Abstract

By frequency quadrupling a picosecond pulse train from a Ti:sapphire laser at 820 nm we generate a frequency comb at 205 nm with nearly bandwidth-limited pulses. The nonlinear frequency conversion is accomplished by two successive frequency doubling stages that take place in resonant cavities that are matched to the pulse repetition rate of 82 MHz. This allows for an overall efficiency of 4.5 % and produces an output power of up to 70 mW for a few minutes and 25 mW with continuous operation for hours. Such a deep UV frequency comb may be employed for direct frequency comb spectroscopy in cases where it is less efficient to convert to these short wavelengths with continuous wave lasers.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, and R. Danielius, "Highly efficient subpicosecond pulse generation at 211 nm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 48-52 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Nebel and R. Beigang, "External frequency conversion of cw mode-locked Ti : Al2O3 laser radiation," Opt. Lett. 16, 1729-1731 (1991); "Tunable picosecond pulses below 200 nm by external frequency conversion of cw modelocked Ti : Al2O3 laser radiation," Opt. Commun. 94, 369-372 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. F. Wall, J. S. Smucz, B. Pati, Y. Isyanova, P. F. Moulton, and J. G. Manni, "A quasi-continuous-wave deep ultraviolet laser source," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1160-1169 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Rotermund, and V. Petrov, "Generation of the fourth harmonic of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 231040-1042 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Ringling, O. Kittelmann, F. Noack, G. Korn and J. Squier, "Tunable femtosecond pulses in the near vacuum ultraviolet generated by frequency conversion of amplified Ti:sapphire laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 18, 2035-2037 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 133, 239-244 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Towards an absolute measurement of the 1S-3S line in atomic hydrogen," Can. J. Phys. 83, 273-281 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, "Metrology of the hydrogen and deuterium atoms: Determination of the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts," Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61-93 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Hagel, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, "Analysis and observation, on an atomic resonance, of the frequency shift due to the length modulation of an optical cavity," Appl. Opt. 41, 7702-7706 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Sakuma, Y. Asakawa, T. Sumiyoshi, and H. Sekita, "High-power cw deep-UV coherent light sources around 200 nm based on external resonant sum-frequency mixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1244-1251 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology." Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Ye. V. Baklanov, and V. P. Chebotayev, "Narrow resonances of two-photon absorption of super-narrow pulses in a gas," Appl. Phys. 12, 97-99 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, "Direct frequency comb measurements of absolute optical frequencies and population transfer dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 023001/1-4 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Fendel, S. D. Bergeson, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy of the 6s-8s transition in cesium," Opt. Lett. 32, 701-703 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, "Two-photon spectroscopy of laser-cooled Rb using a modelocked laser," Opt. Commun. 125, 70-76 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. W. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, and C. V. Shank, "Astigmatically compensated cavities for cw dye lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 373-379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. D. Boyd, and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. W. Hansch and B. Couillaud "Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity," Opt. Commun. 35, 441-444 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Chen, "Recent advances in deep and vacuum-UV harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Opt. Mater. 26, 425-429 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7," Nature 373, 322-324 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. V. Smith, "How to select nonlinear crystals and model their performance using SNLO software," Proc. SPIE 3928, 62-69 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Z. Min, R. W. Quandt, R. Bersohn and H. L. Kim "Extended range of second harmonic generation in ® ?BaB2O4," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2409 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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  25. A. P. Baronavski, H. D. Ladouceur, and J. K. Shaw, "Analysis of cross correlation, phase velocity mismatch, and group velocity mismatches in sum-frequency generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 580-589 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Towards an absolute measurement of the 1S-3S line in atomic hydrogen," Can. J. Phys. 83, 273-281 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Sakuma, Y. Asakawa, T. Sumiyoshi, and H. Sekita, "High-power cw deep-UV coherent light sources around 200 nm based on external resonant sum-frequency mixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1244-1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, "Recent advances in deep and vacuum-UV harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Opt. Mater. 26, 425-429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. F. Wall, J. S. Smucz, B. Pati, Y. Isyanova, P. F. Moulton, and J. G. Manni, "A quasi-continuous-wave deep ultraviolet laser source," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1160-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (3)

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, "Metrology of the hydrogen and deuterium atoms: Determination of the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts," Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61-93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, and R. Danielius, "Highly efficient subpicosecond pulse generation at 211 nm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 48-52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Smith, "How to select nonlinear crystals and model their performance using SNLO software," Proc. SPIE 3928, 62-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Z. Min, R. W. Quandt, R. Bersohn and H. L. Kim "Extended range of second harmonic generation in ® ?BaB2O4," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Rotermund, and V. Petrov, "Generation of the fourth harmonic of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 231040-1042 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 133, 239-244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, "Two-photon spectroscopy of laser-cooled Rb using a modelocked laser," Opt. Commun. 125, 70-76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7," Nature 373, 322-324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. Ringling, O. Kittelmann, F. Noack, G. Korn and J. Squier, "Tunable femtosecond pulses in the near vacuum ultraviolet generated by frequency conversion of amplified Ti:sapphire laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 18, 2035-2037 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Baronavski, H. D. Ladouceur, and J. K. Shaw, "Analysis of cross correlation, phase velocity mismatch, and group velocity mismatches in sum-frequency generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 580-589 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Nebel and R. Beigang, "External frequency conversion of cw mode-locked Ti : Al2O3 laser radiation," Opt. Lett. 16, 1729-1731 (1991); "Tunable picosecond pulses below 200 nm by external frequency conversion of cw modelocked Ti : Al2O3 laser radiation," Opt. Commun. 94, 369-372 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. W. Hansch and B. Couillaud "Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity," Opt. Commun. 35, 441-444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

Ye. V. Baklanov, and V. P. Chebotayev, "Narrow resonances of two-photon absorption of super-narrow pulses in a gas," Appl. Phys. 12, 97-99 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

H. W. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, and C. V. Shank, "Astigmatically compensated cavities for cw dye lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 373-379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd, and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Acef, O.

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, "Metrology of the hydrogen and deuterium atoms: Determination of the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts," Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61-93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arnoult, O.

O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Towards an absolute measurement of the 1S-3S line in atomic hydrogen," Can. J. Phys. 83, 273-281 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asakawa, Y.

J. Sakuma, Y. Asakawa, T. Sumiyoshi, and H. Sekita, "High-power cw deep-UV coherent light sources around 200 nm based on external resonant sum-frequency mixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1244-1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baronavski, A. P.

A. P. Baronavski, H. D. Ladouceur, and J. K. Shaw, "Analysis of cross correlation, phase velocity mismatch, and group velocity mismatches in sum-frequency generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 580-589 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

A. Nebel and R. Beigang, "External frequency conversion of cw mode-locked Ti : Al2O3 laser radiation," Opt. Lett. 16, 1729-1731 (1991); "Tunable picosecond pulses below 200 nm by external frequency conversion of cw modelocked Ti : Al2O3 laser radiation," Opt. Commun. 94, 369-372 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, A. S.

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, "Two-photon spectroscopy of laser-cooled Rb using a modelocked laser," Opt. Commun. 125, 70-76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bergeson, S. D.

Bersohn, R.

Z. Min, R. W. Quandt, R. Bersohn and H. L. Kim "Extended range of second harmonic generation in ® ?BaB2O4," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Towards an absolute measurement of the 1S-3S line in atomic hydrogen," Can. J. Phys. 83, 273-281 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Hagel, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, "Analysis and observation, on an atomic resonance, of the frequency shift due to the length modulation of an optical cavity," Appl. Opt. 41, 7702-7706 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, "Metrology of the hydrogen and deuterium atoms: Determination of the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts," Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61-93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 133, 239-244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bourzeix, S.

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 133, 239-244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, "Recent advances in deep and vacuum-UV harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Opt. Mater. 26, 425-429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7," Nature 373, 322-324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, "Metrology of the hydrogen and deuterium atoms: Determination of the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts," Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61-93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Couillaud, B.

T. W. Hansch and B. Couillaud "Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity," Opt. Commun. 35, 441-444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Danielius, R.

de Beauvoir, B.

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, "Metrology of the hydrogen and deuterium atoms: Determination of the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts," Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61-93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 133, 239-244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Tomasi, F.

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 133, 239-244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, A.

H. W. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, and C. V. Shank, "Astigmatically compensated cavities for cw dye lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 373-379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

Felinto, D.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, "Direct frequency comb measurements of absolute optical frequencies and population transfer dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 023001/1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fendel, P.

Ferguson, A. I.

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, "Two-photon spectroscopy of laser-cooled Rb using a modelocked laser," Opt. Commun. 125, 70-76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H¨ansch, T. W.

Hagel, G.

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T. W.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology." Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Hansch and B. Couillaud "Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity," Opt. Commun. 35, 441-444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hilico, L.

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, "Metrology of the hydrogen and deuterium atoms: Determination of the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts," Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61-93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology." Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

H. W. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, and C. V. Shank, "Astigmatically compensated cavities for cw dye lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 373-379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Isyanova, Y.

K. F. Wall, J. S. Smucz, B. Pati, Y. Isyanova, P. F. Moulton, and J. G. Manni, "A quasi-continuous-wave deep ultraviolet laser source," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1160-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jozefowski, L.

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, "Metrology of the hydrogen and deuterium atoms: Determination of the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts," Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61-93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Julien, L.

O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Towards an absolute measurement of the 1S-3S line in atomic hydrogen," Can. J. Phys. 83, 273-281 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, "Metrology of the hydrogen and deuterium atoms: Determination of the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts," Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61-93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 133, 239-244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. L.

Z. Min, R. W. Quandt, R. Bersohn and H. L. Kim "Extended range of second harmonic generation in ® ?BaB2O4," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kittelmann, O.

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd, and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H. W.

H. W. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, and C. V. Shank, "Astigmatically compensated cavities for cw dye lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 373-379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ladouceur, H. D.

A. P. Baronavski, H. D. Ladouceur, and J. K. Shaw, "Analysis of cross correlation, phase velocity mismatch, and group velocity mismatches in sum-frequency generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 580-589 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Manni, J. G.

K. F. Wall, J. S. Smucz, B. Pati, Y. Isyanova, P. F. Moulton, and J. G. Manni, "A quasi-continuous-wave deep ultraviolet laser source," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1160-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marian, A.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, "Direct frequency comb measurements of absolute optical frequencies and population transfer dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 023001/1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Min, Z.

Z. Min, R. W. Quandt, R. Bersohn and H. L. Kim "Extended range of second harmonic generation in ® ?BaB2O4," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

K. F. Wall, J. S. Smucz, B. Pati, Y. Isyanova, P. F. Moulton, and J. G. Manni, "A quasi-continuous-wave deep ultraviolet laser source," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1160-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nebel, A.

A. Nebel and R. Beigang, "External frequency conversion of cw mode-locked Ti : Al2O3 laser radiation," Opt. Lett. 16, 1729-1731 (1991); "Tunable picosecond pulses below 200 nm by external frequency conversion of cw modelocked Ti : Al2O3 laser radiation," Opt. Commun. 94, 369-372 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nez, F.

O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Towards an absolute measurement of the 1S-3S line in atomic hydrogen," Can. J. Phys. 83, 273-281 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Hagel, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, "Analysis and observation, on an atomic resonance, of the frequency shift due to the length modulation of an optical cavity," Appl. Opt. 41, 7702-7706 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, "Metrology of the hydrogen and deuterium atoms: Determination of the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts," Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61-93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 133, 239-244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noack, F.

Pati, B.

K. F. Wall, J. S. Smucz, B. Pati, Y. Isyanova, P. F. Moulton, and J. G. Manni, "A quasi-continuous-wave deep ultraviolet laser source," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1160-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

Quandt, R. W.

Z. Min, R. W. Quandt, R. Bersohn and H. L. Kim "Extended range of second harmonic generation in ® ?BaB2O4," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riis, E.

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, "Two-photon spectroscopy of laser-cooled Rb using a modelocked laser," Opt. Commun. 125, 70-76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ringling, J.

Rotermund, F.

Sakuma, J.

J. Sakuma, Y. Asakawa, T. Sumiyoshi, and H. Sekita, "High-power cw deep-UV coherent light sources around 200 nm based on external resonant sum-frequency mixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1244-1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwob, C.

O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Towards an absolute measurement of the 1S-3S line in atomic hydrogen," Can. J. Phys. 83, 273-281 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, "Metrology of the hydrogen and deuterium atoms: Determination of the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts," Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61-93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sekita, H.

J. Sakuma, Y. Asakawa, T. Sumiyoshi, and H. Sekita, "High-power cw deep-UV coherent light sources around 200 nm based on external resonant sum-frequency mixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1244-1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

H. W. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, and C. V. Shank, "Astigmatically compensated cavities for cw dye lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 373-379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. K.

A. P. Baronavski, H. D. Ladouceur, and J. K. Shaw, "Analysis of cross correlation, phase velocity mismatch, and group velocity mismatches in sum-frequency generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 580-589 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. V.

A. V. Smith, "How to select nonlinear crystals and model their performance using SNLO software," Proc. SPIE 3928, 62-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smucz, J. S.

K. F. Wall, J. S. Smucz, B. Pati, Y. Isyanova, P. F. Moulton, and J. G. Manni, "A quasi-continuous-wave deep ultraviolet laser source," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1160-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Snadden, M. J.

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, "Two-photon spectroscopy of laser-cooled Rb using a modelocked laser," Opt. Commun. 125, 70-76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Stowe, M. C.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, "Direct frequency comb measurements of absolute optical frequencies and population transfer dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 023001/1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sumiyoshi, T.

J. Sakuma, Y. Asakawa, T. Sumiyoshi, and H. Sekita, "High-power cw deep-UV coherent light sources around 200 nm based on external resonant sum-frequency mixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1244-1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamosauskas, G.

Udem, Th.

Valiulis, G.

Varanavicius, A.

Wall, K. F.

K. F. Wall, J. S. Smucz, B. Pati, Y. Isyanova, P. F. Moulton, and J. G. Manni, "A quasi-continuous-wave deep ultraviolet laser source," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1160-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7," Nature 373, 322-324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7," Nature 373, 322-324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7," Nature 373, 322-324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, "Direct frequency comb measurements of absolute optical frequencies and population transfer dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 023001/1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7," Nature 373, 322-324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, W.

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7," Nature 373, 322-324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

Ye. V. Baklanov, and V. P. Chebotayev, "Narrow resonances of two-photon absorption of super-narrow pulses in a gas," Appl. Phys. 12, 97-99 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical-resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

O. Arnoult, F. Nez, C. Schwob, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Towards an absolute measurement of the 1S-3S line in atomic hydrogen," Can. J. Phys. 83, 273-281 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

B. de Beauvoir, C. Schwob, O. Acef, L. Jozefowski, L. Hilico, F. Nez, L. Julien, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, "Metrology of the hydrogen and deuterium atoms: Determination of the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts," Eur. Phys. J. D 12, 61-93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

K. F. Wall, J. S. Smucz, B. Pati, Y. Isyanova, P. F. Moulton, and J. G. Manni, "A quasi-continuous-wave deep ultraviolet laser source," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1160-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, and C. V. Shank, "Astigmatically compensated cavities for cw dye lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 373-379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Z. Min, R. W. Quandt, R. Bersohn and H. L. Kim "Extended range of second harmonic generation in ® ?BaB2O4," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Baronavski, H. D. Ladouceur, and J. K. Shaw, "Analysis of cross correlation, phase velocity mismatch, and group velocity mismatches in sum-frequency generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 580-589 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Sakuma, Y. Asakawa, T. Sumiyoshi, and H. Sekita, "High-power cw deep-UV coherent light sources around 200 nm based on external resonant sum-frequency mixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1244-1251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. D. Boyd, and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (2)

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology." Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chen, Y. Wang, B. Wu, K. Wu, W. Zeng, and L. Yu, "Design and synthesis of an ultraviolet-transparent nonlinear optical crystal Sr2Be2B2O7," Nature 373, 322-324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

M. J. Snadden, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, "Two-photon spectroscopy of laser-cooled Rb using a modelocked laser," Opt. Commun. 125, 70-76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Nebel and R. Beigang, "External frequency conversion of cw mode-locked Ti : Al2O3 laser radiation," Opt. Lett. 16, 1729-1731 (1991); "Tunable picosecond pulses below 200 nm by external frequency conversion of cw modelocked Ti : Al2O3 laser radiation," Opt. Commun. 94, 369-372 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Hansch and B. Couillaud "Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity," Opt. Commun. 35, 441-444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, F. de Tomasi, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, "Ultra-violet light generation at 205 nm by two frequency doubling steps of a cw titanium-sapphire laser," Opt. Commun. 133, 239-244 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

C. Chen, "Recent advances in deep and vacuum-UV harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Opt. Mater. 26, 425-429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. V. Smith, "How to select nonlinear crystals and model their performance using SNLO software," Proc. SPIE 3928, 62-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, (Academic, 2006).

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, "Direct frequency comb measurements of absolute optical frequencies and population transfer dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 023001/1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for deep UV frequency comb generation. A 82 MHz ps mode locked Ti:sapphire laser is stabilized to an external reference cavity and frequency doubled twice with the help of resonant enhancement cavities. The first cavity houses an LBO (820 nm → 410 nm) and the second one a BBO crystal (410 nm → 205 nm), both of them are Brewster cut. L1: spherical mode matching lens (f = 2000 mm); Z1, Z2: cylindrical mode matching lenses (f 1 = 150 mm and f 2 = 230 mm focusing horizontally and vertically respectively); PD: photo diode; DPD: difference photo diode; EOM: electro-optic modulator; AOM: acousto-optic modulator; ULE: ultra-low-expansion glass; PID: proportional-integral-derivative controller; PLL: phase locked loop, LO: local oszillator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Power spectra and correlation measurements for the fundamental, second harmonic and fourth harmonic pulses.(a) Power spectrum and (b) auto correlation trace of the fundamental pulses at 820 nm. (c) Power spectrum and (d) cross correlation trace of the second harmonic pulses at 410 nm. (e) Power spectrum and (f) cross correlation trace of the fourth harmonic pulses.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Overview about the characteristics of the laser system

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I2(Ω,L)~L2sinc2{[(1ν21ν1)Ω+Δk]L2}×I12(Ω).

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