Abstract

Karenia brevis (K. brevis) blooms are of great interest and have been commonly reported throughout the Gulf of Mexico. In this study we propose a detection technique for blooms with low backscatter characteristics, which we name the Red Band Difference (RBD) technique, coupled with a selective K. brevis bloom classification technique, which we name the K. brevis Bloom Index (KBBI). These techniques take advantage of the relatively high solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence and low backscattering of K. brevis blooms. The techniques are applied to the detection and classification of K. brevis blooms from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean color measurements off the Gulf of Mexico. To assess the efficacy of the techniques for detection and classification, simulations, including chlorophyll fluorescence (assuming 0.75% quantum yield) based on K. brevis blooms and non-K. brevis blooms conditions were performed. These show that effective bloom detection from satellite measurements requires a threshold of RBD>0.15W/m2/µm/sr, corresponding to about 5mg/m3 of chlorophyll. Blooms can be detected at lower concentration by lowering the RBD threshold but false positives may increase. The classification technique is found most effective for thresholds of RBD>0.15W/m2/µm/sr and KBBI>0.3*RBD. The techniques were applied and shown to be effective for well documented blooms of K. brevis in the Gulf of Mexico and compared to other detection techniques, including FLH approaches. Impacts of different atmospheric corrections on results were also examined.

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2008 (4)

J. P. Cannizzaro, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, C. A. Heil, and G. A. Vargo, “A novel technique for detection of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico from remotely sensed ocean color data,” Continent. Shel. Res. 28(1), 137–158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Fluorescence component in the reflectance spectra from coastal waters. II. Performance of retrieval algorithms,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2446–2460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, I. Ioannou, S. Hlaing, J. Schalles, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Retrieving quantum yield of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence near surface from hyperspectral in-situ measurement in productive water,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17468–17483 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Tomlinson, T. T. Wynne, and R. P. Stumpf, “An evaluation of remote sensing techniques for enhanced detection of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis,” Remote Sens. Environ. (2008), doi:.

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

O. Schofield, J. Kerfoot, K. Mahoney, M. Moline, M. Oliver, S. Lohrenz, and G. Kirkpatrick, “Vertical migration of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and the impact on ocean optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, and P. W. Swarzenski, “Hurricanes, submarine groundwater discharge, and Florida’s red tides,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(11), L11601 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Y. Huot, C. A. Brown, and J. J. Cullen, “New algorithms for MODIS sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and a comparison with present data products,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 3, 108–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Estimation of ocean contribution at MODIS near infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: two case studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(13), L13606 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: A regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97(3), 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, “Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico,” Remote Sens. Environ. 91(3-4), 293–303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

A. Albert and C. D. Mobely, “An analytical model for subsurface irradiance and remote sensing reflectance in deep and shallow case-2 waters,” Opt. Express 11, 2873–2890 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, “Spectral beam attenuation coefficient retrieved from ocean color inversion,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(9), 1468 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40(18), 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of ocean waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

Z. P. Lee and K. L. Carder, “Band-ratio or spectral-curvature algorithms for satellite remote sensing?” Appl. Opt. 39(24), 4377–4380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, “Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467–4718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39(21), 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery over turbid coastal waters: a practical method,” Remote Sens. Environ. 74(2), 195–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

A. Subramaniam, E. J. Carpenter, and P. G. Falkowski, “Bio-optical properties of the marine diazotrophic cyanobacteria Trichodesmium spp. II. A reflectance model for remote sensing,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 618–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, G. J. Kirkpatrick, C. L. Carroll, and K. A. Kelly, “Microphotometric assessment of spectral absorption and its potential application for characterization of harmful algal species,” J. Phycol. 35(6), 1438–1446 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semi-analytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38(18), 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36(33), 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Smayda, “Harmful algal blooms: their ecophysology and general relevance to phytoplankton blooms in the sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1137–1153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. F. Millie, G. J. Kirkpatrick, and B. T. Vinyard, “Relating photosynthetic pigments and in vivo optical density spectra to irradiance for the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 120, 65–75 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1991 (2)

A. Morel and Y. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates: A tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacteria and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res. 49(1), 177–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering in microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

K. L. Carder and R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red-tide dinoflagellate off west Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

S. Asai, J. J. Krzanowski, W. H. Anderson, D. F. Martin, J. B. Polson, R. F. Lockey, S. C. Bukantz, and A. Szentivanyi, “Effects of the toxin of red tide, Ptychodiscus brevis, on cannie tracheal smooth muscle: a possible new asthma-triggering mechanism,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 69(5), 418–428 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmed, S.

Ahn, Y.

A. Morel and Y. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates: A tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacteria and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res. 49(1), 177–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Albert, A.

Amin, R.

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, R. Amin, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Fluorescence contribution to reflelctance spectra for a variety of coastal waters,” Proc. SPIE 6680, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, W. H.

S. Asai, J. J. Krzanowski, W. H. Anderson, D. F. Martin, J. B. Polson, R. F. Lockey, S. C. Bukantz, and A. Szentivanyi, “Effects of the toxin of red tide, Ptychodiscus brevis, on cannie tracheal smooth muscle: a possible new asthma-triggering mechanism,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 69(5), 418–428 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asai, S.

S. Asai, J. J. Krzanowski, W. H. Anderson, D. F. Martin, J. B. Polson, R. F. Lockey, S. C. Bukantz, and A. Szentivanyi, “Effects of the toxin of red tide, Ptychodiscus brevis, on cannie tracheal smooth muscle: a possible new asthma-triggering mechanism,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 69(5), 418–428 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bontempi, P. S.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, “Spectral beam attenuation coefficient retrieved from ocean color inversion,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(9), 1468 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

Broenkow, W. W.

Brown, C. A.

Y. Huot, C. A. Brown, and J. J. Cullen, “New algorithms for MODIS sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and a comparison with present data products,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 3, 108–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

Bukantz, S. C.

S. Asai, J. J. Krzanowski, W. H. Anderson, D. F. Martin, J. B. Polson, R. F. Lockey, S. C. Bukantz, and A. Szentivanyi, “Effects of the toxin of red tide, Ptychodiscus brevis, on cannie tracheal smooth muscle: a possible new asthma-triggering mechanism,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 69(5), 418–428 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cannizzaro, J. P.

J. P. Cannizzaro, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, C. A. Heil, and G. A. Vargo, “A novel technique for detection of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico from remotely sensed ocean color data,” Continent. Shel. Res. 28(1), 137–158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

J. P. Cannizzaro, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, C. A. Heil, and G. A. Vargo, “A novel technique for detection of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico from remotely sensed ocean color data,” Continent. Shel. Res. 28(1), 137–158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: A regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97(3), 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee and K. L. Carder, “Band-ratio or spectral-curvature algorithms for satellite remote sensing?” Appl. Opt. 39(24), 4377–4380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery over turbid coastal waters: a practical method,” Remote Sens. Environ. 74(2), 195–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization,” Appl. Opt. 38(18), 3831–3843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semi-analytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, “Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. A semianalytical model,” Appl. Opt. 37(27), 6329–6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder and R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red-tide dinoflagellate off west Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, E. J.

A. Subramaniam, E. J. Carpenter, and P. G. Falkowski, “Bio-optical properties of the marine diazotrophic cyanobacteria Trichodesmium spp. II. A reflectance model for remote sensing,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 618–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, C. L.

S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, G. J. Kirkpatrick, C. L. Carroll, and K. A. Kelly, “Microphotometric assessment of spectral absorption and its potential application for characterization of harmful algal species,” J. Phycol. 35(6), 1438–1446 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. R.

J. P. Cannizzaro, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, C. A. Heil, and G. A. Vargo, “A novel technique for detection of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico from remotely sensed ocean color data,” Continent. Shel. Res. 28(1), 137–158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semi-analytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

Cullen, J. J.

Y. Huot, C. A. Brown, and J. J. Cullen, “New algorithms for MODIS sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and a comparison with present data products,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 3, 108–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Culver, M. E.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, A.

Darrow, B. P.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dieterle, D. A.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

Fahnenstiel, G. L.

S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, G. J. Kirkpatrick, C. L. Carroll, and K. A. Kelly, “Microphotometric assessment of spectral absorption and its potential application for characterization of harmful algal species,” J. Phycol. 35(6), 1438–1446 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Falkowski, P. G.

A. Subramaniam, E. J. Carpenter, and P. G. Falkowski, “Bio-optical properties of the marine diazotrophic cyanobacteria Trichodesmium spp. II. A reflectance model for remote sensing,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 618–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fanning, K. A.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Gilerson, A.

Gordon, H. R.

Gregg, W. W.

W. W. Gregg and K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gross, B.

Hawes, S. K.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semi-analytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hay, L.

Heil, C. A.

J. P. Cannizzaro, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, C. A. Heil, and G. A. Vargo, “A novel technique for detection of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico from remotely sensed ocean color data,” Continent. Shel. Res. 28(1), 137–158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: A regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97(3), 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, “Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico,” Remote Sens. Environ. 91(3-4), 293–303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hlaing, S.

Hu, C.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, and P. W. Swarzenski, “Hurricanes, submarine groundwater discharge, and Florida’s red tides,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(11), L11601 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: A regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97(3), 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery over turbid coastal waters: a practical method,” Remote Sens. Environ. 74(2), 195–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huot, Y.

Y. Huot, C. A. Brown, and J. J. Cullen, “New algorithms for MODIS sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and a comparison with present data products,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 3, 108–130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ioannou, I.

Jochens, A. E.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johns, E.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: A regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97(3), 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnsen, G.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jolliff, J. K.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kamykowski, D.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semi-analytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kelble, C.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: A regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97(3), 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. A.

S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, G. J. Kirkpatrick, C. L. Carroll, and K. A. Kelly, “Microphotometric assessment of spectral absorption and its potential application for characterization of harmful algal species,” J. Phycol. 35(6), 1438–1446 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kerfoot, J.

O. Schofield, J. Kerfoot, K. Mahoney, M. Moline, M. Oliver, S. Lohrenz, and G. Kirkpatrick, “Vertical migration of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and the impact on ocean optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering in microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, G.

O. Schofield, J. Kerfoot, K. Mahoney, M. Moline, M. Oliver, S. Lohrenz, and G. Kirkpatrick, “Vertical migration of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and the impact on ocean optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, G. J.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, “Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico,” Remote Sens. Environ. 91(3-4), 293–303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, “Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467–4718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, G. J. Kirkpatrick, C. L. Carroll, and K. A. Kelly, “Microphotometric assessment of spectral absorption and its potential application for characterization of harmful algal species,” J. Phycol. 35(6), 1438–1446 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, G. J. Kirkpatrick, and B. T. Vinyard, “Relating photosynthetic pigments and in vivo optical density spectra to irradiance for the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 120, 65–75 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krzanowski, J. J.

S. Asai, J. J. Krzanowski, W. H. Anderson, D. F. Martin, J. B. Polson, R. F. Lockey, S. C. Bukantz, and A. Szentivanyi, “Effects of the toxin of red tide, Ptychodiscus brevis, on cannie tracheal smooth muscle: a possible new asthma-triggering mechanism,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 69(5), 418–428 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T. N.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Lenes, J. M.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lockey, R. F.

S. Asai, J. J. Krzanowski, W. H. Anderson, D. F. Martin, J. B. Polson, R. F. Lockey, S. C. Bukantz, and A. Szentivanyi, “Effects of the toxin of red tide, Ptychodiscus brevis, on cannie tracheal smooth muscle: a possible new asthma-triggering mechanism,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 69(5), 418–428 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lohrenz, S.

O. Schofield, J. Kerfoot, K. Mahoney, M. Moline, M. Oliver, S. Lohrenz, and G. Kirkpatrick, “Vertical migration of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and the impact on ocean optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lohrenz, S. E.

S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, G. J. Kirkpatrick, C. L. Carroll, and K. A. Kelly, “Microphotometric assessment of spectral absorption and its potential application for characterization of harmful algal species,” J. Phycol. 35(6), 1438–1446 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mahoney, K.

O. Schofield, J. Kerfoot, K. Mahoney, M. Moline, M. Oliver, S. Lohrenz, and G. Kirkpatrick, “Vertical migration of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and the impact on ocean optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

Martin, D. F.

S. Asai, J. J. Krzanowski, W. H. Anderson, D. F. Martin, J. B. Polson, R. F. Lockey, S. C. Bukantz, and A. Szentivanyi, “Effects of the toxin of red tide, Ptychodiscus brevis, on cannie tracheal smooth muscle: a possible new asthma-triggering mechanism,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 69(5), 418–428 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKee, D.

Millie, D. F.

G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, “Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467–4718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, G. J. Kirkpatrick, and B. T. Vinyard, “Relating photosynthetic pigments and in vivo optical density spectra to irradiance for the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 120, 65–75 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Milroy, S. P.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mobely, C. D.

Mobley, C. D.

Moline, M.

O. Schofield, J. Kerfoot, K. Mahoney, M. Moline, M. Oliver, S. Lohrenz, and G. Kirkpatrick, “Vertical migration of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and the impact on ocean optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06009 (2006).
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Moline, M. A.

G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, “Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467–4718 (2000).
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Morel, A.

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40(18), 2929–2945 (2001).
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A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of ocean waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
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Muller-Karger, F. E.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, and P. W. Swarzenski, “Hurricanes, submarine groundwater discharge, and Florida’s red tides,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(11), L11601 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: A regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97(3), 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery over turbid coastal waters: a practical method,” Remote Sens. Environ. 74(2), 195–206 (2000).
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Oliver, M.

O. Schofield, J. Kerfoot, K. Mahoney, M. Moline, M. Oliver, S. Lohrenz, and G. Kirkpatrick, “Vertical migration of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and the impact on ocean optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patch, J. S.

Pederson, B. A.

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, “Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico,” Remote Sens. Environ. 91(3-4), 293–303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

Polson, J. B.

S. Asai, J. J. Krzanowski, W. H. Anderson, D. F. Martin, J. B. Polson, R. F. Lockey, S. C. Bukantz, and A. Szentivanyi, “Effects of the toxin of red tide, Ptychodiscus brevis, on cannie tracheal smooth muscle: a possible new asthma-triggering mechanism,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 69(5), 418–428 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pope, R. M.

Prospero, J. S.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ransibrahmanakul, V.

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, “Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico,” Remote Sens. Environ. 91(3-4), 293–303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Remsen, A.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, W.

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, “Spectral beam attenuation coefficient retrieved from ocean color inversion,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(9), 1468 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

Schalles, J.

Schofield, O.

O. Schofield, J. Kerfoot, K. Mahoney, M. Moline, M. Oliver, S. Lohrenz, and G. Kirkpatrick, “Vertical migration of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and the impact on ocean optical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, “Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467–4718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, O. M.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Estimation of ocean contribution at MODIS near infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: two case studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(13), L13606 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Shinn, E.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
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Siegel, D. A.

Smayda, T. J.

T. J. Smayda, “Harmful algal blooms: their ecophysology and general relevance to phytoplankton blooms in the sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1137–1153 (1997).
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Soracco, M.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steidinger, K. A.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

Stockwell, D. A.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

Stumpf, R. P.

M. C. Tomlinson, T. T. Wynne, and R. P. Stumpf, “An evaluation of remote sensing techniques for enhanced detection of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis,” Remote Sens. Environ. (2008), doi:.

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, “Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico,” Remote Sens. Environ. 91(3-4), 293–303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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A. Subramaniam, E. J. Carpenter, and P. G. Falkowski, “Bio-optical properties of the marine diazotrophic cyanobacteria Trichodesmium spp. II. A reflectance model for remote sensing,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 618–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swarzenski, P. W.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, and P. W. Swarzenski, “Hurricanes, submarine groundwater discharge, and Florida’s red tides,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(11), L11601 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Szentivanyi, A.

S. Asai, J. J. Krzanowski, W. H. Anderson, D. F. Martin, J. B. Polson, R. F. Lockey, S. C. Bukantz, and A. Szentivanyi, “Effects of the toxin of red tide, Ptychodiscus brevis, on cannie tracheal smooth muscle: a possible new asthma-triggering mechanism,” J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 69(5), 418–428 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, C.

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. A. Heil, “Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: A regional example in SW Florida coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 97(3), 311–321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tester, P. A.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tomas, C. R.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, M.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, M. C.

M. C. Tomlinson, T. T. Wynne, and R. P. Stumpf, “An evaluation of remote sensing techniques for enhanced detection of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis,” Remote Sens. Environ. (2008), doi:.

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, “Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico,” Remote Sens. Environ. 91(3-4), 293–303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Truby, E.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Truby, E. W.

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, “Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico,” Remote Sens. Environ. 91(3-4), 293–303 (2004).
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Twardowski, M. S.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
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Ulloa, O.

Vargo, G. A.

J. P. Cannizzaro, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, C. A. Heil, and G. A. Vargo, “A novel technique for detection of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico from remotely sensed ocean color data,” Continent. Shel. Res. 28(1), 137–158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Tomlinson, R. P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E. W. Truby, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, G. A. Vargo, and C. A. Heil, “Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico,” Remote Sens. Environ. 91(3-4), 293–303 (2004).
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Villareal, T. A.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
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Vinyard, B. T.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, “Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240–1251 (1997).
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D. F. Millie, G. J. Kirkpatrick, and B. T. Vinyard, “Relating photosynthetic pigments and in vivo optical density spectra to irradiance for the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 120, 65–75 (1995).
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J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
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Wang, M.

Weisberg, R. H.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
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Whitledge, T. E.

J. J. Walsh, J. K. Jolliff, B. P. Darrow, J. M. Lenes, S. P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D. A. Dieterle, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, G. A. Vargo, R. H. Weisberg, K. A. Fanning, F. E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K. A. Steidinger, C. A. Heil, C. R. Tomas, J. S. Prospero, T. N. Lee, G. J. Kirkpatrick, T. E. Whitledge, D. A. Stockwell, T. A. Villareal, A. E. Jochens, and P. S. Bontempi, “Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: where, when, and why?” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C11), C11003 (2006).
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Wright, D.

Wynne, T. T.

M. C. Tomlinson, T. T. Wynne, and R. P. Stumpf, “An evaluation of remote sensing techniques for enhanced detection of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis,” Remote Sens. Environ. (2008), doi:.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
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Zhou, J.

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Continent. Shel. Res. (1)

J. P. Cannizzaro, K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, C. A. Heil, and G. A. Vargo, “A novel technique for detection of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico from remotely sensed ocean color data,” Continent. Shel. Res. 28(1), 137–158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, “Spectral beam attenuation coefficient retrieved from ocean color inversion,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(9), 1468 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Estimation of ocean contribution at MODIS near infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: two case studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(13), L13606 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, and P. W. Swarzenski, “Hurricanes, submarine groundwater discharge, and Florida’s red tides,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(11), L11601 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Harmful Algae (1)

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modeled remote sensing reflectance spectra for K. brevis cell concentrations (a) greater than 104cells/l (K. brevis bloom) and (b) less than 104cells/l (non-K. brevis-1 bloom) for the Chl=3mg/m3 and adg(440)=0.25m1 . The solid green spectra are when chlorophyll fluorescence is excluded (“F OFF”) from the simulation and solid red spectra are when fluorescence is included (“F ON”) in the simulation assuming 0.75% quantum yield. Band 13 and 14 are MODIS bands centered at 667nm and 678nm respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

K. brevis blooms detected using the RBD technique on the WFS on (a) 17 Sep 2001, and (b) 21 Jan 2005. These blooms are classified as K. brevis blooms using the KBBI classification technique with appropriate thresholds applied on (c) 17 Sep 2001 and (d) 21 Jan 2005. The 17 Sep 2001 image is an example when K. brevis and Trichodesmium blooms were co-occurring spatially but only K. brevis bloom is detected.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MODIS RBD image series show the progression of a K. brevis bloom. Land and cloud pixels are shown in white. The bright pixels next to the cloud are noise from clouds.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modeled (a) RBD ( W/m2/μm/sr ) and (b) KBBI values as a function of chlorophyll concentrations generated for K. brevis blooms (magenta), non-K. brevis-1 (green), non-K. brevis-2 (purple), and Case-1 (cyan) waters. adg(440)=0.25m1

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationship between modeled RBD ( W/m2/μm/sr ) and KBBI values for K. brevis blooms with adg(440)=0m1 (red, “1a”) and adg(440)=3m1 (red, “1b”), non-K. brevis-2 with adg(440)=0m1 (blue, “2a”) and adg(440)=3m1 (blue, “2b”), and Case-1 (cyan, “3”) waters. Dotted points represent MODIS (Aqua) data corrected using the NIR atmospheric correction algorithm and collected on 13 Nov 2004 (25.5°N – 25..9°N, 81.9°W - 82.3°W) (cyan) and 18 Nov 2004 (25.39°N - 25.5°N, 81.683°W - 82.266°W) (yellow). Also shown is a RBD threshold line (magenta) equal to 0.15W/m2/μm/sr and the relationship KBBI = 0.3*RBD (magenta). The satellite data includes K. brevis bloomed water and also closed by waters which may contain K. brevis cells but in low concentrations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MODIS (Aqua) bloom image from 13 November 2004 for the WFS (a) FLH ( W/m2/μm/sr ) image, (b) RBD ( W/m2/μm/sr ) image and (c) Normalized-water leaving radiance spectra taken from the bloomed and turbid waters indicated by “circle” and “squares” respectively in the FLH image.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Normalized-water leaving radiance spectra of K. brevis bloom taken from the MODIS (Aqua) image of 13 Nov 2004 (25.73°N and 82.11°W) using different atmospheric correction: NIR and SWIR algorithms. The orange circled area indicates the atmospheric correction failure and the red circled area indicates the fluorescence peak. (b) RBD value with SWIR vs. RBD with NIR (c) KBBI value with SWIR vs. KBBI with NIR. The data are from the same image in (a) containing the region between (25.9°N - 25.5°N) and (81.9°W - 82.3°W).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Studied MODIS bloom images. Detected and classified blooms with RBD and KBBI are shown with “√” while the symbol “√/×” under KBBI represents images where RBD and KBBI agreed in the bloomed area but KBBI gave false positives close to the coast where RBD didn’t detect any bloom. The Chlorophyll Anomaly [17] method is referred as ChlA.

Equations (25)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rrs(λ)=0.5rrs(λ)(11.5rrs(λ))
rrs(λ)=(0.084+0.17bb(λ)a(λ)+bb(λ))bb(λ)a(λ)+bb(λ)
a(λ)=aw(λ)+aph(λ)+adg(λ)
aph(λ)=A(λ)ChlB(λ)
adg(λ)=adg(λ)exp(Sdg(λλ))
bb(λ)=bbw(λ)+bbp(λ)
bbp(λ)=bbp(550)(550λ)γ
γ=0.1+1.9(1+Chl)
bbp(550)=0.0051Chl0.180
>104cells/l
bbp(550)=0.0098Chl0.977
<104cells/l
bbp(λ)=b˜b,napbnap(λ)+b˜b,phbph(λ)
bnap(λ)=bnap(550)(550λ)γ2
bnap(550)=bnap*(550)Cnap
bph(λ)=cph(λ)aph(λ)
cph(λ)=cph(550)(550λ)γ3
cph(550)=0.3[chl]0.62
LF=0.5414πϕ400700aph(λ)E(λ,0)K(λ)+afdλ
K(λ)=1.0547a(λ)+bb(λ)cos(θs)
bbp(λ)=[0.002+0.02(0.50.25log10Chl)550λ]0.3Chl0.62
aph(λ)=0.06Chl0.65
adg(λ)=0.2[aw(440)+0.06Chl0.65]exp(0.014(λ440))
RBD=nLw(678)nLw(667)
KBBI=nLw(678)nLw(667)nLw(678)+nLw(667)

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