Abstract

We report on a novel method of using an excimer laser to drill ultra-small pores in borosilicate glass membranes. By introducing a thin layer of liquid between sandwiches of two glass slides, we can shrink the pore size and smoothen the surface on the exit side. We are able to push the minimal exit pore diameter down to 90 nm, well below the laser wavelength of 193 nm. This is achieved with substrates over 150 µm thick. Compared to other methods, this technique is fast, inexpensive, and produces high quality smooth pores.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. J. Francey, “A new, low loss laser ablatable substrate for microwave applications,” Microwave J. 47, 104–110 (2004).
  2. M. Datta, T. Osaka, and J. Schultze, Microelectronic Packaging, Part III (CRC Press, 2004).
  3. T. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. Schaffer, “Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 7A), 4207–4211 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Fertig, A. Tilke, R. Blick, J. Kotthaus, J. Behrends, and G. Bruggencate, “Stable integration of isolated cell membrane patches in a nanomachined aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1218–1220 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Fertig, R. H. Blick, and J. C. Behrends, “Whole cell patch clamp recording performed on a planar glass chip,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3056–3062 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Mayer, J. K. Kriebel, M. T. Tosteson, and G. M. Whitesides, “Microfabricated teflon membranes for low-noise recordings of ion channels in planar lipid bilayers,” Biophys. J. 85(4), 2684–2695 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. R. Mendonca, L. R. Cerami, T. Shih, R. W. Tilghman, T. Baldacchini, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser waveguide micromachining of PMMA films with azoaromatic chromophores,” Opt. Express 16(1), 200–206 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. F. Wonderlin, A. Finkel, and R. J. French, “Optimizing planar lipid bilayer single-channel recordings for high resolution with rapid voltage steps,” Biophys. J. 58(2), 289–297 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Neher and B. Sakmann, “Single-channel currents recorded from membrane of denervated frog muscle fibres,” Nature 260(5554), 799–802 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Kingery, “Surface tension of some liquid oxides and their temperature coefficients,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 42(1), 6–10 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Jeong, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Shock wave and material vapour plume propagation during excimer laser ablation of aluminium samples,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(19), 2578–2585 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Zeng, X. Mao, S. Wen, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Energy deposition and shock wave propagation during pulsed laser ablation in fused silica cavities,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(7), 1132–1136 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Zhang, X. Zhu, J. Yang, X. Wang, and M. Wang, “Time-resolved shadowgraphs of material ejection in intense femtosecond laser ablation of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167602 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Thiyagarajan, “Experimental investigation of 193 nm excimer laser induced plasma in air,” Ph.D. Thesis (University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2007).

2008

2007

N. Zhang, X. Zhu, J. Yang, X. Wang, and M. Wang, “Time-resolved shadowgraphs of material ejection in intense femtosecond laser ablation of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

T. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. Schaffer, “Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 7A), 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Francey, “A new, low loss laser ablatable substrate for microwave applications,” Microwave J. 47, 104–110 (2004).

X. Zeng, X. Mao, S. Wen, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Energy deposition and shock wave propagation during pulsed laser ablation in fused silica cavities,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(7), 1132–1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Mayer, J. K. Kriebel, M. T. Tosteson, and G. M. Whitesides, “Microfabricated teflon membranes for low-noise recordings of ion channels in planar lipid bilayers,” Biophys. J. 85(4), 2684–2695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Fertig, R. H. Blick, and J. C. Behrends, “Whole cell patch clamp recording performed on a planar glass chip,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3056–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

N. Fertig, A. Tilke, R. Blick, J. Kotthaus, J. Behrends, and G. Bruggencate, “Stable integration of isolated cell membrane patches in a nanomachined aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1218–1220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Jeong, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Shock wave and material vapour plume propagation during excimer laser ablation of aluminium samples,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(19), 2578–2585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. F. Wonderlin, A. Finkel, and R. J. French, “Optimizing planar lipid bilayer single-channel recordings for high resolution with rapid voltage steps,” Biophys. J. 58(2), 289–297 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

E. Neher and B. Sakmann, “Single-channel currents recorded from membrane of denervated frog muscle fibres,” Nature 260(5554), 799–802 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1959

W. Kingery, “Surface tension of some liquid oxides and their temperature coefficients,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 42(1), 6–10 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Baldacchini, T.

Behrends, J.

N. Fertig, A. Tilke, R. Blick, J. Kotthaus, J. Behrends, and G. Bruggencate, “Stable integration of isolated cell membrane patches in a nanomachined aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1218–1220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Behrends, J. C.

N. Fertig, R. H. Blick, and J. C. Behrends, “Whole cell patch clamp recording performed on a planar glass chip,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3056–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blick, R.

N. Fertig, A. Tilke, R. Blick, J. Kotthaus, J. Behrends, and G. Bruggencate, “Stable integration of isolated cell membrane patches in a nanomachined aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1218–1220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blick, R. H.

N. Fertig, R. H. Blick, and J. C. Behrends, “Whole cell patch clamp recording performed on a planar glass chip,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3056–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruggencate, G.

N. Fertig, A. Tilke, R. Blick, J. Kotthaus, J. Behrends, and G. Bruggencate, “Stable integration of isolated cell membrane patches in a nanomachined aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1218–1220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, K.

T. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. Schaffer, “Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cerami, L. R.

David, C.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fertig, N.

N. Fertig, R. H. Blick, and J. C. Behrends, “Whole cell patch clamp recording performed on a planar glass chip,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3056–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fertig, A. Tilke, R. Blick, J. Kotthaus, J. Behrends, and G. Bruggencate, “Stable integration of isolated cell membrane patches in a nanomachined aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1218–1220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Finkel, A.

W. F. Wonderlin, A. Finkel, and R. J. French, “Optimizing planar lipid bilayer single-channel recordings for high resolution with rapid voltage steps,” Biophys. J. 58(2), 289–297 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francey, J.

J. Francey, “A new, low loss laser ablatable substrate for microwave applications,” Microwave J. 47, 104–110 (2004).

French, R. J.

W. F. Wonderlin, A. Finkel, and R. J. French, “Optimizing planar lipid bilayer single-channel recordings for high resolution with rapid voltage steps,” Biophys. J. 58(2), 289–297 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gobrecht, J.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Greif, R.

X. Zeng, X. Mao, S. Wen, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Energy deposition and shock wave propagation during pulsed laser ablation in fused silica cavities,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(7), 1132–1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Shock wave and material vapour plume propagation during excimer laser ablation of aluminium samples,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(19), 2578–2585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Groisman, A.

T. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. Schaffer, “Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iga, Y.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 7A), 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuka, T.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 7A), 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 7A), 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.

S. Jeong, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Shock wave and material vapour plume propagation during excimer laser ablation of aluminium samples,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(19), 2578–2585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.

T. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. Schaffer, “Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kingery, W.

W. Kingery, “Surface tension of some liquid oxides and their temperature coefficients,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 42(1), 6–10 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Kleinfeld, D.

T. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. Schaffer, “Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kopitkovas, G.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kotthaus, J.

N. Fertig, A. Tilke, R. Blick, J. Kotthaus, J. Behrends, and G. Bruggencate, “Stable integration of isolated cell membrane patches in a nanomachined aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1218–1220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kriebel, J. K.

M. Mayer, J. K. Kriebel, M. T. Tosteson, and G. M. Whitesides, “Microfabricated teflon membranes for low-noise recordings of ion channels in planar lipid bilayers,” Biophys. J. 85(4), 2684–2695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 7A), 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lippert, T.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mao, X.

X. Zeng, X. Mao, S. Wen, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Energy deposition and shock wave propagation during pulsed laser ablation in fused silica cavities,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(7), 1132–1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, M.

M. Mayer, J. K. Kriebel, M. T. Tosteson, and G. M. Whitesides, “Microfabricated teflon membranes for low-noise recordings of ion channels in planar lipid bilayers,” Biophys. J. 85(4), 2684–2695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

Mendonca, C. R.

Neher, E.

E. Neher and B. Sakmann, “Single-channel currents recorded from membrane of denervated frog muscle fibres,” Nature 260(5554), 799–802 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishii, J.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 7A), 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R.

X. Zeng, X. Mao, S. Wen, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Energy deposition and shock wave propagation during pulsed laser ablation in fused silica cavities,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(7), 1132–1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Shock wave and material vapour plume propagation during excimer laser ablation of aluminium samples,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(19), 2578–2585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sakmann, B.

E. Neher and B. Sakmann, “Single-channel currents recorded from membrane of denervated frog muscle fibres,” Nature 260(5554), 799–802 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaffer, C.

T. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. Schaffer, “Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shih, T.

Tilghman, R. W.

Tilke, A.

N. Fertig, A. Tilke, R. Blick, J. Kotthaus, J. Behrends, and G. Bruggencate, “Stable integration of isolated cell membrane patches in a nanomachined aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1218–1220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tosteson, M. T.

M. Mayer, J. K. Kriebel, M. T. Tosteson, and G. M. Whitesides, “Microfabricated teflon membranes for low-noise recordings of ion channels in planar lipid bilayers,” Biophys. J. 85(4), 2684–2695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

N. Zhang, X. Zhu, J. Yang, X. Wang, and M. Wang, “Time-resolved shadowgraphs of material ejection in intense femtosecond laser ablation of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

N. Zhang, X. Zhu, J. Yang, X. Wang, and M. Wang, “Time-resolved shadowgraphs of material ejection in intense femtosecond laser ablation of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, W.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 7A), 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wen, S.

X. Zeng, X. Mao, S. Wen, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Energy deposition and shock wave propagation during pulsed laser ablation in fused silica cavities,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(7), 1132–1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

M. Mayer, J. K. Kriebel, M. T. Tosteson, and G. M. Whitesides, “Microfabricated teflon membranes for low-noise recordings of ion channels in planar lipid bilayers,” Biophys. J. 85(4), 2684–2695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wokaun, A.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wonderlin, W. F.

W. F. Wonderlin, A. Finkel, and R. J. French, “Optimizing planar lipid bilayer single-channel recordings for high resolution with rapid voltage steps,” Biophys. J. 58(2), 289–297 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

N. Zhang, X. Zhu, J. Yang, X. Wang, and M. Wang, “Time-resolved shadowgraphs of material ejection in intense femtosecond laser ablation of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, X.

X. Zeng, X. Mao, S. Wen, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Energy deposition and shock wave propagation during pulsed laser ablation in fused silica cavities,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(7), 1132–1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, N.

N. Zhang, X. Zhu, J. Yang, X. Wang, and M. Wang, “Time-resolved shadowgraphs of material ejection in intense femtosecond laser ablation of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

N. Zhang, X. Zhu, J. Yang, X. Wang, and M. Wang, “Time-resolved shadowgraphs of material ejection in intense femtosecond laser ablation of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. Schaffer, “Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(20), 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fertig, A. Tilke, R. Blick, J. Kotthaus, J. Behrends, and G. Bruggencate, “Stable integration of isolated cell membrane patches in a nanomachined aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1218–1220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

N. Fertig, R. H. Blick, and J. C. Behrends, “Whole cell patch clamp recording performed on a planar glass chip,” Biophys. J. 82(6), 3056–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mayer, J. K. Kriebel, M. T. Tosteson, and G. M. Whitesides, “Microfabricated teflon membranes for low-noise recordings of ion channels in planar lipid bilayers,” Biophys. J. 85(4), 2684–2695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Wonderlin, A. Finkel, and R. J. French, “Optimizing planar lipid bilayer single-channel recordings for high resolution with rapid voltage steps,” Biophys. J. 58(2), 289–297 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

W. Kingery, “Surface tension of some liquid oxides and their temperature coefficients,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 42(1), 6–10 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

S. Jeong, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Shock wave and material vapour plume propagation during excimer laser ablation of aluminium samples,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(19), 2578–2585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Zeng, X. Mao, S. Wen, R. Greif, and R. Russo, “Energy deposition and shock wave propagation during pulsed laser ablation in fused silica cavities,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(7), 1132–1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 7A), 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microwave J.

J. Francey, “A new, low loss laser ablatable substrate for microwave applications,” Microwave J. 47, 104–110 (2004).

Nature

E. Neher and B. Sakmann, “Single-channel currents recorded from membrane of denervated frog muscle fibres,” Nature 260(5554), 799–802 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Zhang, X. Zhu, J. Yang, X. Wang, and M. Wang, “Time-resolved shadowgraphs of material ejection in intense femtosecond laser ablation of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Thiyagarajan, “Experimental investigation of 193 nm excimer laser induced plasma in air,” Ph.D. Thesis (University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2007).

M. Datta, T. Osaka, and J. Schultze, Microelectronic Packaging, Part III (CRC Press, 2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic sketch of the “sandwich” drilling method, where a thin layer of liquid is kept between two glass slides. Also shown are the tapered nature of the hole being drilled and the shockwave from laser ablation, which will be discussed in later sections.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of (a) direct drilling and (b) “sandwich” drilling. In both cases the laser output power is 50 mJ with 73% transmission rate. A combination of 800 pulses at 50 Hz and 1500 pulses at 100 Hz is used. Scale bar is 200 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Influence of laser attenuation on pore size for both direct drilling and “sandwich” drilling, (b) Contour map of pore sizes vs. laser power and transmission rate. Unit for scale bar on the right is micrometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nano-pores with diameters in (a) 100 nm and (b) 300 nm. Scale bar is 200 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) images of (a) a crater at the beam exit and (b) the side view of a crater after being milled by focused ion beam (FIB). Both images are viewed from an angle. The pores are drilled at 8 W laser power with 87% transmission, for 2500 pulses at 100 Hz. Scale bar is 2 µm.

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