Abstract

We have developed a compact retinal imager that integrates adaptive optics (AO) into a line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO). The bench-top AO-LSO instrument significantly reduces the size, complexity, and cost of research AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (AOSLOs), for the purpose of moving adaptive optics imaging more rapidly into routine clinical use. The AO-LSO produces high resolution retinal images with only one moving part and a significantly reduced instrument footprint and number of optical components. The AO-LSO has a moderate field of view (5.5 deg), which allows montages of the macula or other targets to be obtained more quickly and efficiently. In a preliminary human subjects investigation, photoreceptors could be resolved and counted within ~0.5 mm of the fovea. Photoreceptor counts matched closely to previously reported histology. The capillaries surrounding the foveal avascular zone could be resolved, as well as cells flowing within them. Individual nerve fiber bundles could be resolved, especially near the optic nerve head, as well as other structures such as the lamina cribrosa. In addition to instrument design, fabrication, and testing, software algorithms were developed for automated image registration and cone counting.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (11)

E. J. Fernandez, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, B. Hofer, P.K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography and pancorrection for cellular imaging of the living human retina," Opt. Express 16, 11083-11094 (2008),http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-15-11083.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction," Opt. Express 16, 8126-8143 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-11-8126
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, "In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 16, 12746-12756 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-12746.
[PubMed]

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, "Intrinsic signals from human cone photoreceptors," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 713-719 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, "In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, R. J. Zawadzki, J. L. Keltner, and J. S. Werner, "Changes in cellular structures revealed by ultra-high resolution retinal imaging in optic neuropathies," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2103-2119 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, "Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2061-2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 3021-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, "Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: Variations with refractive error," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 4679-4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Botcherby, M. J. Booth, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, "Real-time extended depth of field microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 21843-21848 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21843.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Debarre, E. J. Botcherby, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, "Adaptive optics for structured illumination microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 9290-9305 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-13-9290.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (10)

D. Debarre, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, "Image based adaptive optics through optimisation of low spatial frequencies," Opt. Express 15, 8176-8190 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-13-8176.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Arathorn, Q. Yang, C. R. Vogel, Y. Zhang, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, "Retinally stabilized cone-targeted stimulus delivery," Opt. Express 15, 13731-13744 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-21-13731.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Li and A. Roorda, "Automated identification of cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics retinal images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1358-1363 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Xue, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, and J. S. Werner, "Photoreceptor counting and montaging of en-face retinal images from an adaptive optics fundus camera," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1364-1372 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, "Maximum Permissible Exposures for Ocular Safety (ANSI 2000), with Emphasis on Ophthalmic Devices," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1250-1265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, "High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, "High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2297-2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, "In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors," Opt. Express 15, 16141-16160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, B. Bloom, and D. X. Hammer, "Compact multimodal adaptive-optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument for retinal imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1327-1336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, R. Tumbar, A. E. Elsner, D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, "Large-field-of-view, modular, stabilized, adaptive-optics-based scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1313-1326 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (9)

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-10-4380.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3354.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernandez, L. Vabre, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, and W. Drexler, "Adaptive optics with a magnetic deformable mirror: applications in the human eye," Opt. Express 14, 8900-8917 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-8900.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahmad, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, "In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells," Opt. Express 14, 7144-7158 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, "Retinal motion estimation in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14, 487-497 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-2-487.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, "Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

M. Booth, T. Wilson, H. B. Sun, T. Ota, and S. Kawata, "Methods for the characterization of deformable membrane mirrors," Appl. Opt. 44, 5131-5139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8532.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P.M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

C. A. Curcio and K. R. Sloan, "Packing Geometry of Human Cone Photoreceptors - Variation with Eccentricity and Evidence for Local Anisotropy," Vis. Neurosci. 9, 169-180 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Ahmad, K.

Ahnelt, P.K.

Albert, O.

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, "Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror," J. Microsc. 206, 65-71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arathorn, D. W.

Artal, P.

Barnaby, A. M.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, "Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2061-2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bierden, P.

Bigelow, C. E.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, "Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2061-2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, B. Bloom, and D. X. Hammer, "Compact multimodal adaptive-optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument for retinal imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1327-1336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, "Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3354.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bille, J. F.

Bloom, B.

Booth, M.

Booth, M. J.

Botcherby, E. J.

Bower, B. A.

Branham, K. E. H.

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, "High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, D.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Carroll, J.

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chen, L.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Doble, G. Yoon, L. Chen, P. Bierden, B. Singer, S. Olivier, and D. R. Williams, "Use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 27, 1537-1539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

Choi, S. S.

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction," Opt. Express 16, 8126-8143 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-11-8126
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, R. J. Zawadzki, J. L. Keltner, and J. S. Werner, "Changes in cellular structures revealed by ultra-high resolution retinal imaging in optic neuropathies," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2103-2119 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Xue, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, and J. S. Werner, "Photoreceptor counting and montaging of en-face retinal images from an adaptive optics fundus camera," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1364-1372 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christie, N.

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, T. Y. P.

T. Y. P. Chui, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 3021-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, "Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: Variations with refractive error," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 4679-4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, M.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio and K. R. Sloan, "Packing Geometry of Human Cone Photoreceptors - Variation with Eccentricity and Evidence for Local Anisotropy," Vis. Neurosci. 9, 169-180 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debarre, D.

Delori, F. C.

Doble, N.

B. Xue, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, and J. S. Werner, "Photoreceptor counting and montaging of en-face retinal images from an adaptive optics fundus camera," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1364-1372 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Doble, G. Yoon, L. Chen, P. Bierden, B. Singer, S. Olivier, and D. R. Williams, "Use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 27, 1537-1539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, W. J.

Dreher, A. W.

Drexler, W.

Dubra, A.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, "In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahmad, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, "In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells," Opt. Express 14, 7144-7158 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, J. L.

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, "High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2297-2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, "High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, D.

Ferguson, R. D.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, "Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2061-2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, B. Bloom, and D. X. Hammer, "Compact multimodal adaptive-optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument for retinal imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1327-1336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, "Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3354.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez, E. J.

Fulton, A. B.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, "Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2061-2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gandhi, J.

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, "High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Gao, W. H.

Gee, B. P.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, "In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahmad, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, "In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells," Opt. Express 14, 7144-7158 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geng, Y.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, "In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girkin, J. M.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goelz, S.

Gray, D. C.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, "In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahmad, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, "In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells," Opt. Express 14, 7144-7158 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grieve, K.

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, "Intrinsic signals from human cone photoreceptors," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 713-719 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Hardy, J. L.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebert, T. J.

Hermann, B.

Hofer, B.

Hofer, H.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, H. J.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iftimia, N. V.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, "Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2061-2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, B. Bloom, and D. X. Hammer, "Compact multimodal adaptive-optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument for retinal imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1327-1336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, "Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3354.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jones, S.

Jones, S. M.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8532.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonnal, R. S.

Juskaitis, R.

Kawata, S.

Keltner, J. L.

S. S. Choi, R. J. Zawadzki, J. L. Keltner, and J. S. Werner, "Changes in cellular structures revealed by ultra-high resolution retinal imaging in optic neuropathies," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2103-2119 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laut, S.

Li, K.Y.

Liang, J. Z.

Lin, J.

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luque, S.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, "In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makous, W.

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, J. A.

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masella, B. D.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, "In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merigan, W.

Merigan, W. H.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, "In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Nakanishi, C.

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, "High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, J.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neitz, M.

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, T. B.

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, "Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror," J. Microsc. 206, 65-71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, S.

Olivier, S. S.

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8532.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ota, T.

Othman, M.

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, "High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, A.

Patterson, B. A.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrig, B. L.

Poland, S. P.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porter, J.

Povazay, B.

Prieto, P. M.

Prieto, P.M.

Putnam, N. M.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qi, X. F.

Queener, H.

Reinholz, F.

Rha, J.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, "Intrinsic signals from human cone photoreceptors," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 713-719 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, "High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2297-2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Li and A. Roorda, "Automated identification of cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics retinal images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1358-1363 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, "High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Arathorn, Q. Yang, C. R. Vogel, Y. Zhang, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, "Retinally stabilized cone-targeted stimulus delivery," Opt. Express 15, 13731-13744 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-21-13731.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, "Retinal motion estimation in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14, 487-497 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-2-487.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-9-405.
[PubMed]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "Optical fiber properties of individual human cones," J. Vis. 2, 404-12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

Scoles, D.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, "In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherman, L.

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, "Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror," J. Microsc. 206, 65-71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirai, T.

Singer, B.

Sliney, D. H.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio and K. R. Sloan, "Packing Geometry of Human Cone Photoreceptors - Variation with Eccentricity and Evidence for Local Anisotropy," Vis. Neurosci. 9, 169-180 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H.

T. Y. P. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, "Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: Variations with refractive error," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 4679-4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H. X.

Sun, H. B.

Swaroop, A.

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, "High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiruveedhula, P.

Tumbar, R.

Twietmeyer, T. H.

Unterhuber, A.

Ustun, T. E.

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, "Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2061-2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, B. Bloom, and D. X. Hammer, "Compact multimodal adaptive-optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument for retinal imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1327-1336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3354.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, "Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vabre, L.

Valentine, G. J.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vargas-Martin, F.

Vogel, C. R.

Webb, R. H.

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, "Maximum Permissible Exposures for Ocular Safety (ANSI 2000), with Emphasis on Ophthalmic Devices," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1250-1265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, "Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

Werner, J. S.

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction," Opt. Express 16, 8126-8143 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-11-8126
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, R. J. Zawadzki, J. L. Keltner, and J. S. Werner, "Changes in cellular structures revealed by ultra-high resolution retinal imaging in optic neuropathies," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2103-2119 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Xue, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, and J. S. Werner, "Photoreceptor counting and montaging of en-face retinal images from an adaptive optics fundus camera," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1364-1372 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-10-4380.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8532.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, "In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahmad, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, "In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells," Opt. Express 14, 7144-7158 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "Optical fiber properties of individual human cones," J. Vis. 2, 404-12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Doble, G. Yoon, L. Chen, P. Bierden, B. Singer, S. Olivier, and D. R. Williams, "Use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 27, 1537-1539 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Z. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

Wolfe, R.

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, "In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfing, J. I.

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahmad, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, "In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells," Opt. Express 14, 7144-7158 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7144.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, A. J.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, B.

Yang, Q.

Ye, J. Y.

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, "Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror," J. Microsc. 206, 65-71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, G.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Y. H.

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, "High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2297-2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, "High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, M. T.

Zhong, Z. Y.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (9)

T. Y. P. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, "Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: Variations with refractive error," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 4679-4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, "Intrinsic signals from human cone photoreceptors," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 713-719 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Makous, J. Carroll, J. I. Wolfing, J. Lin, N. Christie, and D. R. Williams, "Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4160-4167 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, R. Wolfe, B. P. Gee, D. Scoles, Y. Geng, B. D. Masella, A. Dubra, S. Luque, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, "In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine-labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 467-473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. L. Hardy, S. M. Jones, J. L. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with visual function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, Y. H. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, "High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2297-2303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Choi, R. J. Zawadzki, J. L. Keltner, and J. S. Werner, "Changes in cellular structures revealed by ultra-high resolution retinal imaging in optic neuropathies," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2103-2119 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Duncan, Y. H. Zhang, J. Gandhi, C. Nakanishi, M. Othman, K. E. H. Branham, A. Swaroop, and A. Roorda, "High-resolution imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inherited retinal degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3283-3291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, T. E. Ustun, A. M. Barnaby, and A. B. Fulton, "Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: An adaptive optics Fourier domain optical coherence tomography study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2061-2070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, "Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, "Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror," J. Microsc. 206, 65-71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

H. Hofer, J. Carroll, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (9)

F. Vargas-Martin, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Correction of the aberrations in the human eye with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator: limits to performance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2552-2562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, "Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388-1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, "Maximum Permissible Exposures for Ocular Safety (ANSI 2000), with Emphasis on Ophthalmic Devices," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1250-1265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, R. Tumbar, A. E. Elsner, D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, "Large-field-of-view, modular, stabilized, adaptive-optics-based scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1313-1326 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, B. Bloom, and D. X. Hammer, "Compact multimodal adaptive-optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument for retinal imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1327-1336 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Li and A. Roorda, "Automated identification of cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics retinal images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1358-1363 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Xue, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, and J. S. Werner, "Photoreceptor counting and montaging of en-face retinal images from an adaptive optics fundus camera," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1364-1372 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. X. Song, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 3021-3029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vis. (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "Optical fiber properties of individual human cones," J. Vis. 2, 404-12 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vision (1)

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the optimisation algorithms used in the implementation of adaptive optics in confocal and multiphoton microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
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Nature (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (2)

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006).
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Opt. Express (15)

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-9-405.
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D. Debarre, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, "Image based adaptive optics through optimisation of low spatial frequencies," Opt. Express 15, 8176-8190 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-13-8176.
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D. W. Arathorn, Q. Yang, C. R. Vogel, Y. Zhang, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, "Retinally stabilized cone-targeted stimulus delivery," Opt. Express 15, 13731-13744 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-21-13731.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, "In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors," Opt. Express 15, 16141-16160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction," Opt. Express 16, 8126-8143 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-11-8126
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Debarre, E. J. Botcherby, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, "Adaptive optics for structured illumination microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 9290-9305 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-13-9290.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernandez, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, B. Hofer, P.K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography and pancorrection for cellular imaging of the living human retina," Opt. Express 16, 11083-11094 (2008),http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-15-11083.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. F. Qi, and S. A. Burns, "In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 16, 12746-12756 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-12746.
[PubMed]

E. J. Botcherby, M. J. Booth, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, "Real-time extended depth of field microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 21843-21848 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21843.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8532.
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C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, "Retinal motion estimation in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14, 487-497 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-2-487.
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D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3354.
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Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-10-4380.
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D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahmad, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, "In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells," Opt. Express 14, 7144-7158 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7144.
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Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 8461-8466 (2004).
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J. I. W. Morgan, A. Dubra, R. Wolfe, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, "In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic," Investigative Opthalmol. Vis. Sci.  50, 1350-1359 (2009).

M. K. Yoon, A. Roorda, Y. Zhang, C. Nakanishi, L.-J. C. Wong, Q. Zhang, L. Gillum, A. Green, and J. L. Duncan, "Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Images Demonstrate Abnormal Cone Structure in a Family with the Mitochondrial DNA T8993C Mutation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.  50, 1838-1847 (2008).
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Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: MOV (7710 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (13602 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (5220 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (3000 KB)     
» Media 5: MOV (11208 KB)     

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical schematic of the AO-LSO retinal imager.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of unprocessed AO-LSO frames with (a) and without (b) adaptive optics. (Media 1) (Media 2)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Example of AO-LSO performance for one subject with an 8-mm pupil. (a) Temporal profile of RMS wavefront error during initiation of AO correction. (b) RMS error correction by Zernike order for all video frames with and without AO correction. (Media 3)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photoreceptor mosaic near the limit of resolution with AO-LSO. (a) Single AO-LSO image, (b) Previously acquired LSO image showing region imaged in (a). [AO-LSO Video: 5.2 Mb].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Photoreceptors resolved in four individuals. Approximate eccentricity: (a) 0.76 mm, (b) 0.76 mm, (c) 0.58 mm, (d) 0.72 mm. Scale bar=100 µm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Montage of nine AO-LSO frames acquired across the central macula.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of manual and automated cone counts. (a) Full frame showing location of 50×50 pixel regions selected for cone counting. Cones are marked in blue. (b) Filtered 50×50 pixel region used in the automated software. Cone locations are shown with solid red circles in the overlay. (c) Unfiltered 50×50 pixel region used for manual counting. Cone locations are shown with solid red circles (automated counts) and open blue circles (manual counts) in the overlay.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Photoreceptor counts in comparison to previously reported histology [39]. AO-LSO images from four subjects at various eccentricities were used for cone counting. Manual counts are shown with solid symbols and automated counts are shown with open symbols.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

SIFT features (red dots) matched in two frames.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Comparison of registration techniques. (a) Single frame centered on the fovea of a subject. (b) 89-frame average using full frame registration technique. (c) 89-frame average using the strip registration technique to correct translation and intra-frame distortion from eye motion. (d) 89-frame average without registration. (Media 4) (Media 5)

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Capillary ring around FAZ for three individuals. Between 50 and 70 individual registered video frames were averaged to produce each image. Scale bar=200 µm. [Video of flow (a): 3 Mb/11.2 Mb].

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

AO-LSO images of the ONH at different depths. (a) Nerve fiber bundles and vessels at a shallow depth. (b) Photoreceptors visualized at the rim. (c) Lamina cribrosa deep within the ONH. Images were collected from three different subjects. Scale bar=200 µm.

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