y.

C. Scurtescu, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Alcock, R. Fedosejevs, M. Blumin, I. Saveliev, S. Yang, H. Ruda, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Quantum dot saturable absorber for passive mode locking of Nd : YVO4 lasers at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 671–675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Unold, H. J.

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 88, 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30, 272–274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ustinov, V. M.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

White, S. J.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, K. G.

Yang, S.

C. Scurtescu, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Alcock, R. Fedosejevs, M. Blumin, I. Saveliev, S. Yang, H. Ruda, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Quantum dot saturable absorber for passive mode locking of Nd : YVO4 lasers at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 671–675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Young, I.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, Alexandra Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O Technology for Tera-Scale Computing,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference 2009 (2009).

Zeitschel, A.

J. Chilla, S. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. Charles, A. Caprara, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli “High Power Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers,” in Photonics West 2004, Solid State Lasers XIII: Technology and Devices, in Proc. SPIE 5332, H. J. H. R. Scheps, ed. (2004), 143–150.

Zhang, Z. Y.

C. Scurtescu, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Alcock, R. Fedosejevs, M. Blumin, I. Saveliev, S. Yang, H. Ruda, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Quantum dot saturable absorber for passive mode locking of Nd : YVO4 lasers at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 671–675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhukov, A. E.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439–2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (5)

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 88, 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Scurtescu, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Alcock, R. Fedosejevs, M. Blumin, I. Saveliev, S. Yang, H. Ruda, and Y. Y. Tsui, “Quantum dot saturable absorber for passive mode locking of Nd : YVO4 lasers at 1064 nm,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 87, 671–675 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lumb, D. Farrell, E. Clarke, M. Damzen, and R. Murray, “Post-growth tailoring of quantum-dot saturable absorber mirrors by chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 393–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, S41–S49 (2000).

Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt (1)

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B:Lasers Opt 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Malik, C. Roberts, R. Murray, and M. Pate, “Tuning self-assembled InAs quantum dots by rapid thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1987–1989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chap. 3. (1)

D.J.H.C Maas, MIXSEL - a new class of ultrafast semiconductor lasers, (Hartung-Gorre Verlag, Konstanz, 2009), Chap. 3.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
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IET Optoelectronics (1)

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (MIXSEL),” IET Optoelectronics 3, 61–72 (2009).
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Nature (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
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U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429, 67–120 (2006).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SESAM-VECSEL modelocking with similar spot areas and MIXSEL concept

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Refractive index structure (black), calculated standing wave intensity pattern for λ=960 nm (red) and the calculated wavelength dependence of the group delay dispersion (GDD) for two different MIXSEL structures using either resonant field enhancement (a and b) or an antiresonant design for the saturable absorber layer (c and d). The different sections are the laser distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), quantum dot (QD) absorber layer, intermediate DBR for field enhancement, pump DBR, active region and antireflective (AR) coating. The graph shows the first resonant MIXSEL design with a 5-pair intermediate DBR for field enhancement (a) and a new antiresonant design (c) with their corresponding GDD (b and d). The GDD is calculated for random material flux variations below 1%, which simulates the growth errors on layer thicknesses occurring in the MBE (thinner traces in b and d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured nonlinear optical reflectivity of an as-grown and annealed QD-SESAM grown at 420°C with 4 QD-layers and ≈2 monolayers (ML) InAs coverage. The rollover that appears on both curves is mainly due to two-photon absorption (TPA) [21, 22], because ≈130 fs pulses have been used for the measurement. The dashed line shows the calculated nonlinear reflectivity response without TPA, which more closely represents the picosecond pulse regime [21].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Refractive index structure (black) and normalized field intensity pattern (red) of a 4-layer antiresonant QD-SESAM design. The structure contains a 30-pair DBR with a saturable absorber section grown on top.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

a) Saturation fluence and b) modulation depth of the 3-layer and 4-layer QD-SESAM grown at 420°C and annealed for 1 hour at 675°C.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Pulse characterization of the modelocking result with 90 mW average output power. Left: autocorrelation with sech2-fit using a 13.5 ps pulse duration, middle: pulse repetition rate signal at 2.96 GHz on a microwave spectrum analyzer using a 20 MHz span with 100 kHz resolution bandwidth and right: optical spectrum with a FWHM bandwidth of 0.19 nm measured with an optical spectrum analyzer and a resolution bandwidth of 0.1 nm. The time-bandwidth product is 0.87.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Saturation fluence and modulation depth of the 4-layers QD-SESAMs grown at 420°C and annealed for 1 hour at different temperatures. For the modulation depth, we assumed no effect from two photon absorption. (Fig. 3 dashed line).

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