Abstract

Microgrid polarimeters are composed of an array of micro-polarizing elements overlaid upon an FPA sensor. In the past decade systems have been designed and built in all regions of the optical spectrum. These systems have rugged, compact designs and the ability to obtain a complete set of polarimetric measurements during a single image capture. However, these systems acquire the polarization measurements through spatial modulation and each measurement has a varying instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV). When these measurements are combined to estimate the polarization images, strong edge artifacts are present that severely degrade the estimated polarization imagery. These artifacts can be reduced when interpolation strategies are first applied to the intensity data prior to Stokes vector estimation. Here we formally study IFOV error and the performance of several bilinear interpolation strategies used for reducing it.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

V. Thilak and D. G. Voelz and C. D. Creusere, "Image segmentation from multi-look passive polarimetric imagery," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668206 (2007).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. S. Tyo, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, "A review of passive imaging polarimetery for remote sensing applications," Appl. Opt. 45, 5453-5469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

2005

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).

2002

A. G. Andreau and Z. K. Kalayjian, "Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters," IEEE Sens. J. 2, 566-576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Harnett and H. G. Craighead, "Liquid-crystal micropolarizer for polarization-difference imaging," Appl. Opt. 41, 1291-1296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. B. Chenault and J. L. Pezzaniti, "Polarization imaging through scattering media," Proc. SPIE 4133, 124-133 (2000).

1999

G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. Jones, "Diffractive optical element for Stokes vector measurement with a focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 3754, 169-177 (1999).

1998

1996

1995

L. B. Wolff and A. G. Andreau, "Polarization camera sensors," Image Vis. Comput. 13, 497-510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part I," Opt. Eng. 34, 1651-1655 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part II," Opt. Eng. 34, 1656-1659 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, and E. J. Torok, "Polarization-sensitive thermal imaging," Proc. SPIE 2234, 275- 286 (1994).

L. J. Cheng, M. Hamilton, C. Mahoney, and G. Reyes, "Analysis of aotf hyperspectral imaging," Proc. SPIE 2231, 158-166 (1994).

1991

L. B. Wolff and T. E. Boult, "Constraining object features using a polarization reflectance model," IEEE Trans. Patt. Analysis Machine Intell. 13, 635-657 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1988

1987

L. B. Wolff, "Surface orientation from polarization images," Proc. SPIE 850, 110-121 (1987).

Ambirajan, A.

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part II," Opt. Eng. 34, 1656-1659 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part I," Opt. Eng. 34, 1651-1655 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Andreau, A. G.

A. G. Andreau and Z. K. Kalayjian, "Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters," IEEE Sens. J. 2, 566-576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Wolff and A. G. Andreau, "Polarization camera sensors," Image Vis. Comput. 13, 497-510 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, E.

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

Azzam, R. M. A.

Black, W. T.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).

Boger, J. K.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).

Boult, T. E.

L. B. Wolff and T. E. Boult, "Constraining object features using a polarization reflectance model," IEEE Trans. Patt. Analysis Machine Intell. 13, 635-657 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, D. L.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

Chenault, D. B.

J. S. Tyo, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, "A review of passive imaging polarimetery for remote sensing applications," Appl. Opt. 45, 5453-5469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Chenault and J. L. Pezzaniti, "Polarization imaging through scattering media," Proc. SPIE 4133, 124-133 (2000).

Cheng, L. J.

L. J. Cheng, M. Hamilton, C. Mahoney, and G. Reyes, "Analysis of aotf hyperspectral imaging," Proc. SPIE 2231, 158-166 (1994).

Chipman, R. A.

Chun, C. S. L.

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, and E. J. Torok, "Polarization-sensitive thermal imaging," Proc. SPIE 2234, 275- 286 (1994).

Craighead, H. G.

Creusere, C. D.

V. Thilak and D. G. Voelz and C. D. Creusere, "Image segmentation from multi-look passive polarimetric imagery," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668206 (2007).

Deguzman, P. C.

G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. Jones, "Diffractive optical element for Stokes vector measurement with a focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 3754, 169-177 (1999).

Dole, G. A.

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

Elminyawi, I. M.

El-Saba, A. M.

Engheta, N.

Fetrow, M. P.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).

Fleming, D. L.

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, and E. J. Torok, "Polarization-sensitive thermal imaging," Proc. SPIE 2234, 275- 286 (1994).

Goetz, A. F. H.

G. Vane and A. F. H. Goetz, "Terrestrial imaging spectroscopy," Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 1-29 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, D. H.

Gramer, M. E.

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

Hamilton, M.

L. J. Cheng, M. Hamilton, C. Mahoney, and G. Reyes, "Analysis of aotf hyperspectral imaging," Proc. SPIE 2231, 158-166 (1994).

Harnett, C. K.

Hubbs, J. E.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

Jakeman, E.

Jones, M.

G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. Jones, "Diffractive optical element for Stokes vector measurement with a focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 3754, 169-177 (1999).

Jordan, D. L.

Kalayjian, Z. K.

A. G. Andreau and Z. K. Kalayjian, "Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters," IEEE Sens. J. 2, 566-576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R.

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).

Lewis, G. D.

Look, D. C.

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part II," Opt. Eng. 34, 1656-1659 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part I," Opt. Eng. 34, 1651-1655 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maestas-Jepson, D.

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

Mahoney, C.

L. J. Cheng, M. Hamilton, C. Mahoney, and G. Reyes, "Analysis of aotf hyperspectral imaging," Proc. SPIE 2231, 158-166 (1994).

McGuire, J. P.

Meier, J. T.

G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. Jones, "Diffractive optical element for Stokes vector measurement with a focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 3754, 169-177 (1999).

Nordin, G. P.

G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. Jones, "Diffractive optical element for Stokes vector measurement with a focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 3754, 169-177 (1999).

Ortega, S. E.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pezzaniti, J. L.

D. B. Chenault and J. L. Pezzaniti, "Polarization imaging through scattering media," Proc. SPIE 4133, 124-133 (2000).

Pugh, E. N.

Ratliff, B. M.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).

Reyes, G.

L. J. Cheng, M. Hamilton, C. Mahoney, and G. Reyes, "Analysis of aotf hyperspectral imaging," Proc. SPIE 2231, 158-166 (1994).

Rowe, M. P.

Shaw, J. A.

Thilak, V.

V. Thilak and D. G. Voelz and C. D. Creusere, "Image segmentation from multi-look passive polarimetric imagery," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668206 (2007).

Torok, E. J.

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, and E. J. Torok, "Polarization-sensitive thermal imaging," Proc. SPIE 2234, 275- 286 (1994).

Tyo, J. S.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Tyo, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, "A review of passive imaging polarimetery for remote sensing applications," Appl. Opt. 45, 5453-5469 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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