Abstract

An optical analog-to-digital conversion system is proposed and demonstrated. Using time- and wavelength- interleaved optical sampling pulse train; sampling rate of 40GS/s is realized. 2.5GHz sinusoidal electrical analog signal is sampled and quantized using this system, achieving an effective number of bits of 3.45 bits. A novel technology that can dramatically improve the bandwidth of this system will also be presented in this paper, which manifests that our system can realized high bandwidth of more than 50GHz using commercially available LiNbO3 phase modulator.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17(4), 539–550 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 15(5), 1955–1982 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-1955 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Yariv and R. G. M. P. Koumans, “Time interleaved optical sampling for ultra-high speed A/D conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2012–2013 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” Trans. Microw. Theroy Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Chi and J. Yao, “A photonic analog-to-digital conversion scheme using Mach-Zehnder modulators with identical half-wave voltages,” Opt. Express 16(2), 567–572 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Stigwall and S. Galt, “Interferometric analog-to-digital conversion scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 468–470 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Li, H. Zhang, Q. Wu, Z. Zhang, and M. Yao, “All-optical analog-to-digital conversion based on polarization-differential interference and phase modulation,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 625–627 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. ?koshi, Optical Fibers (Academic, New York, 1982).
  10. J. Michael, Demler, High Speed Analog-to-Digital Conversion (Academic, San Diego, 1991).
  11. J. Li and S. He, “Broadband optical modulator of fiber type,” Opt. Express 13(3), 842–846 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-3-842 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

W. Li, H. Zhang, Q. Wu, Z. Zhang, and M. Yao, “All-optical analog-to-digital conversion based on polarization-differential interference and phase modulation,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 625–627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 15(5), 1955–1982 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-1955 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Li and S. He, “Broadband optical modulator of fiber type,” Opt. Express 13(3), 842–846 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-3-842 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Stigwall and S. Galt, “Interferometric analog-to-digital conversion scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 468–470 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” Trans. Microw. Theroy Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17(4), 539–550 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Yariv and R. G. M. P. Koumans, “Time interleaved optical sampling for ultra-high speed A/D conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2012–2013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

H. Taylor, “An optical analog-to-digital converter-Design and analysis,” J. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 210–216 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Betts, G. E.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” Trans. Microw. Theroy Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chi, H.

Erben, C.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galt, S.

J. Stigwall and S. Galt, “Interferometric analog-to-digital conversion scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 468–470 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopalan, P.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hargreaves, J. J.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” Trans. Microw. Theroy Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Heber, J. D.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juodawlkis, P. W.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” Trans. Microw. Theroy Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Katz, H. E.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koumans, R. G. M. P.

A. Yariv and R. G. M. P. Koumans, “Time interleaved optical sampling for ultra-high speed A/D conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2012–2013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Li, W.

W. Li, H. Zhang, Q. Wu, Z. Zhang, and M. Yao, “All-optical analog-to-digital conversion based on polarization-differential interference and phase modulation,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 625–627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McGee, D. J.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Donnell, F. J.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” Trans. Microw. Theroy Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ray, K. G.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” Trans. Microw. Theroy Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stigwall, J.

J. Stigwall and S. Galt, “Interferometric analog-to-digital conversion scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 468–470 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H.

H. Taylor, “An optical analog-to-digital converter-Design and analysis,” J. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 210–216 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Twichell, J. C.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” Trans. Microw. Theroy Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

Walden, R. H.

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17(4), 539–550 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wasserman, J. L.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” Trans. Microw. Theroy Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R. C.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” Trans. Microw. Theroy Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

W. Li, H. Zhang, Q. Wu, Z. Zhang, and M. Yao, “All-optical analog-to-digital conversion based on polarization-differential interference and phase modulation,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 625–627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Yao, M.

W. Li, H. Zhang, Q. Wu, Z. Zhang, and M. Yao, “All-optical analog-to-digital conversion based on polarization-differential interference and phase modulation,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 625–627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and R. G. M. P. Koumans, “Time interleaved optical sampling for ultra-high speed A/D conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2012–2013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Younger, R. D.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” Trans. Microw. Theroy Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

W. Li, H. Zhang, Q. Wu, Z. Zhang, and M. Yao, “All-optical analog-to-digital conversion based on polarization-differential interference and phase modulation,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 625–627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

W. Li, H. Zhang, Q. Wu, Z. Zhang, and M. Yao, “All-optical analog-to-digital conversion based on polarization-differential interference and phase modulation,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 625–627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv and R. G. M. P. Koumans, “Time interleaved optical sampling for ultra-high speed A/D conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34(21), 2012–2013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Taylor, “An optical analog-to-digital converter-Design and analysis,” J. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 210–216 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17(4), 539–550 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Stigwall and S. Galt, “Interferometric analog-to-digital conversion scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 468–470 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, H. Zhang, Q. Wu, Z. Zhang, and M. Yao, “All-optical analog-to-digital conversion based on polarization-differential interference and phase modulation,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 625–627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trans. Microw. Theroy Tech. (1)

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” Trans. Microw. Theroy Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. ?koshi, Optical Fibers (Academic, New York, 1982).

J. Michael, Demler, High Speed Analog-to-Digital Conversion (Academic, San Diego, 1991).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a). Illustration of polarization interference and (b) A segment of fiber submitted to a literal force per unit length f.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a). Phase difference vs. applied voltage (b) ENOB vs. voltage accuracy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission characteristics of four channels with a phase shift of π/4.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of the presented 40GS/s optical ADC system

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experiment setup of sampling pulse source and measured waveforms at each stage.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured waveforms of 40GS/s pulses for different phase shifts.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Digitized values (dots) and corresponding fitting sine-curve wave (solid line).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Walk-off and its influence without (a) and with (b) pre-compensation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Bandwidth limit without (solid line) and with (dashed line) pre-compensation.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Bf=3.63×1012fA.
ΔV=[1ΔTtiti+ΔTAsin(ωt)dtAsin(ωti)]×α1α
ΔV=[1ΔTtiΔT/2ti+ΔT/2Asin(ωt)dtAsin(ωti)]×α1α

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