Abstract

We report on a new coherent source that, using a phase-lock scheme to an optical frequency-comb synthesizer, achieves a 10-Hz intrinsic linewidth, is tunable from 4 to 4.5 µm with a presettable absolute frequency and, when coupled to a high-finesse cavity, can provide a short-term absorption sensitivity of 1.3·10-11 cm-1Hz-1/2. These unique spectral features make this source a precise tool for molecular physics.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

2008 (1)

F. Lang, K. Winkler, C. Strauss, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Ultracold triplet molecules in the rovibrational ground state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133005,1-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

E. Reinhold, R. Buning, U. Hollenstein, A. Ivanchik, P. Petitjean, and W. Ubachs, "Indication of a cosmological variation of the proton-electron mass ratio based on laboratory measurement and reanalysis of H2 spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 151101,1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hansch, "Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, "A comb-referenced differencefrequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5-um region," J. Opt. A 8, S490-S493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, "Mid-infrared fibre-based optical comb," New J. Phys. 8, 262,1-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 m using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113,1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 um for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Schiller and V. Korobov, "Tests of time independence of the electron and nuclear masses with ultracold molecules," Phys. Rev. A 71, 032505,1-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, and M. Prevedelli, "Frequency-comb-based absolute frequency measurements in the mid-IR with a difference-frequency spectrometer," Opt. Lett. 30, 997-999 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Kovalchuk, T. Schuldt, and A. Peters, "Combination of a continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator and a femtosecond frequency comb for optical frequency metrology," Opt. Lett. 30, 3141-3143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

F. Faglioni and P. Lazzeretti, "Parity-violation effect on vibrational spectra," Phys. Rev. A 67, 032101,1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted differencefrequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

2001 (1)

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, "Search for exchange-antisymmetric states for spin-0 particles at the 10−11 level," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1919-1922 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Modugno and M. Modugno, "Testing the symmetrization postulate on molecules with three identical nuclei," Phys. Rev. A 62, 022115,1-8 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bord’e, and C. Chardonnet, "Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1554-1557 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799-3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, "CW cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316-322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, "Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 252-254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

O. W. Greenberg, "Particles with small violations of Fermi or Bose statistics," Phys. Rev. D 43, 4111-4120 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, "On difference of energy levels of left and right molecules due to weak interactions," Phys. Lett. A 53, 275-276 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Adler, F.

Amy-Klein, A.

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bord’e, and C. Chardonnet, "Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1554-1557 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Bergquist, J. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799-3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Borri, S.

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted differencefrequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, "Low-power Lamb-dip spectroscopy of very weak CO2 transitions around 4.25 um," Opt. Lett. 27, 1256-1258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buning, R.

E. Reinhold, R. Buning, U. Hollenstein, A. Ivanchik, P. Petitjean, and W. Ubachs, "Indication of a cosmological variation of the proton-electron mass ratio based on laboratory measurement and reanalysis of H2 spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 151101,1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, "Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 252-254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cancio, P.

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, "A comb-referenced differencefrequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5-um region," J. Opt. A 8, S490-S493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, and M. Prevedelli, "Frequency-comb-based absolute frequency measurements in the mid-IR with a difference-frequency spectrometer," Opt. Lett. 30, 997-999 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted differencefrequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, "Low-power Lamb-dip spectroscopy of very weak CO2 transitions around 4.25 um," Opt. Lett. 27, 1256-1258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, "Search for exchange-antisymmetric states for spin-0 particles at the 10−11 level," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1919-1922 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

Castrillo, A.

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, "A comb-referenced differencefrequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5-um region," J. Opt. A 8, S490-S493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

Cossel, K.

Cruz, F. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799-3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahmani, B.

Daussy, C.

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bord’e, and C. Chardonnet, "Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1554-1557 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, "Mid-infrared fibre-based optical comb," New J. Phys. 8, 262,1-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, "A comb-referenced differencefrequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5-um region," J. Opt. A 8, S490-S493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 um for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, and M. Prevedelli, "Frequency-comb-based absolute frequency measurements in the mid-IR with a difference-frequency spectrometer," Opt. Lett. 30, 997-999 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted differencefrequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, "Low-power Lamb-dip spectroscopy of very weak CO2 transitions around 4.25 um," Opt. Lett. 27, 1256-1258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, "Search for exchange-antisymmetric states for spin-0 particles at the 10−11 level," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1919-1922 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denschlag, J. H.

F. Lang, K. Winkler, C. Strauss, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Ultracold triplet molecules in the rovibrational ground state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133005,1-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R.

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Faglioni, F.

F. Faglioni and P. Lazzeretti, "Parity-violation effect on vibrational spectra," Phys. Rev. A 67, 032101,1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 m using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113,1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feder, K.

Fermann, M. E.

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, G.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, "Mid-infrared fibre-based optical comb," New J. Phys. 8, 262,1-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 um for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Galli, I.

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, "A comb-referenced differencefrequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5-um region," J. Opt. A 8, S490-S493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 m using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113,1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 m using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113,1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giusfredi, G.

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, "A comb-referenced differencefrequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5-um region," J. Opt. A 8, S490-S493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, and M. Prevedelli, "Frequency-comb-based absolute frequency measurements in the mid-IR with a difference-frequency spectrometer," Opt. Lett. 30, 997-999 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted differencefrequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, "Low-power Lamb-dip spectroscopy of very weak CO2 transitions around 4.25 um," Opt. Lett. 27, 1256-1258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, "Search for exchange-antisymmetric states for spin-0 particles at the 10−11 level," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1919-1922 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C.

Goldberg, L.

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, "Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 252-254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, O. W.

O. W. Greenberg, "Particles with small violations of Fermi or Bose statistics," Phys. Rev. D 43, 4111-4120 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, R.

F. Lang, K. Winkler, C. Strauss, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Ultracold triplet molecules in the rovibrational ground state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133005,1-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, "Ultrasensitive detections in atomic and molecular physics: demonstration in molecular overtone spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6-15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T. W.

T. W. Hansch, "Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, I.

Hollberg, L.

Hollenstein, U.

E. Reinhold, R. Buning, U. Hollenstein, A. Ivanchik, P. Petitjean, and W. Ubachs, "Indication of a cosmological variation of the proton-electron mass ratio based on laboratory measurement and reanalysis of H2 spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 151101,1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inguscio, M.

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, "Search for exchange-antisymmetric states for spin-0 particles at the 10−11 level," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1919-1922 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itano, W. M.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799-3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ivanchik, A.

E. Reinhold, R. Buning, U. Hollenstein, A. Ivanchik, P. Petitjean, and W. Ubachs, "Indication of a cosmological variation of the proton-electron mass ratio based on laboratory measurement and reanalysis of H2 spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 151101,1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kachanov, A. A.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, "CW cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316-322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

Korobov, V.

S. Schiller and V. Korobov, "Tests of time independence of the electron and nuclear masses with ultracold molecules," Phys. Rev. A 71, 032505,1-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kovalchuk, E. V.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lalezari, R.

Lang, F.

F. Lang, K. Winkler, C. Strauss, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Ultracold triplet molecules in the rovibrational ground state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133005,1-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lazzeretti, P.

F. Faglioni and P. Lazzeretti, "Parity-violation effect on vibrational spectra," Phys. Rev. A 67, 032101,1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, "On difference of energy levels of left and right molecules due to weak interactions," Phys. Lett. A 53, 275-276 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lipphardt, B.

H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, "Kerr-lens mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements," Appl. Phys. B 74, 1-6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

Maddaloni, P.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, "Mid-infrared fibre-based optical comb," New J. Phys. 8, 262,1-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 um for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malara, P.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, "Mid-infrared fibre-based optical comb," New J. Phys. 8, 262,1-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 um for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marrel, T.

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bord’e, and C. Chardonnet, "Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1554-1557 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maulini, R.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 m using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113,1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazzotti, D.

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, "A comb-referenced differencefrequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5-um region," J. Opt. A 8, S490-S493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, and M. Prevedelli, "Frequency-comb-based absolute frequency measurements in the mid-IR with a difference-frequency spectrometer," Opt. Lett. 30, 997-999 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted differencefrequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, S. Borri, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, "Low-power Lamb-dip spectroscopy of very weak CO2 transitions around 4.25 um," Opt. Lett. 27, 1256-1258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, "Search for exchange-antisymmetric states for spin-0 particles at the 10−11 level," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1919-1922 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McElhanon, W.

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, "Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 252-254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Modugno, G.

G. Modugno and M. Modugno, "Testing the symmetrization postulate on molecules with three identical nuclei," Phys. Rev. A 62, 022115,1-8 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Modugno, M.

G. Modugno and M. Modugno, "Testing the symmetrization postulate on molecules with three identical nuclei," Phys. Rev. A 62, 022115,1-8 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mohan, A.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 m using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113,1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Myers, T. L.

Nguyen, C. T.

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bord’e, and C. Chardonnet, "Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1554-1557 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J.

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Peters, A.

Petitjean, P.

E. Reinhold, R. Buning, U. Hollenstein, A. Ivanchik, P. Petitjean, and W. Ubachs, "Indication of a cosmological variation of the proton-electron mass ratio based on laboratory measurement and reanalysis of H2 spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 151101,1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prevedelli, M.

Ranka, J. K.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhold, E.

E. Reinhold, R. Buning, U. Hollenstein, A. Ivanchik, P. Petitjean, and W. Ubachs, "Indication of a cosmological variation of the proton-electron mass ratio based on laboratory measurement and reanalysis of H2 spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 151101,1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rempe, G.

Romanini, D.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, "CW cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316-322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sadeghi, N.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, "CW cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316-322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

S. Schiller and V. Korobov, "Tests of time independence of the electron and nuclear masses with ultracold molecules," Phys. Rev. A 71, 032505,1-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuldt, T.

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, "Kerr-lens mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements," Appl. Phys. B 74, 1-6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckel, F.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, "CW cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316-322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strauss, C.

F. Lang, K. Winkler, C. Strauss, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Ultracold triplet molecules in the rovibrational ground state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133005,1-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tamassia, F.

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted differencefrequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M. S.

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, "Kerr-lens mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements," Appl. Phys. B 74, 1-6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. J.

Thorpe, M. J.

Ubachs, W.

E. Reinhold, R. Buning, U. Hollenstein, A. Ivanchik, P. Petitjean, and W. Ubachs, "Indication of a cosmological variation of the proton-electron mass ratio based on laboratory measurement and reanalysis of H2 spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 151101,1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P.

Williams, R. M.

Windeler, R. S.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winkler, K.

F. Lang, K. Winkler, C. Strauss, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Ultracold triplet molecules in the rovibrational ground state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133005,1-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yablon, A.

Yan, M.

Ye, J.

F. Adler, K. Cossel, M. J. Thorpe, I. Hart, M. E. Fermann and J. Ye, "Phase-stabilized, 1.5 W frequency comb at 2.84.8 um," Opt. Lett. 34, 1330-1332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, "Ultrasensitive detections in atomic and molecular physics: demonstration in molecular overtone spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6-15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Young, B. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799-3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

S. Borri, P. Cancio, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and F. Tamassia, "Power-boosted differencefrequency source for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 76, 473-477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara, and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 um for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, "Kerr-lens mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements," Appl. Phys. B 74, 1-6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 m using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113,1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, and F. Stoeckel, "CW cavity ring down spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316-322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, "Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 252-254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, "A comb-referenced differencefrequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5-um region," J. Opt. A 8, S490-S493 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, "Mid-infrared fibre-based optical comb," New J. Phys. 8, 262,1-8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

V. S. Letokhov, "On difference of energy levels of left and right molecules due to weak interactions," Phys. Lett. A 53, 275-276 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

F. Faglioni and P. Lazzeretti, "Parity-violation effect on vibrational spectra," Phys. Rev. A 67, 032101,1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Modugno and M. Modugno, "Testing the symmetrization postulate on molecules with three identical nuclei," Phys. Rev. A 62, 022115,1-8 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Schiller and V. Korobov, "Tests of time independence of the electron and nuclear masses with ultracold molecules," Phys. Rev. A 71, 032505,1-7 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

O. W. Greenberg, "Particles with small violations of Fermi or Bose statistics," Phys. Rev. D 43, 4111-4120 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, M. Inguscio, and P. De Natale, "Search for exchange-antisymmetric states for spin-0 particles at the 10−11 level," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1919-1922 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bord’e, and C. Chardonnet, "Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1554-1557 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Visible lasers with subhertz linewidths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799-3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Reinhold, R. Buning, U. Hollenstein, A. Ivanchik, P. Petitjean, and W. Ubachs, "Indication of a cosmological variation of the proton-electron mass ratio based on laboratory measurement and reanalysis of H2 spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 151101,1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Lang, K. Winkler, C. Strauss, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Ultracold triplet molecules in the rovibrational ground state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133005,1-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

T. W. Hansch, "Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Yariv, Quantum electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1988).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

OFCS-referenced DFG IR source. OFCS is used as a transfer oscillator to phase-lock the ECDL directly to the Nd:YAG. DM, dichroic mirror; Ge, germanium filter. See text for other acronyms.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Frequency noise spectral density recorded with a FFT spectrum analyzer. Three spectra with different frequency spans (2 kHz, 10 kHz, 1 MHz) are stuck together and plotted in the same graph (RBW=3·10-3×span). (b) Typical single-shot cavity ring-down signal. The experimental data points, the exponential fit curve and the residuals are shown.

Equations (5)

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Δνpc=νpNpνrνo
Δνsc=νsNsνrνo
νi=νpνs=(NpNs1) νs
δνi=(NpNs1) δ νs
αmin=π2F 1L 2eBηP

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