Abstract

This paper reports on the experimental observation of an anisotropic photo controlled wetting effect. We discuss how capillary propagation of nematic liquid crystals in a “sandwich” cell is blocked in areas exposed to light. We postulate that the underlying mechanism is related to the optical reorientation of molecules on the surface of the surrounding solid, which in turn, forces a corresponding reorientation of the liquid crystal molecules. The corresponding orientation deformation energy of the liquid then changes the balance of forces and the corresponding capillary action.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Fürstner, W. Barthlott, C. Neinhuis, P. Walzel, "Wetting and Self-Cleaning Properties of Artificial Superhydrophobic Surfaces," Langmuir 21, 956-961 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. M. Cazabat, F. Heslot, S. M. Troian, P. Carles, "Fingering instability of thin spreading films driven by temperature gradients," Nature 346, 824-826 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Schneemilch, W. J. J. Welters, R. A. Hayes, J. Ralston, "Electrically Induced Changes in Dynamic WettabilityElectrically Induced Changes in Dynamic Wettability," Langmuir 16, 2924-2927 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. D. Blake, A. Clarke, E. H. Stattersfield, "An Investigation of Electrostatic Assist in Dynamic Wetting," Langmuir 16, 2928-2935 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Kataoka and M. A. Anderson, "Capillary rise between two TiO2 thin-films: evaluating photo-activated wetting," Thin Solid Films 446, 232-237 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Miyauchi, N. Kieda, S. Hishita, T. Mitsuhashi, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, K. Hashimoto, "Reversible wettability control of TiO2 surface by light irradiation," Surface Science 511, 401-407 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Wang, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, M. Chikuni, E. Kojima, A. Kitamura, M. Shimohigoshi, T. Watanabe, "Light-induced amphilic surfaces," Nature 388, 431-443 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Y. Shin and N. L. Abbott, "Using Light to Control Dynamic Surface Tensions of Aqueous Solutions of Water Soluble Surfactants," Langmuir 15, 4404-4410 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Z. Sekkat, M. Biichel, H. Orendi, H. Knobloch, T. Seki, S. Ito, J. Koberstein, and W. Knoll, "Anisotropic alignment of a nematic liquid crystal controlled by a polarization sensitive Langmuir-Blodgett command layer," Opt. Commun. 111, 324-330 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. V. P. Pham, T. V. Galstyan, A. Granger, and R. Lessard, "Novel azo dye-doped poly (methyl methacrylate) films as optical data storage media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, special issue, Part 1, No. 1B, 429-438 (1997).
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2006

E. Belamie, G. Mosser, F. Gobeaux, and M. M. Giraud-Guille, "Possible transient liquid crystal phase during the laying out of connective tissues: alpha-chitin and collagen as models," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, S115-S129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tong, G. Wang, Y. Zhao, "Photochemical Phase Transition versus Photochemical Phase Separation," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 8746-8747 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Grelet and H. Bock, "Control of the orientation of thin open supported columnar liquid crystal films by the kinetics of growth," Europhys. Lett. 73 (5), 712-718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Fürstner, W. Barthlott, C. Neinhuis, P. Walzel, "Wetting and Self-Cleaning Properties of Artificial Superhydrophobic Surfaces," Langmuir 21, 956-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. Kataoka and M. A. Anderson, "Capillary rise between two TiO2 thin-films: evaluating photo-activated wetting," Thin Solid Films 446, 232-237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Miyauchi, N. Kieda, S. Hishita, T. Mitsuhashi, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, K. Hashimoto, "Reversible wettability control of TiO2 surface by light irradiation," Surface Science 511, 401-407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Dumont, T. Galstian, S. Senkow, A. M. Ritcey, "Liquid Crystal Photoalignment using New Photoisomerisable Langmuir-Blodgett Films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 341-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Yavrian, T. V. Galstian, and M. Piché, "Circularly polarized light-induced rearrangement of optical axis in photoanisotropic recording media," Opt. Eng. 41(04), 852-855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. Ichimura and S-K. Oh, M. Nakagawa, "Light-Driven Motion of Liquids on a Photoresponsive Surface," Science 288, 1624-1626 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schneemilch, W. J. J. Welters, R. A. Hayes, J. Ralston, "Electrically Induced Changes in Dynamic WettabilityElectrically Induced Changes in Dynamic Wettability," Langmuir 16, 2924-2927 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Blake, A. Clarke, E. H. Stattersfield, "An Investigation of Electrostatic Assist in Dynamic Wetting," Langmuir 16, 2928-2935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Y. Shin and N. L. Abbott, "Using Light to Control Dynamic Surface Tensions of Aqueous Solutions of Water Soluble Surfactants," Langmuir 15, 4404-4410 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Wang, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, M. Chikuni, E. Kojima, A. Kitamura, M. Shimohigoshi, T. Watanabe, "Light-induced amphilic surfaces," Nature 388, 431-443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Pham, T. V. Galstyan, A. Granger, and R. Lessard, "Novel azo dye-doped poly (methyl methacrylate) films as optical data storage media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, special issue, Part 1, No. 1B, 429-438 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

Z. Sekkat, M. Biichel, H. Orendi, H. Knobloch, T. Seki, S. Ito, J. Koberstein, and W. Knoll, "Anisotropic alignment of a nematic liquid crystal controlled by a polarization sensitive Langmuir-Blodgett command layer," Opt. Commun. 111, 324-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. K. Chaudhury and G. M. Whitesides, "How to make water run Uphill," Science 256, 1539-1541 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

A. M. Cazabat, F. Heslot, S. M. Troian, P. Carles, "Fingering instability of thin spreading films driven by temperature gradients," Nature 346, 824-826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, N. L.

J. Y. Shin and N. L. Abbott, "Using Light to Control Dynamic Surface Tensions of Aqueous Solutions of Water Soluble Surfactants," Langmuir 15, 4404-4410 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. A.

S. Kataoka and M. A. Anderson, "Capillary rise between two TiO2 thin-films: evaluating photo-activated wetting," Thin Solid Films 446, 232-237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barthlott, W.

R. Fürstner, W. Barthlott, C. Neinhuis, P. Walzel, "Wetting and Self-Cleaning Properties of Artificial Superhydrophobic Surfaces," Langmuir 21, 956-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belamie, E.

E. Belamie, G. Mosser, F. Gobeaux, and M. M. Giraud-Guille, "Possible transient liquid crystal phase during the laying out of connective tissues: alpha-chitin and collagen as models," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, S115-S129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biichel, M.

Z. Sekkat, M. Biichel, H. Orendi, H. Knobloch, T. Seki, S. Ito, J. Koberstein, and W. Knoll, "Anisotropic alignment of a nematic liquid crystal controlled by a polarization sensitive Langmuir-Blodgett command layer," Opt. Commun. 111, 324-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blake, T. D.

T. D. Blake, A. Clarke, E. H. Stattersfield, "An Investigation of Electrostatic Assist in Dynamic Wetting," Langmuir 16, 2928-2935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bock, H.

E. Grelet and H. Bock, "Control of the orientation of thin open supported columnar liquid crystal films by the kinetics of growth," Europhys. Lett. 73 (5), 712-718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carles, P.

A. M. Cazabat, F. Heslot, S. M. Troian, P. Carles, "Fingering instability of thin spreading films driven by temperature gradients," Nature 346, 824-826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cazabat, A. M.

A. M. Cazabat, F. Heslot, S. M. Troian, P. Carles, "Fingering instability of thin spreading films driven by temperature gradients," Nature 346, 824-826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhury, M. K.

M. K. Chaudhury and G. M. Whitesides, "How to make water run Uphill," Science 256, 1539-1541 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chikuni, M.

R. Wang, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, M. Chikuni, E. Kojima, A. Kitamura, M. Shimohigoshi, T. Watanabe, "Light-induced amphilic surfaces," Nature 388, 431-443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, A.

T. D. Blake, A. Clarke, E. H. Stattersfield, "An Investigation of Electrostatic Assist in Dynamic Wetting," Langmuir 16, 2928-2935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, D.

D. Dumont, T. Galstian, S. Senkow, A. M. Ritcey, "Liquid Crystal Photoalignment using New Photoisomerisable Langmuir-Blodgett Films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 341-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujishima, A.

R. Wang, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, M. Chikuni, E. Kojima, A. Kitamura, M. Shimohigoshi, T. Watanabe, "Light-induced amphilic surfaces," Nature 388, 431-443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fürstner, R.

R. Fürstner, W. Barthlott, C. Neinhuis, P. Walzel, "Wetting and Self-Cleaning Properties of Artificial Superhydrophobic Surfaces," Langmuir 21, 956-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galstian, T.

D. Dumont, T. Galstian, S. Senkow, A. M. Ritcey, "Liquid Crystal Photoalignment using New Photoisomerisable Langmuir-Blodgett Films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 341-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T. V.

A. Yavrian, T. V. Galstian, and M. Piché, "Circularly polarized light-induced rearrangement of optical axis in photoanisotropic recording media," Opt. Eng. 41(04), 852-855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Galstyan, T. V.

V. P. Pham, T. V. Galstyan, A. Granger, and R. Lessard, "Novel azo dye-doped poly (methyl methacrylate) films as optical data storage media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, special issue, Part 1, No. 1B, 429-438 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giraud-Guille, M. M.

E. Belamie, G. Mosser, F. Gobeaux, and M. M. Giraud-Guille, "Possible transient liquid crystal phase during the laying out of connective tissues: alpha-chitin and collagen as models," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, S115-S129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gobeaux, F.

E. Belamie, G. Mosser, F. Gobeaux, and M. M. Giraud-Guille, "Possible transient liquid crystal phase during the laying out of connective tissues: alpha-chitin and collagen as models," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, S115-S129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Granger, A.

V. P. Pham, T. V. Galstyan, A. Granger, and R. Lessard, "Novel azo dye-doped poly (methyl methacrylate) films as optical data storage media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, special issue, Part 1, No. 1B, 429-438 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grelet, E.

E. Grelet and H. Bock, "Control of the orientation of thin open supported columnar liquid crystal films by the kinetics of growth," Europhys. Lett. 73 (5), 712-718 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, K.

M. Miyauchi, N. Kieda, S. Hishita, T. Mitsuhashi, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, K. Hashimoto, "Reversible wettability control of TiO2 surface by light irradiation," Surface Science 511, 401-407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Wang, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, M. Chikuni, E. Kojima, A. Kitamura, M. Shimohigoshi, T. Watanabe, "Light-induced amphilic surfaces," Nature 388, 431-443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, R. A.

M. Schneemilch, W. J. J. Welters, R. A. Hayes, J. Ralston, "Electrically Induced Changes in Dynamic WettabilityElectrically Induced Changes in Dynamic Wettability," Langmuir 16, 2924-2927 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heslot, F.

A. M. Cazabat, F. Heslot, S. M. Troian, P. Carles, "Fingering instability of thin spreading films driven by temperature gradients," Nature 346, 824-826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hishita, S.

M. Miyauchi, N. Kieda, S. Hishita, T. Mitsuhashi, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, K. Hashimoto, "Reversible wettability control of TiO2 surface by light irradiation," Surface Science 511, 401-407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, K.

K. Ichimura and S-K. Oh, M. Nakagawa, "Light-Driven Motion of Liquids on a Photoresponsive Surface," Science 288, 1624-1626 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, S.

Z. Sekkat, M. Biichel, H. Orendi, H. Knobloch, T. Seki, S. Ito, J. Koberstein, and W. Knoll, "Anisotropic alignment of a nematic liquid crystal controlled by a polarization sensitive Langmuir-Blodgett command layer," Opt. Commun. 111, 324-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, S.

S. Kataoka and M. A. Anderson, "Capillary rise between two TiO2 thin-films: evaluating photo-activated wetting," Thin Solid Films 446, 232-237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kieda, N.

M. Miyauchi, N. Kieda, S. Hishita, T. Mitsuhashi, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, K. Hashimoto, "Reversible wettability control of TiO2 surface by light irradiation," Surface Science 511, 401-407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, A.

R. Wang, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, M. Chikuni, E. Kojima, A. Kitamura, M. Shimohigoshi, T. Watanabe, "Light-induced amphilic surfaces," Nature 388, 431-443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knobloch, H.

Z. Sekkat, M. Biichel, H. Orendi, H. Knobloch, T. Seki, S. Ito, J. Koberstein, and W. Knoll, "Anisotropic alignment of a nematic liquid crystal controlled by a polarization sensitive Langmuir-Blodgett command layer," Opt. Commun. 111, 324-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

Z. Sekkat, M. Biichel, H. Orendi, H. Knobloch, T. Seki, S. Ito, J. Koberstein, and W. Knoll, "Anisotropic alignment of a nematic liquid crystal controlled by a polarization sensitive Langmuir-Blodgett command layer," Opt. Commun. 111, 324-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koberstein, J.

Z. Sekkat, M. Biichel, H. Orendi, H. Knobloch, T. Seki, S. Ito, J. Koberstein, and W. Knoll, "Anisotropic alignment of a nematic liquid crystal controlled by a polarization sensitive Langmuir-Blodgett command layer," Opt. Commun. 111, 324-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, E.

R. Wang, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, M. Chikuni, E. Kojima, A. Kitamura, M. Shimohigoshi, T. Watanabe, "Light-induced amphilic surfaces," Nature 388, 431-443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lessard, R.

V. P. Pham, T. V. Galstyan, A. Granger, and R. Lessard, "Novel azo dye-doped poly (methyl methacrylate) films as optical data storage media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, special issue, Part 1, No. 1B, 429-438 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuhashi, T.

M. Miyauchi, N. Kieda, S. Hishita, T. Mitsuhashi, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, K. Hashimoto, "Reversible wettability control of TiO2 surface by light irradiation," Surface Science 511, 401-407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miyauchi, M.

M. Miyauchi, N. Kieda, S. Hishita, T. Mitsuhashi, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, K. Hashimoto, "Reversible wettability control of TiO2 surface by light irradiation," Surface Science 511, 401-407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mosser, G.

E. Belamie, G. Mosser, F. Gobeaux, and M. M. Giraud-Guille, "Possible transient liquid crystal phase during the laying out of connective tissues: alpha-chitin and collagen as models," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, S115-S129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, M.

K. Ichimura and S-K. Oh, M. Nakagawa, "Light-Driven Motion of Liquids on a Photoresponsive Surface," Science 288, 1624-1626 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakajima, A.

M. Miyauchi, N. Kieda, S. Hishita, T. Mitsuhashi, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, K. Hashimoto, "Reversible wettability control of TiO2 surface by light irradiation," Surface Science 511, 401-407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neinhuis, C.

R. Fürstner, W. Barthlott, C. Neinhuis, P. Walzel, "Wetting and Self-Cleaning Properties of Artificial Superhydrophobic Surfaces," Langmuir 21, 956-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S-K.

K. Ichimura and S-K. Oh, M. Nakagawa, "Light-Driven Motion of Liquids on a Photoresponsive Surface," Science 288, 1624-1626 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orendi, H.

Z. Sekkat, M. Biichel, H. Orendi, H. Knobloch, T. Seki, S. Ito, J. Koberstein, and W. Knoll, "Anisotropic alignment of a nematic liquid crystal controlled by a polarization sensitive Langmuir-Blodgett command layer," Opt. Commun. 111, 324-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pham, V. P.

V. P. Pham, T. V. Galstyan, A. Granger, and R. Lessard, "Novel azo dye-doped poly (methyl methacrylate) films as optical data storage media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, special issue, Part 1, No. 1B, 429-438 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Piché, M.

A. Yavrian, T. V. Galstian, and M. Piché, "Circularly polarized light-induced rearrangement of optical axis in photoanisotropic recording media," Opt. Eng. 41(04), 852-855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, J.

M. Schneemilch, W. J. J. Welters, R. A. Hayes, J. Ralston, "Electrically Induced Changes in Dynamic WettabilityElectrically Induced Changes in Dynamic Wettability," Langmuir 16, 2924-2927 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ritcey, A. M.

D. Dumont, T. Galstian, S. Senkow, A. M. Ritcey, "Liquid Crystal Photoalignment using New Photoisomerisable Langmuir-Blodgett Films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 341-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schneemilch, M.

M. Schneemilch, W. J. J. Welters, R. A. Hayes, J. Ralston, "Electrically Induced Changes in Dynamic WettabilityElectrically Induced Changes in Dynamic Wettability," Langmuir 16, 2924-2927 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seki, T.

Z. Sekkat, M. Biichel, H. Orendi, H. Knobloch, T. Seki, S. Ito, J. Koberstein, and W. Knoll, "Anisotropic alignment of a nematic liquid crystal controlled by a polarization sensitive Langmuir-Blodgett command layer," Opt. Commun. 111, 324-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sekkat, Z.

Z. Sekkat, M. Biichel, H. Orendi, H. Knobloch, T. Seki, S. Ito, J. Koberstein, and W. Knoll, "Anisotropic alignment of a nematic liquid crystal controlled by a polarization sensitive Langmuir-Blodgett command layer," Opt. Commun. 111, 324-330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Senkow, S.

D. Dumont, T. Galstian, S. Senkow, A. M. Ritcey, "Liquid Crystal Photoalignment using New Photoisomerisable Langmuir-Blodgett Films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 341-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimohigoshi, M.

R. Wang, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, M. Chikuni, E. Kojima, A. Kitamura, M. Shimohigoshi, T. Watanabe, "Light-induced amphilic surfaces," Nature 388, 431-443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. Y.

J. Y. Shin and N. L. Abbott, "Using Light to Control Dynamic Surface Tensions of Aqueous Solutions of Water Soluble Surfactants," Langmuir 15, 4404-4410 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stattersfield, E. H.

T. D. Blake, A. Clarke, E. H. Stattersfield, "An Investigation of Electrostatic Assist in Dynamic Wetting," Langmuir 16, 2928-2935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X.

X. Tong, G. Wang, Y. Zhao, "Photochemical Phase Transition versus Photochemical Phase Separation," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 8746-8747 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troian, S. M.

A. M. Cazabat, F. Heslot, S. M. Troian, P. Carles, "Fingering instability of thin spreading films driven by temperature gradients," Nature 346, 824-826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Walzel, P.

R. Fürstner, W. Barthlott, C. Neinhuis, P. Walzel, "Wetting and Self-Cleaning Properties of Artificial Superhydrophobic Surfaces," Langmuir 21, 956-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

X. Tong, G. Wang, Y. Zhao, "Photochemical Phase Transition versus Photochemical Phase Separation," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 8746-8747 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

R. Wang, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, M. Chikuni, E. Kojima, A. Kitamura, M. Shimohigoshi, T. Watanabe, "Light-induced amphilic surfaces," Nature 388, 431-443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

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A. Yavrian, T. V. Galstian, and M. Piché, "Circularly polarized light-induced rearrangement of optical axis in photoanisotropic recording media," Opt. Eng. 41(04), 852-855 (2002).
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J. Phys.: Condens. Matter

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Langmuir

R. Fürstner, W. Barthlott, C. Neinhuis, P. Walzel, "Wetting and Self-Cleaning Properties of Artificial Superhydrophobic Surfaces," Langmuir 21, 956-961 (2005).
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Nature

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Opt. Eng.

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Part

V. P. Pham, T. V. Galstyan, A. Granger, and R. Lessard, "Novel azo dye-doped poly (methyl methacrylate) films as optical data storage media," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, special issue, Part 1, No. 1B, 429-438 (1997).
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Science

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Surface Science

M. Miyauchi, N. Kieda, S. Hishita, T. Mitsuhashi, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, K. Hashimoto, "Reversible wettability control of TiO2 surface by light irradiation," Surface Science 511, 401-407 (2002).
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Thin Solid Films

S. Kataoka and M. A. Anderson, "Capillary rise between two TiO2 thin-films: evaluating photo-activated wetting," Thin Solid Films 446, 232-237 (2004).
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V. Chigrinov, V. Kozenkov, and H-S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials, (Wiley, 2008).

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L. M. Blinov and V. G. Chigrinov, Electrooptic Effects in Liquid Crystal Materials, (Springer, 1994).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The photography of the LC cell (placed between two polarizers) after the capillary fill process. The white arrow shows the laser exposed area. Colors of the photo were changed to better reveal the air bubble in the laser exposed area.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The micro photography of the complex wall of the air bubble obtained by using a polarizing microscope. The director of the LC is aligned in a way to optimize the contrast of different zones. The dotted arrow shows the direction of movement of “walls”.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electrically induced movement of the complex wall structure for a) external zone 3, b) mid zone 2 and c) internal zone 1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic (cross section) representation of the capillary fill process of the liquid crystal in the cases of a)&b) homeotropic alignment of molecules at air-LC interface and c)&d) planar alignment of molecules at air-LC interface. a)&c) show the capillary propagation in uniform areas, while the b)&d) show the capillary propagation near to the laser exposed areas. The dashed lines inside of the two parallel (horizontal) solid lines represent the LC molecules. The dashed lines outside of the two parallel (horizontal) solid lines represent the molecules of reactive mesogene and azo dye. The arrow shows the LC flow direction (from left to right). The area on the left side of the curved surface is the air bubble. θ is the wetting angle. Dots represent the disclination lines. Laser exposed area is on the right side of the vertical line 3.

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