Abstract

We proposed a patterned vertical alignment (PVA) mode controlled by a modified surface with ultraviolet (UV) curable reactive mesogen (RM) mixed with vertical alignment material for a liquid crystal display (LCD) with fast response time. In the surface-controlled PVA (SC-PVA) mode, the RM monomers in the alignment layer are polymerized along the LC directors by UV exposure under an applied voltage. The polymerized RMs produce a pretilt against the substrate normal depending on the applied field direction in the patterned electrode configuration. In such SC-PVA mode, fast response time was achieved at whole grey levels with the predetermined rotational preference of the LC directors governed by the pretilt direction.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee," Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display," J. Phys. D 39, 2367-2372 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, "A super-high-image-quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology," in Digest of Technical Papers of 1998 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 1077-1080.
  5. K. Ohmuro, S. Kataoka, T Sasaki, Y. Koike, "Development of super-high-image-quality verical-alignment-mode LCD," in Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 845-848.
  6. K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, "Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect," in The 18th International Display Research Conference Asia Display (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 383-386.
  7. K. H. Kim, J. J. Ryu, S. B. Park, J. K Song, B.W. Lee, J. S. Byun, and J. H. Souk, "Current status and advance in PVA technology for high performance LCD monitor application," in the First International Meeting on Informaiton Display (Society for Information Display, 2001), pp. 58-61.
  8. B. -W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, M Jeon, J. Heo, D. Sagong, J. Kim, and J. Souk, " Reducing gray-level response to one frame : dynamic capacitance compensation," in Digest of Technical Papers of 2001 Society for Information Display International Symposium, (Society for Information Display, 2001), pp. 1260-1263.
  9. J. K. Ong, K. E. Le, H. S. Chang, S. M. Hong, M. B. Jun, B. Park, S. S. Seomun, K. H. Kim, and S. S. Kim, "DCCII:novel method for fast response time in PVA mode," in Digest of Technical Papers of 2004 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp.1344-1347.
  10. S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, "Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261910 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Nakanishi, M Shibasaki, K. Hanaoka, Y. Inoue, K. Tarumi, M. Bremer, M. Klasen- Memmer, S. Greenfield, and R. Harding, U.S. Patent 7,169,449 (2007).
  12. I. Jánossy and T. I. Kósa, "Gliding of liquid crystals on soft polymer surface," Phys. Rev. E 70, 052701 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, "Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee," Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display," J. Phys. D 39, 2367-2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

I. Jánossy and T. I. Kósa, "Gliding of liquid crystals on soft polymer surface," Phys. Rev. E 70, 052701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jánossy, I.

I. Jánossy and T. I. Kósa, "Gliding of liquid crystals on soft polymer surface," Phys. Rev. E 70, 052701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, "Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. G.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, "Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. M.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, "Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, "Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kósa, T. I.

I. Jánossy and T. I. Kósa, "Gliding of liquid crystals on soft polymer surface," Phys. Rev. E 70, 052701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.-D.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, "Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. K.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, "Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee," Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display," J. Phys. D 39, 2367-2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, "Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee," Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display," J. Phys. D 39, 2367-2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lyu, J.-J.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, "Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh-e, M.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Song, I. S.

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee," Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display," J. Phys. D 39, 2367-2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, I. H.

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee," Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display," J. Phys. D 39, 2367-2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, "Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee," Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display," J. Phys. D 39, 2367-2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

I. Jánossy and T. I. Kósa, "Gliding of liquid crystals on soft polymer surface," Phys. Rev. E 70, 052701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Nakanishi, M Shibasaki, K. Hanaoka, Y. Inoue, K. Tarumi, M. Bremer, M. Klasen- Memmer, S. Greenfield, and R. Harding, U.S. Patent 7,169,449 (2007).

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, "A super-high-image-quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology," in Digest of Technical Papers of 1998 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 1077-1080.

K. Ohmuro, S. Kataoka, T Sasaki, Y. Koike, "Development of super-high-image-quality verical-alignment-mode LCD," in Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 1997), pp. 845-848.

K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, "Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect," in The 18th International Display Research Conference Asia Display (Society for Information Display, 1998), pp. 383-386.

K. H. Kim, J. J. Ryu, S. B. Park, J. K Song, B.W. Lee, J. S. Byun, and J. H. Souk, "Current status and advance in PVA technology for high performance LCD monitor application," in the First International Meeting on Informaiton Display (Society for Information Display, 2001), pp. 58-61.

B. -W. Lee, C. Park, S. Kim, M Jeon, J. Heo, D. Sagong, J. Kim, and J. Souk, " Reducing gray-level response to one frame : dynamic capacitance compensation," in Digest of Technical Papers of 2001 Society for Information Display International Symposium, (Society for Information Display, 2001), pp. 1260-1263.

J. K. Ong, K. E. Le, H. S. Chang, S. M. Hong, M. B. Jun, B. Park, S. S. Seomun, K. H. Kim, and S. S. Kim, "DCCII:novel method for fast response time in PVA mode," in Digest of Technical Papers of 2004 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 2004), pp.1344-1347.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The schematic diagram of the SC-PVA mode and fabrication processes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The measured V-T characteristics of the SC-PVA cell as a function of the applied voltage and (b) the simulated V-T characteristics of the SC-PVA cell near the threshold voltage for various pretilt angles.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The time-resolved microscopic textures for (a) the conventional PVA cell and (b) the proposed SC-PVA cell at 7 V.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The electro-optic responses of the conventional PVA cell and the SC-PVA cell as a function of the applied voltage for (a) the rising process and (b) the falling process.

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