Abstract

Microgrid polarimeters are composed of an array of micro-polarizing elements overlaid upon an FPA sensor. In the past decade systems have been designed and built in all regions of the optical spectrum. These systems have rugged, compact designs and the ability to obtain a complete set of polarimetric measurements during a single image capture. However, these systems acquire the polarization measurements through spatial modulation and each measurement has a varying instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV). When these measurements are combined to estimate the polarization images, strong edge artifacts are present that severely degrade the estimated polarization imagery. These artifacts can be reduced when interpolation strategies are first applied to the intensity data prior to Stokes vector estimation. Here we formally study IFOV error and the performance of several bilinear interpolation strategies used for reducing it.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Vane and A. F. H. Goetz, "Terrestrial imaging spectroscopy," Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 1-29 (1988).
  2. L. B. Wolff, "Surface orientation from polarization images," Proc. SPIE 850, 110-121 (1987).
  3. G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, and E. Jakeman, "Backscatter linear and circular polarization analysis of roughened aluminum," Appl. Opt. 37, 5985-5992 (1998).
  4. L. J. Cheng, M. Hamilton, C. Mahoney, and G. Reyes, "Analysis of aotf hyperspectral imaging," Proc. SPIE 2231, 158-166 (1994).
  5. J. S. Tyo,M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Target detection in optically scattering media by polarizationdifference imaging," Appl. Opt. 35, 1855-1870 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  6. D. B. Chenault and J. L. Pezzaniti, "Polarization imaging through scattering media," Proc. SPIE 4133, 124-133 (2000).
  7. L. B. Wolff and T. E. Boult, "Constraining object features using a polarization reflectance model," IEEE Trans. Patt. Analysis Machine Intell. 13, 635-657 (1991).
  8. V. Thilak and D. G. Voelz and C. D. Creusere, "Image segmentation from multi-look passive polarimetric imagery," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668206 (2007).
  9. R. M. A. Azzam, I. M. Elminyawi, and A. M. El-Saba, "General analysis and optimization of the four-detector photopolarimeter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 681-689 (1988).
  10. J. S. Tyo, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, "A review of passive imaging polarimetery for remote sensing applications," Appl. Opt. 45, 5453-5469 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  11. D. M. Rust, "Integrated dual imaging detector," U.S. patent 5,438,414, (1 August 1995).
  12. A. G. Andreau and Z. K. Kalayjian, "Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters," IEEE Sens. J. 2, 566-576 (2002).
  13. G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. Jones, "Diffractive optical element for Stokes vector measurement with a focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 3754, 169-177 (1999).
  14. C. K. Harnett and H. G. Craighead, "Liquid-crystal micropolarizer for polarization-difference imaging," Appl. Opt. 41, 1291-1296 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  15. L. B. Wolff and A. G. Andreau, "Polarization camera sensors," Image Vis. Comput. 13, 497-510 (1995).
  16. C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, and E. J. Torok, "Polarization-sensitive thermal imaging," Proc. SPIE 2234, 275- 286 (1994).
  17. D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).
  18. B. M. Ratliff, J. K. Boger, M. P. Fetrow, J. S. Tyo, and W. T. Black, "Image processing methods to compensate for IFOV errors in microgrid imaging polarimeters," Proc. SPIE 6240, 6240OE (2006).
  19. B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).
  20. J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).
  21. A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part I," Opt. Eng. 34, 1651-1655 (1995).
  22. A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part II," Opt. Eng. 34, 1656-1659 (1995).
  23. R. C. Gonzales and R. E. Woods, Digital image processing (Prentice Hall, 2002).
  24. B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  25. J. S. Tyo, E. N. Pugh, Jr., and N. Engheta "Colorimetric representations for use with polarization-difference imaging of objects in scattering media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 367-374 (1998).
  26. J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).
  27. J. P. McGuire, Jr. and R. A. Chipman, "Diffraction image formation in optical systems with polarization aberrations. I: Formulation and example," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1614-1626 (1990).

2008 (1)

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).

2007 (3)

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

V. Thilak and D. G. Voelz and C. D. Creusere, "Image segmentation from multi-look passive polarimetric imagery," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668206 (2007).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

J. S. Tyo, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, "A review of passive imaging polarimetery for remote sensing applications," Appl. Opt. 45, 5453-5469 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).

2002 (2)

A. G. Andreau and Z. K. Kalayjian, "Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters," IEEE Sens. J. 2, 566-576 (2002).

C. K. Harnett and H. G. Craighead, "Liquid-crystal micropolarizer for polarization-difference imaging," Appl. Opt. 41, 1291-1296 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. B. Chenault and J. L. Pezzaniti, "Polarization imaging through scattering media," Proc. SPIE 4133, 124-133 (2000).

1999 (1)

G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. Jones, "Diffractive optical element for Stokes vector measurement with a focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 3754, 169-177 (1999).

1998 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

L. B. Wolff and A. G. Andreau, "Polarization camera sensors," Image Vis. Comput. 13, 497-510 (1995).

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part I," Opt. Eng. 34, 1651-1655 (1995).

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part II," Opt. Eng. 34, 1656-1659 (1995).

1994 (2)

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, and E. J. Torok, "Polarization-sensitive thermal imaging," Proc. SPIE 2234, 275- 286 (1994).

L. J. Cheng, M. Hamilton, C. Mahoney, and G. Reyes, "Analysis of aotf hyperspectral imaging," Proc. SPIE 2231, 158-166 (1994).

1991 (1)

L. B. Wolff and T. E. Boult, "Constraining object features using a polarization reflectance model," IEEE Trans. Patt. Analysis Machine Intell. 13, 635-657 (1991).

1990 (1)

1988 (2)

1987 (1)

L. B. Wolff, "Surface orientation from polarization images," Proc. SPIE 850, 110-121 (1987).

Ambirajan, A.

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part II," Opt. Eng. 34, 1656-1659 (1995).

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part I," Opt. Eng. 34, 1651-1655 (1995).

Andreau, A. G.

A. G. Andreau and Z. K. Kalayjian, "Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters," IEEE Sens. J. 2, 566-576 (2002).

L. B. Wolff and A. G. Andreau, "Polarization camera sensors," Image Vis. Comput. 13, 497-510 (1995).

Atkins, E.

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

Azzam, R. M. A.

Black, W. T.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
[PubMed]

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).

Boger, J. K.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).

Boult, T. E.

L. B. Wolff and T. E. Boult, "Constraining object features using a polarization reflectance model," IEEE Trans. Patt. Analysis Machine Intell. 13, 635-657 (1991).

Bowers, D. L.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

Chenault, D. B.

J. S. Tyo, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, "A review of passive imaging polarimetery for remote sensing applications," Appl. Opt. 45, 5453-5469 (2006).
[PubMed]

D. B. Chenault and J. L. Pezzaniti, "Polarization imaging through scattering media," Proc. SPIE 4133, 124-133 (2000).

Cheng, L. J.

L. J. Cheng, M. Hamilton, C. Mahoney, and G. Reyes, "Analysis of aotf hyperspectral imaging," Proc. SPIE 2231, 158-166 (1994).

Chipman, R. A.

Chun, C. S. L.

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, and E. J. Torok, "Polarization-sensitive thermal imaging," Proc. SPIE 2234, 275- 286 (1994).

Craighead, H. G.

Creusere, C. D.

V. Thilak and D. G. Voelz and C. D. Creusere, "Image segmentation from multi-look passive polarimetric imagery," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668206 (2007).

Deguzman, P. C.

G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. Jones, "Diffractive optical element for Stokes vector measurement with a focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 3754, 169-177 (1999).

Dole, G. A.

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

Elminyawi, I. M.

El-Saba, A. M.

Engheta, N.

Fetrow, M. P.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).

Fleming, D. L.

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, and E. J. Torok, "Polarization-sensitive thermal imaging," Proc. SPIE 2234, 275- 286 (1994).

Goetz, A. F. H.

G. Vane and A. F. H. Goetz, "Terrestrial imaging spectroscopy," Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 1-29 (1988).

Goldstein, D. H.

Gramer, M. E.

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

Hamilton, M.

L. J. Cheng, M. Hamilton, C. Mahoney, and G. Reyes, "Analysis of aotf hyperspectral imaging," Proc. SPIE 2231, 158-166 (1994).

Harnett, C. K.

Hubbs, J. E.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

Jakeman, E.

Jones, M.

G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. Jones, "Diffractive optical element for Stokes vector measurement with a focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 3754, 169-177 (1999).

Jordan, D. L.

Kalayjian, Z. K.

A. G. Andreau and Z. K. Kalayjian, "Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters," IEEE Sens. J. 2, 566-576 (2002).

Kumar, R.

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).

Lewis, G. D.

Look, D. C.

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part II," Opt. Eng. 34, 1656-1659 (1995).

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part I," Opt. Eng. 34, 1651-1655 (1995).

Maestas-Jepson, D.

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

Mahoney, C.

L. J. Cheng, M. Hamilton, C. Mahoney, and G. Reyes, "Analysis of aotf hyperspectral imaging," Proc. SPIE 2231, 158-166 (1994).

McGuire, J. P.

Meier, J. T.

G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. Jones, "Diffractive optical element for Stokes vector measurement with a focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 3754, 169-177 (1999).

Nordin, G. P.

G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. Jones, "Diffractive optical element for Stokes vector measurement with a focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 3754, 169-177 (1999).

Ortega, S. E.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).

Pezzaniti, J. L.

D. B. Chenault and J. L. Pezzaniti, "Polarization imaging through scattering media," Proc. SPIE 4133, 124-133 (2000).

Pugh, E. N.

Ratliff, B. M.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).

Reyes, G.

L. J. Cheng, M. Hamilton, C. Mahoney, and G. Reyes, "Analysis of aotf hyperspectral imaging," Proc. SPIE 2231, 158-166 (1994).

Rowe, M. P.

Shaw, J. A.

Thilak, V.

V. Thilak and D. G. Voelz and C. D. Creusere, "Image segmentation from multi-look passive polarimetric imagery," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668206 (2007).

Torok, E. J.

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, and E. J. Torok, "Polarization-sensitive thermal imaging," Proc. SPIE 2234, 275- 286 (1994).

Tyo, J. S.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and M. P. Fetrow, "Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters," Opt. Express 15, 7596-7609 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. S. Tyo, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, "A review of passive imaging polarimetery for remote sensing applications," Appl. Opt. 45, 5453-5469 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).

J. S. Tyo, E. N. Pugh, Jr., and N. Engheta "Colorimetric representations for use with polarization-difference imaging of objects in scattering media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 367-374 (1998).

J. S. Tyo,M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Target detection in optically scattering media by polarizationdifference imaging," Appl. Opt. 35, 1855-1870 (1996).
[PubMed]

Vane, G.

G. Vane and A. F. H. Goetz, "Terrestrial imaging spectroscopy," Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 1-29 (1988).

Voelz, D. G.

V. Thilak and D. G. Voelz and C. D. Creusere, "Image segmentation from multi-look passive polarimetric imagery," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668206 (2007).

Wellems, L. D.

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).

Wolff, L. B.

L. B. Wolff and A. G. Andreau, "Polarization camera sensors," Image Vis. Comput. 13, 497-510 (1995).

L. B. Wolff and T. E. Boult, "Constraining object features using a polarization reflectance model," IEEE Trans. Patt. Analysis Machine Intell. 13, 635-657 (1991).

L. B. Wolff, "Surface orientation from polarization images," Proc. SPIE 850, 110-121 (1987).

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

A. G. Andreau and Z. K. Kalayjian, "Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters," IEEE Sens. J. 2, 566-576 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Patt. Analysis Machine Intell. (1)

L. B. Wolff and T. E. Boult, "Constraining object features using a polarization reflectance model," IEEE Trans. Patt. Analysis Machine Intell. 13, 635-657 (1991).

Image Vis. Comput. (1)

L. B. Wolff and A. G. Andreau, "Polarization camera sensors," Image Vis. Comput. 13, 497-510 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Eng. (3)

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part I," Opt. Eng. 34, 1651-1655 (1995).

A. Ambirajan and D. C. Look, "Optimum angles for a polarimeter: part II," Opt. Eng. 34, 1656-1659 (1995).

D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, L. D. Wellems, S. E. Ortega, M. P. Fetrow, J. E. Hubbs, W. T. Black, B. M. Ratliff, and J. S. Tyo, "Unpolarized calibration and nonuniformity correction for LWIR microgrid imaging polarimeters," Opt. Eng. 47, 046403 (2008).

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (9)

J. E. Hubbs, M. E. Gramer, D. Maestas-Jepson, G. A. Dole, M. P. Fetrow, D. L. Bowers, J. K. Boger, and E. Atkins", "Measurement of the radiometric and polarization characteristics of a microgrid polarizer infrared focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 6295, 62950C (2006).

B. M. Ratliff, J. S. Tyo, J. K. Boger, W. T. Black, D. L. Bowers, and R. Kumar, "Mitigation of image artifacts in LWIR microgrid polarimeter images," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668209 (2007).

J. K. Boger, J. S. Tyo, B. M. Ratliff, M. P. Fetrow, W. T. Black, and R. Kumar, "Modeling precision and accuracy of a LWIR microgrid array imaging polarimeter," Proc. SPIE 5888, 58880U (2005).

C. S. L. Chun, D. L. Fleming, and E. J. Torok, "Polarization-sensitive thermal imaging," Proc. SPIE 2234, 275- 286 (1994).

G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. Jones, "Diffractive optical element for Stokes vector measurement with a focal plane array," Proc. SPIE 3754, 169-177 (1999).

V. Thilak and D. G. Voelz and C. D. Creusere, "Image segmentation from multi-look passive polarimetric imagery," Proc. SPIE 6682, 668206 (2007).

D. B. Chenault and J. L. Pezzaniti, "Polarization imaging through scattering media," Proc. SPIE 4133, 124-133 (2000).

L. J. Cheng, M. Hamilton, C. Mahoney, and G. Reyes, "Analysis of aotf hyperspectral imaging," Proc. SPIE 2231, 158-166 (1994).

L. B. Wolff, "Surface orientation from polarization images," Proc. SPIE 850, 110-121 (1987).

Remote Sensing Environ. (1)

G. Vane and A. F. H. Goetz, "Terrestrial imaging spectroscopy," Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 1-29 (1988).

Other (3)

D. M. Rust, "Integrated dual imaging detector," U.S. patent 5,438,414, (1 August 1995).

B. M. Ratliff, J. K. Boger, M. P. Fetrow, J. S. Tyo, and W. T. Black, "Image processing methods to compensate for IFOV errors in microgrid imaging polarimeters," Proc. SPIE 6240, 6240OE (2006).

R. C. Gonzales and R. E. Woods, Digital image processing (Prentice Hall, 2002).

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (8369 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (12766 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (4099 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (3758 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

FPA layout of a linear microgrid polarimeter. Any 2 × 2 region of the microgrid defines a superpixel that contains four different polarizer orientations. The shown reconstruction points are conventions assumed by our different interpolation strategies, with one being at each pixel center and the other half-way between the imaging grid.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of the imaging system used to define IFOV error. The ideal polarimeter pixel is capable of measuring the same area in space over the same interval in time for each polarizer orientation. IFOV error is the difference between measurements made by the ideal and microgrid pixels.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Family of microgrid-specific bilinear interpolators that we employ. The number of pixels within each interpolator are selected according to the radius, in pixels, about each reconstruction point, indicated by the yellow circle in each pixel neighborhood. Pixels of a given orientation are indicated by the same shade of blue. The convolution kernels resulting from each strategy are shown along with any corresponding weights, A,B, and C, which are proportional to each pixel’s distance from the reconstruction point.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Imagery and corresponding frequency domain representations at various stages of our microgrid system simulation for the (a) high resolution incident s 0 image, (b) fully-polarized microgrid image, and reconstructed (c) (Media 1) s 0 and (d) s 1 images using interpolation Method 0.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

MTF, s 0 HIMTF, s 1 HIMTF and DoLP MSE surfaces for each interpolation method resulting from unpolarized simulated data. The u and ν axes are in cycles/detector pixel.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

MTF, s 0 HIMTF, s 1 HIMTF and DoLP MSE surfaces for each interpolation method resulting from fully polarized simulated data. The u and ν axes are in cycles/detector pixel.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Projections from the MTF and DoLP MSE surfaces from Figs. 5 and 6 along the line u = ν. The results show (a) MTF results and (b) DoLP MSE results from Fig. 5, and (c) MTF results and (d) DoLP MSE results from Fig. 6.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Full-frame results for the first image of the airport video sequence. The top-left image is the unprocessed microgrid image after calibration and DPR has been applied. The remaining five images show DoLP results processed from this microgrid image after application of the five interpolation methods of Fig. 3.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(Media 2) Image frame 1 resulting s 0, s 1, s 2, DoLP and FSVI processed using the five interpolation methods of Fig. 3 for region (376,291) × (630,460) of the airport video sequence.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S = [ s 0 s 1 s 2 s 3 ] = [ P H + P V P H P ν P 45 P 135 P R P L ] ,
S ̄ = [ s 1 ̄ s 2 ̄ s 3 ̄ ] = 1 s 0 [ s 1 s 2 s 3 ] ,
DoLP = s 1 ̄ 2 + s 2 ̄ 2 ,
Aop = ( 1 / 2 ) tan 1 ( s 2 / s 1 ) .
s 0 ( x , y ) Det θ = s 0 ( x , y ) ( q + r ) + s 1 ( x , y ) ( q r ) cos 2 θ + s 2 ( x , y ) ( q r ) sin 2 θ ,
P Ideal θ ( m , n ) = τ t Ω M o p y ( m 1 2 ) M o p y ( m + 1 2 ) M o p x ( n 1 2 ) M o p x ( n + 1 2 ) s 0 ( x , y ) Det θ d x d y ,
P μgrid θ ( m , n ) = τ t Ω M o p y ( m 1 2 ) M o p y ( m + 1 2 ) M o p x ( n 1 2 ) M o p x ( n + 1 2 ) s 0 ( x , y ) Det θ d x d y .
ε ̂ θ ( m , n ) = P Ideal θ ( m , n ) P ̂ μgrid θ ( m , n ) .
I ij = P μgrid * H ij .
I i ( m , n , j ) = I iℓ ( m , n )
= 0.5 ( 1 ) m + 0.5 ( 1 ) j + ( 1 ) n + 0.5 ( j 1 ) + 2.5 .
S i ( 1 ) = 0.5 [ I i ( 1 ) + I i ( 2 ) + I i ( 3 ) + I i ( 4 ) ]
S i ( 2 ) = I i ( 1 ) I i ( 3 )
S i ( 3 ) = I i ( 2 ) I i ( 4 ) .
t ( x , y ) = A cos ( 2 π f x x + 2 π f y y ) + A ,

Metrics