Abstract

Nonlinear transient absorption bleaching of intense few-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses is observed in photoexcited GaAs using optical-pump – THz-probe techniques. A simple model of the electron transport dynamics shows that the observed nonlinear response is due to TH-zelectric-field-induced intervalley scattering over sub-picosecond time scales as well as an increase in the intravalley scattering rate attributed to carrier heating. Furthermore, the nonlinear nature of the THz pulse transmission at high peak fields leads to a measured terahertz conductivity in the photoexcited GaAs that deviates significantly from the Drude behavior observed at low THz fields, emphasizing the need to explore nonlinear THz pulse interactions with materials in the time domain.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  5. K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A.-P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, "Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 457 (1998).
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  6. B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
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  8. Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T.Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, "Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
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  9. K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  23. M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 62,15764 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. P. Prasankumar, A. Scopatz, D. J. Hilton, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, J. M. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, "Carrier dynamics in self-assembled ErAs nanoislands embedded in GaAs measured by optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, "Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 122103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Q-L. Zhou, Y. Shi, B. Jin, and C. Zhang, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz conductivity of photoexcited GaAs under electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 102103 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  30. P. N. Saeta, J. F. Federici, B. I. Greene, and D. R. Dykaar, "Intervalley scattering in GaAs and InP probed by pulsed far-infrared transmission spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1477 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. Blotekjaer, "Transport equations for electrons in two-valley semiconductors," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 17, 38 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. M. Anile and S. D. Hern, "Two-valley hydrodynamical models for electron transport in gallium arsenide: Simulation of Gunn oscillations," VLSI Design 15,681 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Errors on all best fit parameters from the model are obtained from the range over which the relative RMS deviation of the fit increases by 10%, which in this case is a change in RMS deviation from 0.070 to 0.077.
  34. P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito Cruz, J. Shah, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond intervalley scattering in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2089 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, "THz-pump-THz-probe spectroscopy of semiconductors at high field strengths," http://arxiv.org/abs/0904.2516

2009 (1)

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, "Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 79, 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

Y. Shen, G. L. Carr, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. Wang, and X. Yang, "Spatiotemporal control of ultrashort laser pulses using intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 043813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 77, 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wen, M. Wiczer, and A. M. Lindenberg, "Ultrafast electron cascades in semiconductors driven by intense femtosecond terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. B 78, 125203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q-L. Zhou, Y. Shi, B. Jin, and C. Zhang, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz conductivity of photoexcited GaAs under electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 102103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, "High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, L. Bonacina, S. V. Chekalin, and J.-P. Wolf, "Generation of 30 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses at 100 Hz repetition rate by optical rectification," Opt. Lett. 33, 2497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, "Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields," Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, "Generation of 1.5 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal," Opt. Express 15, 13212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T.Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, "Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, "Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, "Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 122103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

R. P. Prasankumar, A. Scopatz, D. J. Hilton, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, J. M. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, "Carrier dynamics in self-assembled ErAs nanoislands embedded in GaAs measured by optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. M. Anile and S. D. Hern, "Two-valley hydrodynamical models for electron transport in gallium arsenide: Simulation of Gunn oscillations," VLSI Design 15,681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 62,15764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. E. Foutz, S. K. O'Leary, M. S. Shur, and L. F. Eastman, "Transient electron transport in wurtzite GaN, InN, and AlN," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7727 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A.-P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, "Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

A. G. Markelz and E. G. Gwinn, "Nonlinear response of quantum-confined electrons in nonparabolic subbands," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 2533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz, N. G. Asmar, B. Brar, and E. G. Gwinn, "Interband impact ionization by terahertz illumination of InAs heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Ralph, Y. Chen, J. Woodall, and D. McInturff, "Subpicosecond photoconductivity of In0.53Ga0.47As: Intervalley scattering rates observed via THz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 54, 5568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. N. Saeta, J. F. Federici, B. I. Greene, and D. R. Dykaar, "Intervalley scattering in GaAs and InP probed by pulsed far-infrared transmission spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito Cruz, J. Shah, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond intervalley scattering in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2089 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, "Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2355 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

A. Mayer and F. Keilmann, "Far-infrared nonlinear optics. II. χ(3) contributions from the dynamics of free carriers in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 33, 6962 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

K. Blotekjaer, "Transport equations for electrons in two-valley semiconductors," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 17, 38 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, H.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A.-P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, "Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. J.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A.-P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, "Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anile, A. M.

A. M. Anile and S. D. Hern, "Two-valley hydrodynamical models for electron transport in gallium arsenide: Simulation of Gunn oscillations," VLSI Design 15,681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arena, D. A.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T.Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, "Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asmar, N. G.

A. G. Markelz, N. G. Asmar, B. Brar, and E. G. Gwinn, "Interband impact ionization by terahertz illumination of InAs heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, "Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2355 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

R. P. Prasankumar, A. Scopatz, D. J. Hilton, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, J. M. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, "Carrier dynamics in self-assembled ErAs nanoislands embedded in GaAs measured by optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ayesheshim, A.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, "Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 79, 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bandulet, H.-C.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, "Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 79, 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, "Generation of 1.5 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal," Opt. Express 15, 13212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beard, M. C.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 62,15764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito Cruz, J. Shah, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond intervalley scattering in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2089 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Birnir, B.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A.-P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, "Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, F.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, "Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 79, 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, "Generation of 1.5 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal," Opt. Express 15, 13212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blotekjaer, K.

K. Blotekjaer, "Transport equations for electrons in two-valley semiconductors," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 17, 38 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bonacina, L.

Brar, B.

A. G. Markelz, N. G. Asmar, B. Brar, and E. G. Gwinn, "Interband impact ionization by terahertz illumination of InAs heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brito Cruz, C. H.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito Cruz, J. Shah, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond intervalley scattering in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2089 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, "Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2355 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carr, G. L.

Y. Shen, G. L. Carr, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. Wang, and X. Yang, "Spatiotemporal control of ultrashort laser pulses using intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 043813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T.Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, "Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chekalin, S. V.

Chen, Y.

S. E. Ralph, Y. Chen, J. Woodall, and D. McInturff, "Subpicosecond photoconductivity of In0.53Ga0.47As: Intervalley scattering rates observed via THz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 54, 5568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooke, D. G.

D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, "Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 122103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito Cruz, J. Shah, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond intervalley scattering in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2089 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, J. R.

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, "Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dykaar, D. R.

P. N. Saeta, J. F. Federici, B. I. Greene, and D. R. Dykaar, "Intervalley scattering in GaAs and InP probed by pulsed far-infrared transmission spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eastman, L. F.

B. E. Foutz, S. K. O'Leary, M. S. Shur, and L. F. Eastman, "Transient electron transport in wurtzite GaN, InN, and AlN," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7727 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 77, 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Federici, J. F.

P. N. Saeta, J. F. Federici, B. I. Greene, and D. R. Dykaar, "Intervalley scattering in GaAs and InP probed by pulsed far-infrared transmission spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito Cruz, J. Shah, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond intervalley scattering in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2089 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Foutz, B. E.

B. E. Foutz, S. K. O'Leary, M. S. Shur, and L. F. Eastman, "Transient electron transport in wurtzite GaN, InN, and AlN," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7727 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fragnito, H. L.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito Cruz, J. Shah, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond intervalley scattering in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2089 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gaal, P.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 77, 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glownia, J. H.

Gossard, A. C.

R. P. Prasankumar, A. Scopatz, D. J. Hilton, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, J. M. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, "Carrier dynamics in self-assembled ErAs nanoislands embedded in GaAs measured by optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Greene, B. I.

P. N. Saeta, J. F. Federici, B. I. Greene, and D. R. Dykaar, "Intervalley scattering in GaAs and InP probed by pulsed far-infrared transmission spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gwinn, E. G.

A. G. Markelz and E. G. Gwinn, "Nonlinear response of quantum-confined electrons in nonparabolic subbands," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 2533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz, N. G. Asmar, B. Brar, and E. G. Gwinn, "Interband impact ionization by terahertz illumination of InAs heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

Hebling, J.

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, "High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, "Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 79, 161201(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hegmann, F. A.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, "Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 79, 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, "Generation of 1.5 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal," Opt. Express 15, 13212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, "Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 122103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henry, J. E.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito Cruz, J. Shah, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond intervalley scattering in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2089 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hern, S. D.

A. M. Anile and S. D. Hern, "Two-valley hydrodynamical models for electron transport in gallium arsenide: Simulation of Gunn oscillations," VLSI Design 15,681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hey, R.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 77, 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilton, D. J.

R. P. Prasankumar, A. Scopatz, D. J. Hilton, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, J. M. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, "Carrier dynamics in self-assembled ErAs nanoislands embedded in GaAs measured by optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M. C.

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, "High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, "Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 79, 161201(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. Y.

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, "Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 79, 161201(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jauho, A.-P.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A.-P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, "Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jin, B.

Q-L. Zhou, Y. Shi, B. Jin, and C. Zhang, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz conductivity of photoexcited GaAs under electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 102103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnsen, K.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A.-P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, "Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C.-C.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T.Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, "Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keilmann, F.

A. Mayer and F. Keilmann, "Far-infrared nonlinear optics. II. χ(3) contributions from the dynamics of free carriers in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 33, 6962 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.-C

Kieffer, J.-C.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, "Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 79, 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

King, B. T.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kira, M.

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, "Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, "Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kono, J.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A.-P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, "Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuehn, W.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 77, 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 77, 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-S.

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, "Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lindenberg, A. M.

H. Wen, M. Wiczer, and A. M. Lindenberg, "Ultrafast electron cascades in semiconductors driven by intense femtosecond terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. B 78, 125203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Markelz, A. G.

A. G. Markelz, N. G. Asmar, B. Brar, and E. G. Gwinn, "Interband impact ionization by terahertz illumination of InAs heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz and E. G. Gwinn, "Nonlinear response of quantum-confined electrons in nonparabolic subbands," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 2533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, A.

A. Mayer and F. Keilmann, "Far-infrared nonlinear optics. II. χ(3) contributions from the dynamics of free carriers in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 33, 6962 (1986).
[CrossRef]

McInturff, D.

S. E. Ralph, Y. Chen, J. Woodall, and D. McInturff, "Subpicosecond photoconductivity of In0.53Ga0.47As: Intervalley scattering rates observed via THz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 54, 5568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, "Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 79, 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, "Generation of 1.5 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal," Opt. Express 15, 13212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, J. B.

Y. Shen, G. L. Carr, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. Wang, and X. Yang, "Spatiotemporal control of ultrashort laser pulses using intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 043813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T.Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, "Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, K. A.

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, "High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, "Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 79, 161201(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noda, T.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A.-P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, "Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nordstrom, K. B.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A.-P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, "Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, "Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2355 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Leary, S. K.

B. E. Foutz, S. K. O'Leary, M. S. Shur, and L. F. Eastman, "Transient electron transport in wurtzite GaN, InN, and AlN," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7727 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, T.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, "Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 79, 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, "Generation of 1.5 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal," Opt. Express 15, 13212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasankumar, R. P.

R. P. Prasankumar, A. Scopatz, D. J. Hilton, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, J. M. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, "Carrier dynamics in self-assembled ErAs nanoislands embedded in GaAs measured by optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prineas, J. P.

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, "Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, S. E.

S. E. Ralph, Y. Chen, J. Woodall, and D. McInturff, "Subpicosecond photoconductivity of In0.53Ga0.47As: Intervalley scattering rates observed via THz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 54, 5568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, "Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 79, 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, "Generation of 1.5 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal," Opt. Express 15, 13212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, M.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, "Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 79, 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, "Generation of 1.5 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal," Opt. Express 15, 13212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reimann, K.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 77, 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, G.

Saeta, P. N.

P. N. Saeta, J. F. Federici, B. I. Greene, and D. R. Dykaar, "Intervalley scattering in GaAs and InP probed by pulsed far-infrared transmission spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sakaki, H.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A.-P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, "Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schade, U.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 77, 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 62,15764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scopatz, A.

R. P. Prasankumar, A. Scopatz, D. J. Hilton, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, J. M. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, "Carrier dynamics in self-assembled ErAs nanoislands embedded in GaAs measured by optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito Cruz, J. Shah, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond intervalley scattering in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2089 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito Cruz, J. Shah, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond intervalley scattering in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2089 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, G.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, "Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 79, 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, "Generation of 1.5 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal," Opt. Express 15, 13212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, G. L. Carr, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. Wang, and X. Yang, "Spatiotemporal control of ultrashort laser pulses using intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 043813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T.Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, "Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherwin, M. S.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.

Q-L. Zhou, Y. Shi, B. Jin, and C. Zhang, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz conductivity of photoexcited GaAs under electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 102103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

B. E. Foutz, S. K. O'Leary, M. S. Shur, and L. F. Eastman, "Transient electron transport in wurtzite GaN, InN, and AlN," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7727 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C. R.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, J. T.

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, "Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. G.

Su, F. H.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, "Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 79, 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, "Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields," Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Prasankumar, A. Scopatz, D. J. Hilton, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, J. M. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, "Carrier dynamics in self-assembled ErAs nanoislands embedded in GaAs measured by optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tiedje, H. F.

Tiedje, T.

D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, "Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 122103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, T. Y.

Y. Shen, G. L. Carr, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. Wang, and X. Yang, "Spatiotemporal control of ultrashort laser pulses using intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 043813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, T.Y.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T.Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, "Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, G. M.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 62,15764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Y. Shen, G. L. Carr, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. Wang, and X. Yang, "Spatiotemporal control of ultrashort laser pulses using intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 043813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. J.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T.Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, "Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T.Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, "Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, H.

H. Wen, M. Wiczer, and A. M. Lindenberg, "Ultrafast electron cascades in semiconductors driven by intense femtosecond terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. B 78, 125203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiczer, M.

H. Wen, M. Wiczer, and A. M. Lindenberg, "Ultrafast electron cascades in semiconductors driven by intense femtosecond terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. B 78, 125203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. B.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerner, M.

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 77, 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

Woodall, J.

S. E. Ralph, Y. Chen, J. Woodall, and D. McInturff, "Subpicosecond photoconductivity of In0.53Ga0.47As: Intervalley scattering rates observed via THz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 54, 5568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

Y. Shen, G. L. Carr, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. Wang, and X. Yang, "Spatiotemporal control of ultrashort laser pulses using intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 043813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K.-L.

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, "High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, "Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 79, 161201(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Young, E. C.

D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, "Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 122103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Q-L. Zhou, Y. Shi, B. Jin, and C. Zhang, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz conductivity of photoexcited GaAs under electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 102103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q-L.

Q-L. Zhou, Y. Shi, B. Jin, and C. Zhang, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz conductivity of photoexcited GaAs under electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 102103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M.

R. P. Prasankumar, A. Scopatz, D. J. Hilton, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, J. M. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, "Carrier dynamics in self-assembled ErAs nanoislands embedded in GaAs measured by optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

R. P. Prasankumar, A. Scopatz, D. J. Hilton, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, J. M. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, "Carrier dynamics in self-assembled ErAs nanoislands embedded in GaAs measured by optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, "Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 122103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q-L. Zhou, Y. Shi, B. Jin, and C. Zhang, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz conductivity of photoexcited GaAs under electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 102103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Saeta, J. F. Federici, B. I. Greene, and D. R. Dykaar, "Intervalley scattering in GaAs and InP probed by pulsed far-infrared transmission spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito Cruz, J. Shah, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond intervalley scattering in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2089 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz, N. G. Asmar, B. Brar, and E. G. Gwinn, "Interband impact ionization by terahertz illumination of InAs heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Hebling, K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, "High-power THz generation, THz nonlinear optics, and THz nonlinear spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

K. Blotekjaer, "Transport equations for electrons in two-valley semiconductors," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 17, 38 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. G. Markelz and E. G. Gwinn, "Nonlinear response of quantum-confined electrons in nonparabolic subbands," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 2533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Foutz, S. K. O'Leary, M. S. Shur, and L. F. Eastman, "Transient electron transport in wurtzite GaN, InN, and AlN," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7727 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. Shen, G. L. Carr, J. B. Murphy, T. Y. Tsang, X. Wang, and X. Yang, "Spatiotemporal control of ultrashort laser pulses using intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 043813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (6)

P. Gaal, W. Kuehn, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, J. S. Lee, and U. Schade, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping on radiatively coupled shallow donor transitions in n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 77, 235204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wen, M. Wiczer, and A. M. Lindenberg, "Ultrafast electron cascades in semiconductors driven by intense femtosecond terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. B 78, 125203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, "Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 79, 193204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Ralph, Y. Chen, J. Woodall, and D. McInturff, "Subpicosecond photoconductivity of In0.53Ga0.47As: Intervalley scattering rates observed via THz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 54, 5568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 62,15764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Mayer and F. Keilmann, "Far-infrared nonlinear optics. II. χ(3) contributions from the dynamics of free carriers in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 33, 6962 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A.-P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, "Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, "Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2355 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, "Nonlinear terahertz response of n-type GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 187402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shen, T. Watanabe, D. A. Arena, C.-C. Kao, J. B. Murphy, T.Y. Tsang, X. J. Wang, and G. L. Carr, "Nonlinear cross-phase modulation with intense single-cycle terahertz pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, "Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

VLSI Design (1)

A. M. Anile and S. D. Hern, "Two-valley hydrodynamical models for electron transport in gallium arsenide: Simulation of Gunn oscillations," VLSI Design 15,681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

Errors on all best fit parameters from the model are obtained from the range over which the relative RMS deviation of the fit increases by 10%, which in this case is a change in RMS deviation from 0.070 to 0.077.

M. Lundstrom, Fundamentals of Carrier Transport (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Grundmann, The Physics of Semiconductors (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2006).

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, "Impact ionization in InSb probed by terahertz pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 79, 161201(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nuss and J. Orenstein, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," in Millimter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998), Chap. 2.
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, "THz-pump-THz-probe spectroscopy of semiconductors at high field strengths," http://arxiv.org/abs/0904.2516

S. D. Ganichev and W. Prettl, Intense Terahertz Excitation of Semiconductors (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Normalized transmission of the peak THz pulse electric field at low (black line) and high (red line) THz fields as a function of delay time with respect to a 800 nm, 50 fs, optical pump pulse. The inset shows the corresponding long-term dynamics and the delay at which spectroscopy was performed (green arrow at 10 ps).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmitted THz waveforms measured before (thin black line) and 10 ps after (open red circles) photoexcitation of the GaAs sample by the 800 nm optical pump pulse under (a) low and (b) high THz probe fields. The waveforms are normalized to the THz waveform transmitted through the unexcited GaAs sample. The blue line in (a) and (b) is the fit by the dynamic intervalley-electron-transfer model to the measured THz waveform transmitted through the photoexcited GaAs. The green lines represent the fraction of photoexcited electrons in the central Γ-valley as a function of time according to the model calculations. The time-dependence of the magnitude of the deviation (or difference) between the calculated and measured waveforms transmitted through the photoexcited GaAs at high THz probe fields is shown in (c). The red and black lines in (c) correspond to the deviation obtained with and without Γ-L intervalley scattering included in the calculation, respectively. The deviation assuming intervalley scattering is typically less than 5%. The difference between the two deviation curves is shaded in grey, emphasizing how the deviation is minimized in the trailing part of the waveform if Γ-L intervalley scattering is taken into account.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of the electronic band structure of GaAs and related excitation mechanisms. The band gap between the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) is 1.43 eV. The energy difference between the bottom of the conduction band in the Γ-valley and the local energy minimum in the L-valley is 0.29 eV. In (1), the 800 nm pump pulse photoexcites electrons and holes in the normally insulating GaAs sample, with the electrons being injected into the higher mobility central Γ valley in the conduction band. The electrons quickly thermalize (2) within 1 ps to the bottom of the Γ-valley. A high-field THz probe pulse can then accelerate the photoexcited electrons to higher energies in the Γ-valley (3), which may result in intervalley scattering to the L-valley (4).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The Γ-L intervalley scattering rate as a function of electron energy in the Γ-valley used in the model, as described in Eq. (4).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The incident THz pulse, Ei , (red line) and transmitted THz pulses Et before (“bp”, green line) and after (“ap”, blue line) photoexcitation by the pump pulse for (a) low and (d) high THz probe fields. Calculated drift velocities for the Γ-valley electrons at (b) low and (e) high THz probe fields. Calculated total electron energies at (c) low and (f) high THz probe fields. The dashed green line in (f) designates the lower edge of the energy threshold for intervalley scattering used in the model calculation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Time evolution of the average electron drift velocity upon the application of a step-like electric field of 60 kV/cm according to the dynamic intervalley-electron-transfer model.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Real (black squares) and imaginary (red circles) components of the complex conductivity extracted at a pump-probe delay time of 10 ps measured at low (a) and high (b) THz probe fields. The solid blue lines in (a) and (b) are the corresponding fits using the dynamic intervalley-electron-transfer model. The effect of neglecting intervalley scattering in the model is shown in (c).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of the fit parameters used in the model. Errors are given in brackets.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Et=1Y0+Ys (2Y0EiJd)
dvΓdt=eEtmΓ*vΓτΓ
dnΓdt=nΓτΓL+n0nΓτLΓ
τΓL1(εΓ)={0,εΓεthΔεth=ε1τΓL01,εΓεth+Δεth=ε2smoothfunctionforε1<εΓ<ε2
Epump(ω)Eref(ω)=N+1N+1+Z0dσ(ω)

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