Abstract

In this numerical study, we show that by exploiting the advantages of the horizontal silicon slot waveguide structure the nonlinear interaction can be significantly increased compared to vertical slot waveguides. The deposition of a 20 nm thin optically nonlinear layer with low refractive index sandwiched between two silicon wires of 220 nm width and 205 nm height could enable a nonlinearity coefficient γ of more than 2 × 107 W-1km-1.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, R. Panepucci, C. Barrios, and M. Lipson, "Light guiding in low index materials using high-index-contrast waveguides," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp., W6.10 (2003).
  2. V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, "Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure," Opt. Lett. 29, 1209-1211 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Q. Xu, A. R. Vilson, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index-matrial," Opt. Lett. 29, 1626-1628 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, "Nonlinear silicon-oninsulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing," Opt. Express 15, 5976-5990 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-5976.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide," OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).
  6. C. A. Barrios, "Ultrasensitive nanomechanical photonic sensor based on horizontal slot-waveguide resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2419-2421 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Muellner and R. Hainberger, "Structural optimization of silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2557-2559 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Preston and M. Lipson, "Slot waveguides with polycrystalline silicon for electrical injection," Opt. Express 17, 1527-1534 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-03-1527.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Jordana, J.-M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, "Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications," 4th IEEE Intern. Conf. on Group IV Photonics, ThC3 (2007).
  10. P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, and J. Marti, "Design of silicon-based slot waveguide configurations for optimum nonlinear performance," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1298-1305 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. www.comsol.com
  12. S. P. Savaidis and N. A. Stathopoulos, "Optical confinement in nonlinear low index nanostructures," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2699-2722 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. M. Pafchek, J. Li, R. S. Tummidi, and T. L. Koch, "Low loss Si-SiO2-Si 8 nm slot waveguides," CLEO/QELS 2008, CThT3 (2008).
  14. K. Preston, H. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, "Slot waveguide cavities for electrically-pumped silicon-based light sources," CLEO/QELS, CThT2 (2008).

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide," OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

C. A. Barrios, "Ultrasensitive nanomechanical photonic sensor based on horizontal slot-waveguide resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2419-2421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Muellner and R. Hainberger, "Structural optimization of silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2557-2559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Almeida, V. R.

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide," OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Barrios, C. A.

C. A. Barrios, "Ultrasensitive nanomechanical photonic sensor based on horizontal slot-waveguide resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2419-2421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, "Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure," Opt. Lett. 29, 1209-1211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide," OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Blasco, J.

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide," OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide," OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide," OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide," OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, "Nonlinear silicon-oninsulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing," Opt. Express 15, 5976-5990 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-5976.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hainberger, R.

P. Muellner and R. Hainberger, "Structural optimization of silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2557-2559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacome, L.

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide," OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, "Nonlinear silicon-oninsulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing," Opt. Express 15, 5976-5990 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-5976.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide," OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, "Nonlinear silicon-oninsulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing," Opt. Express 15, 5976-5990 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-5976.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Marti, J.

Martinez, A.

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide," OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Muellner, P.

P. Muellner and R. Hainberger, "Structural optimization of silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2557-2559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R.

Poulton, C.

Preston, K.

Sanchis, P.

Savaidis, S. P.

S. P. Savaidis and N. A. Stathopoulos, "Optical confinement in nonlinear low index nanostructures," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2699-2722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stathopoulos, N. A.

S. P. Savaidis and N. A. Stathopoulos, "Optical confinement in nonlinear low index nanostructures," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2699-2722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vilson, A. R.

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide," OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Xu, Q.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. A. Barrios, "Ultrasensitive nanomechanical photonic sensor based on horizontal slot-waveguide resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2419-2421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Muellner and R. Hainberger, "Structural optimization of silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2557-2559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. P. Savaidis and N. A. Stathopoulos, "Optical confinement in nonlinear low index nanostructures," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2699-2722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

OFC (1)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide," OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (5)

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, R. Panepucci, C. Barrios, and M. Lipson, "Light guiding in low index materials using high-index-contrast waveguides," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp., W6.10 (2003).

E. Jordana, J.-M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, "Deep-UV lithography fabrication of slot waveguides and sandwiched waveguides for nonlinear applications," 4th IEEE Intern. Conf. on Group IV Photonics, ThC3 (2007).

R. M. Pafchek, J. Li, R. S. Tummidi, and T. L. Koch, "Low loss Si-SiO2-Si 8 nm slot waveguides," CLEO/QELS 2008, CThT3 (2008).

K. Preston, H. T. Robinson, and M. Lipson, "Slot waveguide cavities for electrically-pumped silicon-based light sources," CLEO/QELS, CThT2 (2008).

www.comsol.com

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross sections of the three investigated implementations of slot waveguides filled and/or covered with a low index optically nonlinear material: (a) vertical slot waveguide, (b) and (c) horizontal slot waveguides.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Cross section of a horizontal slot waveguide slab system and intensity profile of the TM mode; (b) optical power in the optically nonlinear slot region and effective area as a function of the silicon layer thickness for different slot thicknesses, and (c) as a function of the slot thickness at a constant silicon layer thickness of 160 nm. The dashed lines in (b) and (c) represent the low index approximation as used in [10].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dependence of the minimum achievable effective area on the slot thickness s for different refractive indices of the nonlinear material in (a) a vertical slot waveguide completely covered with the nonlinear material, (b) a horizontal slot waveguide filled and covered with the nonlinear material, and (c) a horizontal slot waveguide filled with the nonlinear material and covered with air. At each point, the geometry is optimized with respect to the parameters h and w such that a minimum effective area is obtained. The corresponding values of the optimized geometry parameters are plotted in (d)-(f). The results in (a) and (d) for slot thicknesses s > 50 nm match with those published in [4].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Dependence of the minimum achievable effective area in a horizontal slot waveguide on the width w for different refractive indices of the nonlinear material filled in the slot region. The upper cladding is air. At each point, the geometry is optimized with respect to the waveguide height h and slot thickness s. The corresponding values of the optimized geometry parameters are plotted in (b).

Equations (1)

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Aeff=Z02nNL2 DtotalRe[(x,y)×*(x,y)]·ezdxdy2DNL(x,y)4dxdy

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