Abstract

Ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation of bulk fused silica may result under specific energetic conditions in the self-organization of subwavelength material redistribution regions within the laser trace. The modulated structures have birefringent properties and show unusual anisotropic light scattering and reflection characteristics. We report here on the formation of waveguiding structures with remarkable polarization effects for infrared light. The photoinscription process using 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses is accompanied by third harmonic generation and polarization dependent anisotropic scattering of UV photons. The photowritten structures can be arranged in three-dimensional patterns generating complex propagation and polarization effects due to the anisotropic optical properties.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (4)

2008 (5)

2007 (2)

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides with controllable core size in high refractive index glass," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 88, 239-242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, and P. R. Herman, "Type II high-strength Bragg grating waveguides photowritten with ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Express 15, 4182-4191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

W. Cai, A. R. Libertun, and R. Piestun, "Polarization selective computer-generated holograms realized in glass by femtosecond laser induced nanogratings," Opt. Express 14, 3785-3791 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Osellame, A. Festa, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, "1.5 m single longitudinal mode waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 15, 3190-3194 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. T¨unnermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Laser Opt. 82, 507-512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing thresholds," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4523-4526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, E. Gaiˇzauskas, V. Jarutis, J. Reif, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Optical third harmonic generation during femtosecond pulse diffraction in a Bragg grating," J. Phys. D 39, 50-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31, 620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2004 (2)

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, "Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 29, 119-121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, "Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5280-5283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

N. Fukata, Y. Yamamoto, K. Murakami, M. Hase, and M. Kitajima, "In situ spectroscopic measurement of transmitted light related to defect formation in SiO2 during femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3495-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Anisotropic refractive-index change in silica glass induced by self-trapped filament of linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889-1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser irradiation stress induced in pure silica," Opt. Express 11, 1070-1079 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg "Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, "Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 219-221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, "Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining," Opt. Lett. 27, 2200-2202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. N. Saeta and N. A. Miller "Distinguishing surface and bulk contributions to third-harmonic generation in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2704-2706 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, "Memorized polarization- dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940-1942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, "Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199-2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1982 (1)

Abdollahpour, D.

Ak¨ozbek, N.

F. Th’eberge, N. Ak¨ozbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, "Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 245, 399-405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, "Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 219-221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

Asano, T.

Audouard, E.

C. Mauclair, G. Cheng, N. Huot, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Dynamic ultrafast laser spatial tailoring for parallel micromachining of photonic devices in transparent materials," Opt. Express 17, 3531-3542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates," Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205/1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg "Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, "Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining," Opt. Lett. 27, 2200-2202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102/1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bl¨omer, D.

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. T¨unnermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Laser Opt. 82, 507-512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. T¨unnermann, and F. Lederer, "Discrete nonlinear localization in femtosecond laser written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Express 13, 10552-10557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borrelli, N. F.

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, "Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 219-221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, N.

Bricchi, E.

Buckman, A. B.

Bulgakova, N. M.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates," Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205/1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burakov, I. M.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates," Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205/1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. T¨unnermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Laser Opt. 82, 507-512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. T¨unnermann, and F. Lederer, "Discrete nonlinear localization in femtosecond laser written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Express 13, 10552-10557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, G. R.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, "Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5280-5283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Canioni, L.

Carr, C. W.

Cerullo, G.

Chen, X.

Cheng, G.

Chin, S. L.

F. Th’eberge, N. Ak¨ozbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, "Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 245, 399-405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, S. Lei, L. Ramunno, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Self-controlled formation of microlenses by optical breakdown inside wide-band-gap materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 243118/1- 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102/1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Dawes, J. M.

De Mange, P.

Dekker, P.

Della Valle, G.

Demos, S. G.

Diez-Blanco, V.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides with controllable core size in high refractive index glass," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 88, 239-242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing thresholds," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4523-4526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

El-Khamhawy, A.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 237403/1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

Feng, S.

Fern´andez, H.

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fern´andez, and J. Solis, "Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109/1-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferrer, A.

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fern´andez, and J. Solis, "Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109/1-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Festa, A.

Franco, M.

B. Poumellec, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser irradiation stress induced in pure silica," Opt. Express 11, 1070-1079 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fukata, N.

N. Fukata, Y. Yamamoto, K. Murakami, M. Hase, and M. Kitajima, "In situ spectroscopic measurement of transmitted light related to defect formation in SiO2 during femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3495-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, "Memorized polarization- dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940-1942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gai?zauskas, E.

S. Juodkazis, E. Gaiˇzauskas, V. Jarutis, J. Reif, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Optical third harmonic generation during femtosecond pulse diffraction in a Bragg grating," J. Phys. D 39, 50-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gawelda, W.

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fern´andez, and J. Solis, "Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109/1-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gertsvolf, M.

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, S. Lei, L. Ramunno, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Self-controlled formation of microlenses by optical breakdown inside wide-band-gap materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 243118/1- 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

Gottmann, J.

Gravel, J.-F.

F. Th’eberge, N. Ak¨ozbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, "Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 245, 399-405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grojo, D.

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, S. Lei, L. Ramunno, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Self-controlled formation of microlenses by optical breakdown inside wide-band-gap materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 243118/1- 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, "Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5280-5283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hase, M.

N. Fukata, Y. Yamamoto, K. Murakami, M. Hase, and M. Kitajima, "In situ spectroscopic measurement of transmitted light related to defect formation in SiO2 during femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3495-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hertel, I. V.

C. Mauclair, G. Cheng, N. Huot, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Dynamic ultrafast laser spatial tailoring for parallel micromachining of photonic devices in transparent materials," Opt. Express 17, 3531-3542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates," Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205/1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, "Memorized polarization- dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940-1942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, "Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199-2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405/1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, "Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass," Laser and Photon. Rev. 2, 26-46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, and C. Hnatovsky, "Creation of chiral structures inside fused silica glass," Opt. Lett. 33, 1312-1314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102/1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Homoelle, D.

Horn-Solle, H.

Huot, N.

Husakou, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates," Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205/1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, H.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, "Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199-2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31, 620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Anisotropic refractive-index change in silica glass induced by self-trapped filament of linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889-1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarutis, V.

S. Juodkazis, E. Gaiˇzauskas, V. Jarutis, J. Reif, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Optical third harmonic generation during femtosecond pulse diffraction in a Bragg grating," J. Phys. D 39, 50-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jean-Ruel, H.

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, S. Lei, L. Ramunno, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Self-controlled formation of microlenses by optical breakdown inside wide-band-gap materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 243118/1- 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jian, S.

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, E. Gaiˇzauskas, V. Jarutis, J. Reif, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Optical third harmonic generation during femtosecond pulse diffraction in a Bragg grating," J. Phys. D 39, 50-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, "Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefrigence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications," J. Ceram. Soc. Japan. 116, 1052-1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, "Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 29, 119-121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg "Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, "Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining," Opt. Lett. 27, 2200-2202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, "Memorized polarization- dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940-1942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, "Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199-2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405/1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kitajima, M.

N. Fukata, Y. Yamamoto, K. Murakami, M. Hase, and M. Kitajima, "In situ spectroscopic measurement of transmitted light related to defect formation in SiO2 during femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3495-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klappauf, B. G.

Kluge, M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102/1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kucheyev, S. O.

Laporta, P.

Lederer, F.

Lei, S.

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, S. Lei, L. Ramunno, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Self-controlled formation of microlenses by optical breakdown inside wide-band-gap materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 243118/1- 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Libertun, A. R.

Little, D. J.

Liu, C. S.

C. S. Liu and V. K. Tripathi, "Third harmonic generation of a short pulse laser in a plasma density ripple created by a machining beam," Phys. Plasmas 15, 023106/1-4 (2008).

Liu, W.

F. Th’eberge, N. Ak¨ozbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, "Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 245, 399-405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S.

Luk, T. S.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, "Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5280-5283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lumeau, J.

Marshall, G. D. D.

Matsuo, S.

S. Juodkazis, E. Gaiˇzauskas, V. Jarutis, J. Reif, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Optical third harmonic generation during femtosecond pulse diffraction in a Bragg grating," J. Phys. D 39, 50-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mauclair, C.

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates," Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205/1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meshcheryakov, Yu. P.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates," Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205/1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, N. A.

P. N. Saeta and N. A. Miller "Distinguishing surface and bulk contributions to third-harmonic generation in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2704-2706 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mills, J. D.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg "Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, "Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining," Opt. Lett. 27, 2200-2202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, E. Gaiˇzauskas, V. Jarutis, J. Reif, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Optical third harmonic generation during femtosecond pulse diffraction in a Bragg grating," J. Phys. D 39, 50-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, "Memorized polarization- dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940-1942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, "Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199-2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, "Memorized polarization- dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940-1942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, "Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199-2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murakami, K.

N. Fukata, Y. Yamamoto, K. Murakami, M. Hase, and M. Kitajima, "In situ spectroscopic measurement of transmitted light related to defect formation in SiO2 during femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3495-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

B. Poumellec, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser irradiation stress induced in pure silica," Opt. Express 11, 1070-1079 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Nishii, J.

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Anisotropic refractive-index change in silica glass induced by self-trapped filament of linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889-1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolte, S.

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. T¨unnermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Laser Opt. 82, 507-512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31, 620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. T¨unnermann, and F. Lederer, "Discrete nonlinear localization in femtosecond laser written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Express 13, 10552-10557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osellame, R.

Papazoglou, D. G.

Pertsch, T.

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. T¨unnermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Laser Opt. 82, 507-512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. T¨unnermann, and F. Lederer, "Discrete nonlinear localization in femtosecond laser written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Express 13, 10552-10557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piestun, R.

Poumellec, B.

Prade, B.

B. Poumellec, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser irradiation stress induced in pure silica," Opt. Express 11, 1070-1079 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Price, J. J.

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, "Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 219-221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Puerto, D.

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fern´andez, and J. Solis, "Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109/1-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, "Memorized polarization- dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940-1942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, "Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199-2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405/1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Radousky, H. B.

Rajeev, P. P.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramunno, L.

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, S. Lei, L. Ramunno, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Self-controlled formation of microlenses by optical breakdown inside wide-band-gap materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 243118/1- 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, S. Lei, L. Ramunno, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Self-controlled formation of microlenses by optical breakdown inside wide-band-gap materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 243118/1- 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102/1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J.

S. Juodkazis, E. Gaiˇzauskas, V. Jarutis, J. Reif, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Optical third harmonic generation during femtosecond pulse diffraction in a Bragg grating," J. Phys. D 39, 50-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

C. Mauclair, G. Cheng, N. Huot, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Dynamic ultrafast laser spatial tailoring for parallel micromachining of photonic devices in transparent materials," Opt. Express 17, 3531-3542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates," Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205/1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

Ruiz de la Cruz, A.

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fern´andez, and J. Solis, "Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109/1-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saeta, P. N.

P. N. Saeta and N. A. Miller "Distinguishing surface and bulk contributions to third-harmonic generation in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2704-2706 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31, 620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schreder, B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102/1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, T.

Shimotsuma, Y.

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, "Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefrigence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications," J. Ceram. Soc. Japan. 116, 1052-1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405/1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shirk, M. D.

Si, J.

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, "Memorized polarization- dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940-1942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, J.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides with controllable core size in high refractive index glass," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 88, 239-242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing thresholds," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4523-4526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fern´andez, and J. Solis, "Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109/1-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siiman, L. A.

Simova, E.

R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, and C. Hnatovsky, "Creation of chiral structures inside fused silica glass," Opt. Lett. 33, 1312-1314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, "Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass," Laser and Photon. Rev. 2, 26-46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102/1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, G.

Smith, C.

Smith, C. M.

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, "Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 219-221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 237403/1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides with controllable core size in high refractive index glass," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 88, 239-242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing thresholds," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4523-4526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fern´andez, and J. Solis, "Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109/1-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Starrost, F.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, "Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199-2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

C. Mauclair, G. Cheng, N. Huot, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Dynamic ultrafast laser spatial tailoring for parallel micromachining of photonic devices in transparent materials," Opt. Express 17, 3531-3542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates," Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205/1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

B. Poumellec, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser irradiation stress induced in pure silica," Opt. Express 11, 1070-1079 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Suntsov, S.

Szameit, A.

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. T¨unnermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Laser Opt. 82, 507-512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. T¨unnermann, and F. Lederer, "Discrete nonlinear localization in femtosecond laser written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Express 13, 10552-10557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T¨unnermann, A.

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. T¨unnermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Laser Opt. 82, 507-512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. T¨unnermann, and F. Lederer, "Discrete nonlinear localization in femtosecond laser written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Express 13, 10552-10557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taccheo, S.

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, "Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass," Laser and Photon. Rev. 2, 26-46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, and C. Hnatovsky, "Creation of chiral structures inside fused silica glass," Opt. Lett. 33, 1312-1314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102/1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Temnov, V. V.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 237403/1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Th’eberge, F.

F. Th’eberge, N. Ak¨ozbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, "Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 245, 399-405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, V. K.

C. S. Liu and V. K. Tripathi, "Third harmonic generation of a short pulse laser in a plasma density ripple created by a machining beam," Phys. Plasmas 15, 023106/1-4 (2008).

Tzortzakis, S.

Vawter, G. A.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, "Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5280-5283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 237403/1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31, 620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Anisotropic refractive-index change in silica glass induced by self-trapped filament of linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889-1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wielandy, S.

Withford, M. J.

Wortmann, D.

Xu, O.

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Anisotropic refractive-index change in silica glass induced by self-trapped filament of linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889-1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

N. Fukata, Y. Yamamoto, K. Murakami, M. Hase, and M. Kitajima, "In situ spectroscopic measurement of transmitted light related to defect formation in SiO2 during femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3495-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, "Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5280-5283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, L.

Zhou, K.

Zhou, P.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 237403/1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zimmer, J.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102/1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides with controllable core size in high refractive index glass," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 88, 239-242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Laser Opt. (1)

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. T¨unnermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Laser Opt. 82, 507-512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, "Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 219-221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, "Memorized polarization- dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940-1942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg "Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Saeta and N. A. Miller "Distinguishing surface and bulk contributions to third-harmonic generation in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2704-2706 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Fukata, Y. Yamamoto, K. Murakami, M. Hase, and M. Kitajima, "In situ spectroscopic measurement of transmitted light related to defect formation in SiO2 during femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3495-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Waveguide structures written in SF57 glass with fs-laser pulses above the critical self-focusing thresholds," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4523-4526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. Yang, G. R. Burns, J. Guo, T. S. Luk, and G. A. Vawter, "Femtosecond laser-pulse-induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5280-5283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Anisotropic refractive-index change in silica glass induced by self-trapped filament of linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889-1892 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Ceram. Soc. Japan. (1)

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, "Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefrigence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications," J. Ceram. Soc. Japan. 116, 1052-1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

S. Juodkazis, E. Gaiˇzauskas, V. Jarutis, J. Reif, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Optical third harmonic generation during femtosecond pulse diffraction in a Bragg grating," J. Phys. D 39, 50-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laser and Photon. Rev. (1)

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, "Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass," Laser and Photon. Rev. 2, 26-46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31, 620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

F. Th’eberge, N. Ak¨ozbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, "Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 245, 399-405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (10)

S. Suntsov, D. Abdollahpour, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, "Efficient third-harmonic generation through tailored IR femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in air," Opt. Express 17, 3190-3195 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mauclair, G. Cheng, N. Huot, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Dynamic ultrafast laser spatial tailoring for parallel micromachining of photonic devices in transparent materials," Opt. Express 17, 3531-3542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Siiman, J. Lumeau, L. Canioni, and L. B. Glebov, "Non-collinear generation of third harmonic of IR ultrashort laser pulses by PTR glass volume Bragg gratings," Opt. Express 17, 3564-3573 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szameit, D. Bl¨omer, J. Burghoff, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. T¨unnermann, and F. Lederer, "Discrete nonlinear localization in femtosecond laser written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Express 13, 10552-10557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, A. R. Libertun, and R. Piestun, "Polarization selective computer-generated holograms realized in glass by femtosecond laser induced nanogratings," Opt. Express 14, 3785-3791 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Osellame, A. Festa, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, "1.5 m single longitudinal mode waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 15, 3190-3194 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, and P. R. Herman, "Type II high-strength Bragg grating waveguides photowritten with ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Express 15, 4182-4191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wortmann, J. Gottmann, N. Brandt, and H. Horn-Solle, "Micro- and nanostructures inside sapphire by fs-laser irradiation and selective etching," Opt. Express 16, 1517-1522 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Poumellec, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser irradiation stress induced in pure silica," Opt. Express 11, 1070-1079 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. D. Marshall, J. M. Dawes, and M. J. Withford, "Femtosecond laser modification of fused silica: the effect of writing polarization on Si-O ring structure," Opt. Express 16, 20029- 20037 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (8)

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, "Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining," Opt. Lett. 27, 2200-2202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, "Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 29, 119-121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, P. De Mange, S. O. Kucheyev, M. D. Shirk, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Radiation produced by femtosecond laser-plasma interaction during dielectric breakdown," Opt. Lett. 30, 661-663 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhou, G. Simpson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "High extinction ratio in-fiber polarizers based on 45◦ tilted fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 30, 1285-1287 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, and C. Hnatovsky, "Creation of chiral structures inside fused silica glass," Opt. Lett. 33, 1312-1314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, "Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199-2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405/1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102/1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fern´andez, and J. Solis, "Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109/1-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates," Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205/1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Grojo, M. Gertsvolf, H. Jean-Ruel, S. Lei, L. Ramunno, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Self-controlled formation of microlenses by optical breakdown inside wide-band-gap materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 243118/1- 3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 237403/1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu and V. K. Tripathi, "Third harmonic generation of a short pulse laser in a plasma density ripple created by a machining beam," Phys. Plasmas 15, 023106/1-4 (2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup of the femtosecond laser waveguide writing arrangement indicating the irradiation geometry: M dichroic mirrors, Obj microscope objectives, WL incoherent white light source, HeNe unpolarized 633 nm radiation. (b) Processing windows for generating type I and type II longitudinal waveguiding traces in fused silica under following irradiation conditions: short pulse duration, radiation wavelength 800 nm, laser repetition rate 100 kHz, and 0.29 NA focusing objective. The evaluation is performed at a working depth centered around 500µm. In the transition region the lower border (see text) corresponds to shortest pulse durations (150 fs) optimized for type I traces and the upper border indicates the transition region for slightly higher pulse durations (200 fs). The reported pulse length values were measured after the focusing objective and were determined by adjusting the compressor position to compensate or introduce additional dispersion.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Polarization dependent optical guiding in various types of longitudinal waveguides in a-SiO2 written by polarized 800 nm femtosecond laser radiation. Images in the left frame show top view PCM pictures of photowritten waveguides at different polarizations indicated on the left side (denoted in a condensed form as horizontal H, vertical V, and circular C; H polarization being contained in the PCM image plane). The dark colors indicate a positive refractive index change and the white colors suggest negative index variations or light scattering. The upper part depicts type I traces while type II are represented in the bottom part. The right frame shows near-field modes for injected 800 nm radiation; the letters on the top of the right frame indicating the polarization of the injection laser (V, H) together with axial transillumination WL microscopy pictures. All the structures are written by 33mW (type I) and 195mW (type II), 100 kHz laser pulses at the speed of 10µm/s. The length of all waveguides is 7.3 mm. 800 nm light is injected into the waveguide via an NA of 0.29.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Polarization extinction ratio for type II waveguides as a function of the length of the waveguide at 800 nm. (b) Full polarization dependent transmission response of a 7.3 mm-long single waveguide in fused silica written by vertically polarized femtosecond laser pulses (indicated by the arrow at 90°). There is a 2° error in estimating the polarization direction of the injecting laser (800 nm) in the experiment. (c) Polarization dependent scattering response of type II waveguides written by vertically polarized femtosecond laser pulses. A multimode fiber detector fixed on the side of the waveguide was employed to collect scattered light and the polarization of injection was tuned by a half-wave plate.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Anisotropic scattering of the generated third harmonic radiation. The polarization of the writing laser is: (a) horizontal, (b) linearly polarized at 45°, and (c) vertically polarized. The images correspond to the induced blue fluorescence collected from the backside of a white paper screen. Ti:sapphire ultrashort pulsed laser radiation at 195mW and 100 kHz is focused in the silica sample which is transversely displaced at the speed of 10µm/s. (d) Spectrum of the fundamental and the third harmonic wave respectively. (e) The mode of the third harmonic in borosilicate crown BK7 glass in similar irradiation conditions, collinear with the fundamental beam. No anisotropy and polarization dependent scattering effect were observed. Note that BK7 is absorbing at 267 nm and longer propagation paths are strongly attenuated. (f) SEM image of the cross section profile of a fused silica type II trace (after polishing and etching) written by vertically polarized ultrashort laser pulses in conditions similar to Fig. 2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Schematic view of the photoinscribed hexagonal structure assembled from type II guiding traces in fused silica using ultrashort pulsed laser radiation optimized for type II generation. (b) Polarization dependent near-field modes of the hexagonal waveguide centrally injected with 800 nm light via a 0.29NA (top arrows). All the structures are written by 110mW, 100 kHz laser pulses at a scan velocity of 100µm/s. The arrows on left indicate the polarization of the writing laser. In order to show the spatial location of the guided mode with respect to the photoinscribed structure, we give transillumination microscopy images illuminated by white light and injected by unpolarized HeNe laser at 633 nm (NA injection for 633 nm is 0.4). Vertically and horizontally polarized Ti:sapphire laser radiation at 800 nm was used to test polarization dependent light transport indicated in the figure. Guiding appears for injecting polarization parallel to the writing polarization. There is no guiding mode for the waveguide written by circular polarized laser radiation. The length of all traces is 7.3 mm. (c) Full polarization dependent transmission response of a 7.3 mm-long hexagonal type II waveguide array in fused silica written by vertical polarized femtosecond laser. (d) Comparison example for a hexagonal structure made of type I waveguides.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic view of a polarization optical router written by femtosecond polarized light in fused silica. (a) PCM picture of the router assembled as a hybrid consisting of type I and type II traces. The writing polarizations are marked on the left. The outer type II waveguides are written with 195mW laser radiation at the speed of 20 µm/s with orthogonal polarizations, and the central type I waveguide is written with 45mW laser radiation at the speed of 200µm/s. The length of waveguides is 9.3mm and the separation is 15µm. (b,c) Polarization dependent guiding modes in the external waveguides upon injection in the central guide for various polarizations (indicated at the top), due to evanescent coupling at 800 nm.

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