Abstract

Marine aggregates, agglomerations of particles and dissolved materials, are an important particulate pool in aquatic environments, but their optical properties are not well understood. To improve understanding of the optical properties of aggregates, two related studies are presented. In the first, an in situ manipulation experiment is described, in which beam attenuation of undisturbed and sheared suspensions are compared. Results show that in the sheared treatment bulk particle size decreases and beam attenuation increases, consistent with the hypothesis that a significant fraction of mass in suspension is contained in fragile aggregates. Interestingly, the magnitude of increase in beam attenuation is less than expected if the aggregates are modeled as solid spheres. Motivated by this result, a second study is presented, in which marine aggregates are modeled to assess how the beam attenuation of aggregates differs from that of their constituent particles and from solid particles of the same mass. The model used is based on that of Latimer [Appl. Opt. 24, 3231 (1985)] and mass specific attenuation is compared with that based on homogeneous and solid particles, the standard model for aquatic particles. In the modeling we use recent research relating size and solid fraction of aquatic aggregates. In contrast with Mie theory, this model provides a rather size-insensitive mass specific attenuation for most relevant sizes. This insensitivity is consistent with the observations that mass specific beam-attenuation of marine particles is in the range 0.2-0.6m2/gr despite large variability in size distribution and composition across varied aquatic environments.

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    [CrossRef]
  25. X. Li, U. Passow, and B. E. Logan, “Fractal dimensions of small (15-200 ?m) particles in Eastern Pacific coastal waters,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 45(1), 115–131 (1998).
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  31. M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. F. P. Chavez, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, and L. Campbell, “On the chlorophyll-a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428–433 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  35. E. Boss, W. H. Slade, M. Behrenfeld, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Acceptance angle effects on the beam attenuation in the ocean,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1535–1550 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

F. Maggi, “Variable fractal dimension: A major control for floc structure and flocculation kinematics of suspended cohesive sediment,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(C7), C07012 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, ““Inherent optical properties of non-spherical marine-like particles – from theory to observations,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 45, 1–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

W. H. Slade and E. Boss, “Calibrated near-forward volume scattering function obtained from the LISST particle sizer,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3602–3615 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Khelifa and P. S. Hill, “Models for effective density and settling velocity of flocs,” J. Hydraul. Res. 44, 390–401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

E. N. Flory, P. S. Hill, T. G. Milligan, and J. Grant, “The relationship between floc area and backscatter during a spring phytoplankton bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(2), 213–223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fox, P. S. Hill, T. G. Miligan, A. S. Ogston, and A. Bldrin, “Floc fraction in the waters of the Po River prodelta,” Cont. Shelf Res. 24(15), 1699–1715 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (6)

A. Hatcher, P. Hill, and J. Grant, “Optical backscatter of marine flocs,” J. Sea Res. 46(1), 1–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering by fractal aggregates: A review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 35, 648–687 (2001).

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40(18), 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40(27), 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Shepelevich, I. V. Prostakova, and V. N. Lopatin, “Light-scattering by optically soft randomly oriented spheroids,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 70(4-6), 375–381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, “Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport,” Mar. Geol. 168(1–4), 89–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. Traykovski, R. J. Latter, and J. D. Irish, “A laboratory evaluation of the laser in situ scattering and transmissometery instrument using natural sediments,” Mar. Geol. 159, 355–367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

X. Li, U. Passow, and B. E. Logan, “Fractal dimensions of small (15-200 ?m) particles in Eastern Pacific coastal waters,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 45(1), 115–131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, and B. Johnson, “Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 37(27), 6525–6536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

G. A. Jackson, R. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, “Particle size spectra between 1 ?m and 1 cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 44(11), 1739–1767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Hou, K. L. Carder, and D. K. Costello, “Scattering phase function of very large particles in the ocean,” Proc. SPIE 2963, 579–584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18(12), 2223–2249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Risovic and M. Martinis, “Fractal dimensions of suspended particles in seawater,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 182(1), 199–203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

F. P. Chavez, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, and L. Campbell, “On the chlorophyll-a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428–433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Costello, K. L. Carder, and W. Hou, “Aggregation of diatom bloom in a mesocosm: Bulk and individual particle optical measurements,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 42(1), 29–45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. E. Paramonov, “On optical equivalence of randomly oriented ellipsoidal and polydisperse spherical particles. The extinction, scattering and absorption cross sections,” Opt. Spectrosc. 77, 589–592 (1994).

1991 (1)

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. V. Berry and I. C. Percival, “Optics of fractal clusters such as smoke,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 33, 577–591 (1986).

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

E. T. Baker and J. W. Lavelle, “The effect of particle size on the light attenuation coefficient of natural suspensions,” J. Geophys. Res. 89(C5), 8197–8203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aas, E.

E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18(12), 2223–2249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, Y. C.

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, “Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport,” Mar. Geol. 168(1–4), 89–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alldredge, A. L.

G. A. Jackson, R. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, “Particle size spectra between 1 ?m and 1 cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 44(11), 1739–1767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baker, E. T.

E. T. Baker and J. W. Lavelle, “The effect of particle size on the light attenuation coefficient of natural suspensions,” J. Geophys. Res. 89(C5), 8197–8203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M.

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry and I. C. Percival, “Optics of fractal clusters such as smoke,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 33, 577–591 (1986).

Bldrin, A.

J. M. Fox, P. S. Hill, T. G. Miligan, A. S. Ogston, and A. Bldrin, “Floc fraction in the waters of the Po River prodelta,” Cont. Shelf Res. 24(15), 1699–1715 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

E. Boss, W. H. Slade, M. Behrenfeld, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Acceptance angle effects on the beam attenuation in the ocean,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1535–1550 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, ““Inherent optical properties of non-spherical marine-like particles – from theory to observations,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 45, 1–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Slade and E. Boss, “Calibrated near-forward volume scattering function obtained from the LISST particle sizer,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3602–3615 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40(27), 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

Campbell, L.

F. P. Chavez, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, and L. Campbell, “On the chlorophyll-a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428–433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

W. Hou, K. L. Carder, and D. K. Costello, “Scattering phase function of very large particles in the ocean,” Proc. SPIE 2963, 579–584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Costello, K. L. Carder, and W. Hou, “Aggregation of diatom bloom in a mesocosm: Bulk and individual particle optical measurements,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 42(1), 29–45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chavez, F. P.

F. P. Chavez, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, and L. Campbell, “On the chlorophyll-a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428–433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clavano, W. R.

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, ““Inherent optical properties of non-spherical marine-like particles – from theory to observations,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 45, 1–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Costello, D. K.

G. A. Jackson, R. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, “Particle size spectra between 1 ?m and 1 cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 44(11), 1739–1767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Hou, K. L. Carder, and D. K. Costello, “Scattering phase function of very large particles in the ocean,” Proc. SPIE 2963, 579–584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Costello, K. L. Carder, and W. Hou, “Aggregation of diatom bloom in a mesocosm: Bulk and individual particle optical measurements,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 42(1), 29–45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dall’Olmo, G.

Dam, H. G.

G. A. Jackson, R. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, “Particle size spectra between 1 ?m and 1 cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 44(11), 1739–1767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Donaghay, P. L.

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fell, F.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flory, E. N.

E. N. Flory, P. S. Hill, T. G. Milligan, and J. Grant, “The relationship between floc area and backscatter during a spring phytoplankton bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(2), 213–223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fournier-Sicre, V.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fox, J. M.

J. M. Fox, P. S. Hill, T. G. Miligan, A. S. Ogston, and A. Bldrin, “Floc fraction in the waters of the Po River prodelta,” Cont. Shelf Res. 24(15), 1699–1715 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grant, J.

E. N. Flory, P. S. Hill, T. G. Milligan, and J. Grant, “The relationship between floc area and backscatter during a spring phytoplankton bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(2), 213–223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Hatcher, P. Hill, and J. Grant, “Optical backscatter of marine flocs,” J. Sea Res. 46(1), 1–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hatcher, A.

A. Hatcher, P. Hill, and J. Grant, “Optical backscatter of marine flocs,” J. Sea Res. 46(1), 1–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hebel, D.

F. P. Chavez, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, and L. Campbell, “On the chlorophyll-a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428–433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Herring, S.

Hill, P.

A. Hatcher, P. Hill, and J. Grant, “Optical backscatter of marine flocs,” J. Sea Res. 46(1), 1–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hill, P. S.

A. Khelifa and P. S. Hill, “Models for effective density and settling velocity of flocs,” J. Hydraul. Res. 44, 390–401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fox, P. S. Hill, T. G. Miligan, A. S. Ogston, and A. Bldrin, “Floc fraction in the waters of the Po River prodelta,” Cont. Shelf Res. 24(15), 1699–1715 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Flory, P. S. Hill, T. G. Milligan, and J. Grant, “The relationship between floc area and backscatter during a spring phytoplankton bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(2), 213–223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.

W. Hou, K. L. Carder, and D. K. Costello, “Scattering phase function of very large particles in the ocean,” Proc. SPIE 2963, 579–584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Costello, K. L. Carder, and W. Hou, “Aggregation of diatom bloom in a mesocosm: Bulk and individual particle optical measurements,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 42(1), 29–45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Irish, J. D.

P. Traykovski, R. J. Latter, and J. D. Irish, “A laboratory evaluation of the laser in situ scattering and transmissometery instrument using natural sediments,” Mar. Geol. 159, 355–367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, G. A.

G. A. Jackson, R. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, “Particle size spectra between 1 ?m and 1 cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 44(11), 1739–1767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B.

Karl, D. M.

F. P. Chavez, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, and L. Campbell, “On the chlorophyll-a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428–433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Karp-Boss, L.

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, ““Inherent optical properties of non-spherical marine-like particles – from theory to observations,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 45, 1–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khelifa, A.

A. Khelifa and P. S. Hill, “Models for effective density and settling velocity of flocs,” J. Hydraul. Res. 44, 390–401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Latasa, M.

F. P. Chavez, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, and L. Campbell, “On the chlorophyll-a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428–433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Latimer, P.

Latter, R. J.

P. Traykovski, R. J. Latter, and J. D. Irish, “A laboratory evaluation of the laser in situ scattering and transmissometery instrument using natural sediments,” Mar. Geol. 159, 355–367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lavelle, J. W.

E. T. Baker and J. W. Lavelle, “The effect of particle size on the light attenuation coefficient of natural suspensions,” J. Geophys. Res. 89(C5), 8197–8203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M.

Li, X.

X. Li, U. Passow, and B. E. Logan, “Fractal dimensions of small (15-200 ?m) particles in Eastern Pacific coastal waters,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 45(1), 115–131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Logan, B. E.

X. Li, U. Passow, and B. E. Logan, “Fractal dimensions of small (15-200 ?m) particles in Eastern Pacific coastal waters,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 45(1), 115–131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Jackson, R. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, “Particle size spectra between 1 ?m and 1 cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 44(11), 1739–1767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lopatin, V. N.

N. V. Shepelevich, I. V. Prostakova, and V. N. Lopatin, “Light-scattering by optically soft randomly oriented spheroids,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 70(4-6), 375–381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maffione, R.

G. A. Jackson, R. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, “Particle size spectra between 1 ?m and 1 cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 44(11), 1739–1767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maggi, F.

F. Maggi, “Variable fractal dimension: A major control for floc structure and flocculation kinematics of suspended cohesive sediment,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(C7), C07012 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martinis, M.

D. Risovic and M. Martinis, “Fractal dimensions of suspended particles in seawater,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 182(1), 199–203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miligan, T. G.

J. M. Fox, P. S. Hill, T. G. Miligan, A. S. Ogston, and A. Bldrin, “Floc fraction in the waters of the Po River prodelta,” Cont. Shelf Res. 24(15), 1699–1715 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Milligan, T. G.

E. N. Flory, P. S. Hill, T. G. Milligan, and J. Grant, “The relationship between floc area and backscatter during a spring phytoplankton bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(2), 213–223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40(18), 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ogston, A. S.

J. M. Fox, P. S. Hill, T. G. Miligan, A. S. Ogston, and A. Bldrin, “Floc fraction in the waters of the Po River prodelta,” Cont. Shelf Res. 24(15), 1699–1715 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paramonov, L. E.

L. E. Paramonov, “On optical equivalence of randomly oriented ellipsoidal and polydisperse spherical particles. The extinction, scattering and absorption cross sections,” Opt. Spectrosc. 77, 589–592 (1994).

Passow, U.

X. Li, U. Passow, and B. E. Logan, “Fractal dimensions of small (15-200 ?m) particles in Eastern Pacific coastal waters,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 45(1), 115–131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Percival, I. C.

M. V. Berry and I. C. Percival, “Optics of fractal clusters such as smoke,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 33, 577–591 (1986).

Pottsmith, H. C.

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, “Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport,” Mar. Geol. 168(1–4), 89–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prostakova, I. V.

N. V. Shepelevich, I. V. Prostakova, and V. N. Lopatin, “Light-scattering by optically soft randomly oriented spheroids,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 70(4-6), 375–381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Risovic, D.

D. Risovic and M. Martinis, “Fractal dimensions of suspended particles in seawater,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 182(1), 199–203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shepelevich, N. V.

N. V. Shepelevich, I. V. Prostakova, and V. N. Lopatin, “Light-scattering by optically soft randomly oriented spheroids,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 70(4-6), 375–381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slade, W. H.

Sorensen, C. M.

C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering by fractal aggregates: A review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 35, 648–687 (2001).

Stramski, D.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40(18), 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Traykovski, P.

P. Traykovski, R. J. Latter, and J. D. Irish, “A laboratory evaluation of the laser in situ scattering and transmissometery instrument using natural sediments,” Mar. Geol. 159, 355–367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40(27), 4885–4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering by fractal aggregates: A review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 35, 648–687 (2001).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Cont. Shelf Res. (1)

J. M. Fox, P. S. Hill, T. G. Miligan, A. S. Ogston, and A. Bldrin, “Floc fraction in the waters of the Po River prodelta,” Cont. Shelf Res. 24(15), 1699–1715 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. (3)

X. Li, U. Passow, and B. E. Logan, “Fractal dimensions of small (15-200 ?m) particles in Eastern Pacific coastal waters,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 45(1), 115–131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Jackson, R. Maffione, D. K. Costello, A. L. Alldredge, B. E. Logan, and H. G. Dam, “Particle size spectra between 1 ?m and 1 cm at Monterey Bay determined using multiple instruments,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 44(11), 1739–1767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Flory, P. S. Hill, T. G. Milligan, and J. Grant, “The relationship between floc area and backscatter during a spring phytoplankton bloom,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(2), 213–223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. (1)

D. K. Costello, K. L. Carder, and W. Hou, “Aggregation of diatom bloom in a mesocosm: Bulk and individual particle optical measurements,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 42(1), 29–45 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

D. Risovic and M. Martinis, “Fractal dimensions of suspended particles in seawater,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 182(1), 199–203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

F. Maggi, “Variable fractal dimension: A major control for floc structure and flocculation kinematics of suspended cohesive sediment,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(C7), C07012 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Baker and J. W. Lavelle, “The effect of particle size on the light attenuation coefficient of natural suspensions,” J. Geophys. Res. 89(C5), 8197–8203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Hydraul. Res. (1)

A. Khelifa and P. S. Hill, “Models for effective density and settling velocity of flocs,” J. Hydraul. Res. 44, 390–401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Plankton Res. (1)

E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18(12), 2223–2249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

N. V. Shepelevich, I. V. Prostakova, and V. N. Lopatin, “Light-scattering by optically soft randomly oriented spheroids,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 70(4-6), 375–381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Sea Res. (1)

A. Hatcher, P. Hill, and J. Grant, “Optical backscatter of marine flocs,” J. Sea Res. 46(1), 1–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Chavez, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, and L. Campbell, “On the chlorophyll-a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428–433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Geol. (2)

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, “Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport,” Mar. Geol. 168(1–4), 89–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Traykovski, R. J. Latter, and J. D. Irish, “A laboratory evaluation of the laser in situ scattering and transmissometery instrument using natural sediments,” Mar. Geol. 159, 355–367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. (1)

W. R. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, ““Inherent optical properties of non-spherical marine-like particles – from theory to observations,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 45, 1–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (Lond.) (1)

M. V. Berry and I. C. Percival, “Optics of fractal clusters such as smoke,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 33, 577–591 (1986).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

L. E. Paramonov, “On optical equivalence of randomly oriented ellipsoidal and polydisperse spherical particles. The extinction, scattering and absorption cross sections,” Opt. Spectrosc. 77, 589–592 (1994).

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Hou, K. L. Carder, and D. K. Costello, “Scattering phase function of very large particles in the ocean,” Proc. SPIE 2963, 579–584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr. (1)

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

C. F. Bohren, and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1987).

K. L. Carder, and D. K. Costello, “Optical effects of large particles,” in Ocean Optics, R. W. Spinrad, K. L. Carder, and M. J. Perry, eds. (Oxford University Press, 1994), pp. 243–257.

A. Morel, “Diffusion de la lumie`re par les eaux de mer. Re’sultats expe’rimentaux et approche theorique,” in Optics of the Sea (AGARD Lectures Series, 1973), pp. 3.1–1–3.1–76.

M. Jonasz, and G. Fournier, Light Scattering by Particles in Water: Theoretical and Experimental Foundations (Academic Press, 2007).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time series of beam attenuation at 670 nm (left top) and inverted volume-weighted particle size (right top) based on measurements co-deployed LISST-100 instruments. During the manipulation experiment (first segment) one instrument measured local waters that flowed through an underwater pump (measurements denoted by red lines) while the other (measurements denoted by blue lines) was open to the environment. During the last two hours both were deployed side by side open to the environment, providing a control. Phase function during the experiment (bottom left) and control (bottom right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Particulate mass normalized beam-attenuation as a function of particle size for particles differing in their index of refraction (m = 1.15 + 0.0001i, solid, m = 1.05 + 0.0001i, dashed), water fraction (color), and aggregate model (spheroid and coated sphere). Each couple of curves with the same color represents the results of the two different aggregate models (coated sphere and dilute spheroid). The model we use herein is computed from the two different aggregate models.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mass normalized attenuation for particles as a function of size, with two different imaginary indices of refraction (m = 1.05 + 0.0001i, solid, m = 1.05 + 0.005i, dashed) and variable water fraction (color), and using Latimer’s [9] aggregate model (the average of the spheroid and coated sphere models of a given fluid fraction).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mass normalized beam attenuation at 660nm for aggregates assuming a relationship between fractal dimension and size as in Khelifa and Hill [20] (blue lines) and solid particles (red lines). Solid lines denote particles with m = 1.05 + 0.0001i, dashed lines m = 1.05 + 0.005i and dotted lines m = 1.15 + 0.0001i.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mass normalized beam attenuation for populations of aggregates with a relationship between solid fraction and size as in Khelifa and Hill [20] (blue lines) and populations of solid particles (red lines). Both have particulate size distributions that are power-law functions with the x-axis denoting its exponent. Solid lines denote particles with m = 1.05 + 0.0001i, dashed lines m = 1.05 + 0.005i and dotted lines m = 1.15 + 0.0001i. Parameters are: Wavelength = 660 nm, minimum diameter = 0.2 μm, maximum diameter = 200 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mass normalized beam attenuation for aggregates as function of aggregate size assuming a relationship between fractal dimension and size as in Khelifa and Hill [20] but with a different primary particle size, Lp, in Eq. (6) (left panel) or a different β in Eq. (6) (right panel). All runs of inorganic-like particles with m = 1.15 + 0.0001i.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n=(LLp)d3
F=n(13d3)=(LLp)(d33)
(m1)aggregate=F(mp1),
d3=3(LLp)β,β=log(Fc/3)log(Lfc/Lp)
Fc=2,Lfc=2000μm,Lp=1μm
d3=3L0.0533
3(LLp)βlog(LLp)=logn
N(D)dD={N0(D0)(DD0)ξDminDDmax0D>DmaxorD<Dmin

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