Abstract

We report the observation of continuous-wave second harmonic generation for a pump at 1559.9 nm in type-I phase-matched Bragg reflection waveguide using the GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs material system. For an internal pump power of 94 mW, phase-matched second harmonic power of 23 nW was measured in a waveguide with a length of 1.96 mm and ridge width of 4 μm. The internal conversion efficiency of the process was estimated as 6.8×10-3 %W-1cm-2. The full-width at half-maximum bandwidth of the nonlinear process was found to be 0.91 nm.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. F. Bliss, and D. Weyburne, "GaAs optical parametric oscillator with circularly polarized and depolarized pump," Opt. Lett. 32, 2735-2737 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Tanzilli, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D..B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, "Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Ellectron. Lett. 37, 26-28 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. S. Helmy, "Phase matching using Bragg reflection waveguides for monolithic nonlinear optics applications," Opt. Express 14, 1243-1252 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. S. Helmy, B. Bijlani and P. Abolghasem, "Phase matching in monolithic Bragg reflection waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2399-2401 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Bijlani, P. Abolghasem, and A. S. Helmy, "Second harmonic generation in ridge Bragg reflection waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101124 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. S. Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Quasi phase matching in GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides through bandgap tuning by use of quantum-well intermixing," Opt. Lett. 25, 1370-1372 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, and E. Rosencher, "Second-harmonic generation at ? = 1.6 ?m in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942-2944 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Haidar, N. Forget, and E. Rosencher, "Optical parametric oscillation in microcavities based on isotropic semiconductors: A theoretical. study," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 569-576 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Shih, "Entangled biphoton source-property and preparation," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1009-1044 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Sauge, M. Swillo, S. Alber-Seifried, G. B. Xavier, J. Waldeback, M. Tengner, D. Ljunggren, and A. Karlesson, "Narrowband polarization-entangled photon pairs distributed over aWDMlink for qubit networks," Opt. Express 15, 6926-6933 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz and V. Berger, " Secondharmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Feuchter and C. Thristrup, "High-precision planar wave-guide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1244-1247 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. R. West and A. S. Helmy, "Analysis and design equations for phase matching using Bragg reflector waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 431-442 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073105 (2005).
  15. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched 2nd harmonic-generation - tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling," Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Talghader, J. S. Smith, "Thermal dependence of the refractive index of GaAs and AlAs measured using semiconductor multilayer optical cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2608-2608 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. L. Bortz, S. J. Field, M. M. Fejer, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and D. F. Welch, "Noncritical quasi-phasematched 2nd-harmonic generation in an annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2953-2960 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. J. Wagner, A. A. Muhairi, J. S. Aitchison, and A. S. Helmy, "Modeling and optimization of quasi-phase matching via domain-disordering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 424-429 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, "Some optical properties of the AlxGa1?xAs alloys system," Appl. Phys. 47, 2604-2613 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

2008

B. Bijlani, P. Abolghasem, and A. S. Helmy, "Second harmonic generation in ridge Bragg reflection waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Wagner, A. A. Muhairi, J. S. Aitchison, and A. S. Helmy, "Modeling and optimization of quasi-phase matching via domain-disordering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 424-429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

B. R. West and A. S. Helmy, "Analysis and design equations for phase matching using Bragg reflector waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 431-442 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Helmy, "Phase matching using Bragg reflection waveguides for monolithic nonlinear optics applications," Opt. Express 14, 1243-1252 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073105 (2005).

2003

R. Haidar, N. Forget, and E. Rosencher, "Optical parametric oscillation in microcavities based on isotropic semiconductors: A theoretical. study," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 569-576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shih, "Entangled biphoton source-property and preparation," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1009-1044 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz and V. Berger, " Secondharmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Tanzilli, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D..B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, "Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Ellectron. Lett. 37, 26-28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, and E. Rosencher, "Second-harmonic generation at ? = 1.6 ?m in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942-2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Talghader, J. S. Smith, "Thermal dependence of the refractive index of GaAs and AlAs measured using semiconductor multilayer optical cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2608-2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. L. Bortz, S. J. Field, M. M. Fejer, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and D. F. Welch, "Noncritical quasi-phasematched 2nd-harmonic generation in an annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2953-2960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Feuchter and C. Thristrup, "High-precision planar wave-guide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1244-1247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched 2nd harmonic-generation - tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1976

B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, "Some optical properties of the AlxGa1?xAs alloys system," Appl. Phys. 47, 2604-2613 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abolghasem, P.

B. Bijlani, P. Abolghasem, and A. S. Helmy, "Second harmonic generation in ridge Bragg reflection waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Helmy, B. Bijlani and P. Abolghasem, "Phase matching in monolithic Bragg reflection waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2399-2401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aitchison, J. S.

Alber-Seifried, S.

Arnold, J. M.

Baldi, P.

S. Tanzilli, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D..B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, "Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Ellectron. Lett. 37, 26-28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073105 (2005).

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz and V. Berger, " Secondharmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, and E. Rosencher, "Second-harmonic generation at ? = 1.6 ?m in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942-2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bijlani, B.

B. Bijlani, P. Abolghasem, and A. S. Helmy, "Second harmonic generation in ridge Bragg reflection waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Helmy, B. Bijlani and P. Abolghasem, "Phase matching in monolithic Bragg reflection waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2399-2401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bliss, D. F.

Bortz, M. L.

M. L. Bortz, S. J. Field, M. M. Fejer, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and D. F. Welch, "Noncritical quasi-phasematched 2nd-harmonic generation in an annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2953-2960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bravetti, P.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, and E. Rosencher, "Second-harmonic generation at ? = 1.6 ?m in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942-2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T. A.

Bryce, A. C.

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched 2nd harmonic-generation - tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073105 (2005).

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz and V. Berger, " Secondharmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De Micheli, M.

S. Tanzilli, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D..B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, "Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Ellectron. Lett. 37, 26-28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Riedmatten, H.

S. Tanzilli, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D..B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, "Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Ellectron. Lett. 37, 26-28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, A.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073105 (2005).

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz and V. Berger, " Secondharmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delobel, L.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, and E. Rosencher, "Second-harmonic generation at ? = 1.6 ?m in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942-2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ducci, S.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073105 (2005).

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz and V. Berger, " Secondharmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Quasi phase matching in GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides through bandgap tuning by use of quantum-well intermixing," Opt. Lett. 25, 1370-1372 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. F. Bliss, and D. Weyburne, "GaAs optical parametric oscillator with circularly polarized and depolarized pump," Opt. Lett. 32, 2735-2737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Bortz, S. J. Field, M. M. Fejer, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and D. F. Welch, "Noncritical quasi-phasematched 2nd-harmonic generation in an annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2953-2960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched 2nd harmonic-generation - tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feuchter, T.

T. Feuchter and C. Thristrup, "High-precision planar wave-guide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1244-1247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Field, S. J.

M. L. Bortz, S. J. Field, M. M. Fejer, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and D. F. Welch, "Noncritical quasi-phasematched 2nd-harmonic generation in an annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2953-2960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, and E. Rosencher, "Second-harmonic generation at ? = 1.6 ?m in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942-2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forget, N.

R. Haidar, N. Forget, and E. Rosencher, "Optical parametric oscillation in microcavities based on isotropic semiconductors: A theoretical. study," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 569-576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gehrsitz, S.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling," Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gourgon, C.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling," Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haidar, R.

R. Haidar, N. Forget, and E. Rosencher, "Optical parametric oscillation in microcavities based on isotropic semiconductors: A theoretical. study," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 569-576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

Helmy, A. S.

B. Bijlani, P. Abolghasem, and A. S. Helmy, "Second harmonic generation in ridge Bragg reflection waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Wagner, A. A. Muhairi, J. S. Aitchison, and A. S. Helmy, "Modeling and optimization of quasi-phase matching via domain-disordering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 424-429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Helmy, B. Bijlani and P. Abolghasem, "Phase matching in monolithic Bragg reflection waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2399-2401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Helmy, "Phase matching using Bragg reflection waveguides for monolithic nonlinear optics applications," Opt. Express 14, 1243-1252 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. West and A. S. Helmy, "Analysis and design equations for phase matching using Bragg reflector waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 431-442 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Quasi phase matching in GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides through bandgap tuning by use of quantum-well intermixing," Opt. Lett. 25, 1370-1372 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herres, N.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling," Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

Janz, S.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, and E. Rosencher, "Second-harmonic generation at ? = 1.6 ?m in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942-2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched 2nd harmonic-generation - tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Karlesson, A.

Kleckner, T. C.

Kuo, P. S.

Lanco, L.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073105 (2005).

Ljunggren, D.

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched 2nd harmonic-generation - tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, J. H.

Monemar, B.

B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, "Some optical properties of the AlxGa1?xAs alloys system," Appl. Phys. 47, 2604-2613 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Moutzouris, K.

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz and V. Berger, " Secondharmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Quasi phase matching in GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides through bandgap tuning by use of quantum-well intermixing," Opt. Lett. 25, 1370-1372 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Muhairi, A. A.

S. J. Wagner, A. A. Muhairi, J. S. Aitchison, and A. S. Helmy, "Modeling and optimization of quasi-phase matching via domain-disordering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 424-429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nam, D. W.

M. L. Bortz, S. J. Field, M. M. Fejer, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and D. F. Welch, "Noncritical quasi-phasematched 2nd-harmonic generation in an annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2953-2960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz, V.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073105 (2005).

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz and V. Berger, " Secondharmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pettit, G. D.

B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, "Some optical properties of the AlxGa1?xAs alloys system," Appl. Phys. 47, 2604-2613 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rao, S. V.

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz and V. Berger, " Secondharmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reinhart, F. K.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling," Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

R. Haidar, N. Forget, and E. Rosencher, "Optical parametric oscillation in microcavities based on isotropic semiconductors: A theoretical. study," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 569-576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, and E. Rosencher, "Second-harmonic generation at ? = 1.6 ?m in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942-2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073105 (2005).

Sauge, S.

Shih, K. K.

B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, "Some optical properties of the AlxGa1?xAs alloys system," Appl. Phys. 47, 2604-2613 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y.

Y. Shih, "Entangled biphoton source-property and preparation," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1009-1044 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sigg, H.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling," Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. S.

J. Talghader, J. S. Smith, "Thermal dependence of the refractive index of GaAs and AlAs measured using semiconductor multilayer optical cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2608-2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C. R.

Swillo, M.

Talghader, J.

J. Talghader, J. S. Smith, "Thermal dependence of the refractive index of GaAs and AlAs measured using semiconductor multilayer optical cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2608-2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanzilli, S.

S. Tanzilli, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D..B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, "Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Ellectron. Lett. 37, 26-28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tengner, M.

Thristrup, C.

T. Feuchter and C. Thristrup, "High-precision planar wave-guide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1244-1247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

S. Tanzilli, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D..B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, "Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Ellectron. Lett. 37, 26-28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van der Meer, P.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, and E. Rosencher, "Second-harmonic generation at ? = 1.6 ?m in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942-2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Vonlanthen, A.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling," Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R. G.

M. L. Bortz, S. J. Field, M. M. Fejer, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and D. F. Welch, "Noncritical quasi-phasematched 2nd-harmonic generation in an annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2953-2960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, S. J.

S. J. Wagner, A. A. Muhairi, J. S. Aitchison, and A. S. Helmy, "Modeling and optimization of quasi-phase matching via domain-disordering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 424-429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Waldeback, J.

Welch, D. F.

M. L. Bortz, S. J. Field, M. M. Fejer, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and D. F. Welch, "Noncritical quasi-phasematched 2nd-harmonic generation in an annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2953-2960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

West, B. R.

B. R. West and A. S. Helmy, "Analysis and design equations for phase matching using Bragg reflector waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 431-442 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weyburne, D.

Xavier, G. B.

Yu, X.

Zbinden, H.

S. Tanzilli, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D..B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, "Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Ellectron. Lett. 37, 26-28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling," Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar, K. K. Shih, and G. D. Pettit, "Some optical properties of the AlxGa1?xAs alloys system," Appl. Phys. 47, 2604-2613 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger and I. Sagnes, "Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073105 (2005).

J. Talghader, J. S. Smith, "Thermal dependence of the refractive index of GaAs and AlAs measured using semiconductor multilayer optical cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2608-2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Bijlani, P. Abolghasem, and A. S. Helmy, "Second harmonic generation in ridge Bragg reflection waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, and E. Rosencher, "Second-harmonic generation at ? = 1.6 ?m in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2942-2944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz and V. Berger, " Secondharmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ellectron. Lett.

S. Tanzilli, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D..B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, "Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Ellectron. Lett. 37, 26-28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

B. R. West and A. S. Helmy, "Analysis and design equations for phase matching using Bragg reflector waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 431-442 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Haidar, N. Forget, and E. Rosencher, "Optical parametric oscillation in microcavities based on isotropic semiconductors: A theoretical. study," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 569-576 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bortz, S. J. Field, M. M. Fejer, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and D. F. Welch, "Noncritical quasi-phasematched 2nd-harmonic generation in an annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2953-2960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Wagner, A. A. Muhairi, J. S. Aitchison, and A. S. Helmy, "Modeling and optimization of quasi-phase matching via domain-disordering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 424-429 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched 2nd harmonic-generation - tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon Technol. Lett.

T. Feuchter and C. Thristrup, "High-precision planar wave-guide propagation loss measurement technique using a Fabry-Perot cavity," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1244-1247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Rep. Prog. Phys.

Y. Shih, "Entangled biphoton source-property and preparation," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1009-1044 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a ridge BRW with ridge width W and etch depth D superimposed by simulated (a) intensity profile of TE-polarized pump (FH) and (b) intensity profile of TM-polarized second harmonic. (c) Index profile at FH frequency and (d) index profile at SH frequency obtained using the model in [16]. The red dotted line in (c) is the effective mode index of the FH and the blue dashed line in (d) is that of the SH. The samples fabricated had W varying between 2.5 μm-4.5 μm and D ≈ 3.4 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Second harmonic power (P 2ω ) vs. tuning of fundamental wavelength. Solid line is the experimental data and the dotted line is a theoretical tuning curve obtained using beam propagation method. The theoretical curve is simulated by including the propagation loss of FH and an estimated loss of SH to match the full-width at half-maximum bandwidths of the two curves.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculations of the phase-matching conditions between higher order modes of the FH and SH. The filled circles where two curves cross indicate wavelengths for which type-I phase-matching condition is satisfied. A discrepancy of ≈ 6 nm exists between the experimental phase-matching wavelength at 1559.9 nm in Fig. 2 and the simulated value where the curves of TE00(ω) and TM00(2ω) crosses.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmittance of pump vs. wavelength at (a) input power level of 2 mW used for linear characterization and (b) input power level of 265 mW used for SHG experiment. In both Figs. circles are the measured data. The solid line in (a) is the fit to the Airy’s transmission of the pump and that in (b) is obtained using an interpolating fit. The non-uniform transmittance spectrum in (b) clearly denotes the effect of high order modes superposition in the detected signal at high input pump power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Variation of phase matching wavelength as a function of the ridge width. The points are the experimentally measured data, while the dashed line is obtained from simulation.

Equations (1)

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ΔλFWHM=0.4429λLneff(ω)λ12neff(2ω)λ

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