Abstract

Upconversion tri-color luminescence of Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ doped BaTiO3 nanocrystals is observed under the excitation of a 980 nm laser diode. Especially, Er3+ emission has a considerable contribution to the blue portion of the UC spectra, different from the ever-reported results, in which blue emission originates only from Tm3+. This realization is beneficial to lower the color separation between blue and green (or red) emissions, in fluorescent labeling. The analysis of excitation power dependence and decay time revealed that blue emission of Er3+ ion is induced by a dual energy transfer upconversion, while Tm3+ plays a role of both emitter and activator.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum ef?ciency and thermo-optical coef?cients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. J. Dexter, “Theory of Concentration Quenching in Inorganic Phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Auzel, “Materials and devices using double-pumped-phosphors with energy transfer,” Proc. IEEE 61(6), 758–786 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  26. F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Xu, H. Ma, D. Fang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion luminescence and mechanisms in Yb3+-sensitized Tm3+-doped oxyhalide tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 117(2), 135–140 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. I. R. Martin, V. D. Rodriguez, V. Lavin, and U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, “Infrared, blue and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+–Tm3+-doped fluoroindate glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 55(5), 941–945 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Saha, P. S. Chowdhury, and A. Patra, “Luminescence of Ce3+ in Y2SiO5 nanocrystals: Role of crystal structure and crystal size,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(7), 2699–2702 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, “Thermal lens study of the OH? in?uence on the ?uorescence ef?ciency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071911 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008

D. B. Keeney, C. Lagrue, K. Bryan-Walker, N. Khan, T. L. F. Leung, and R. Poulin, “The use of fluorescent fatty acid analogs as labels in trematode experimental infections,” Exp. Parasitol. 120, 15–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ghosh, S. Sadhu, T. Sen, and A. Patra, “Upconversion emission of BaTiO3:Er nanocrystals,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 31(3), 461–465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Jezowski, J. Mucha, R. Pazik, and W. Strek, “Influence of crystallite size on the thermal conductivity in BaTiO3 nanoceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 114104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Bright white upconversion luminescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araujo, P. T. Udo, N. G. C. Astrath, and M. L. Baesso, “Pump-power-controlled luminescence switching in Yb3+/Tm3+ codoped water-free low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Pisarski, T. Goryczka, J. Pisarska, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Er-doped lead borate glasses and transparent glass ceramics for near-infrared luminescence and up-conversion applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111(10), 2427–2430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum ef?ciency and thermo-optical coef?cients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, Z. Duan, G. Zhou, C. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Ch. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Structural and up-conversion luminescence properties in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped heavy metal oxide–halide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 63(1), 149–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, H. Ma, D. Fang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion luminescence and mechanisms in Yb3+-sensitized Tm3+-doped oxyhalide tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 117(2), 135–140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

V. Sivakumar and U. V. Varadaraju, “Intense Red-Emitting Phosphors for White Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(10), H168–H171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Suh, M. Dawson, and J. Hanes, “Real-time multiple-particle tracking: applications to drug and gene delivery,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 63–78 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Saha, P. S. Chowdhury, and A. Patra, “Luminescence of Ce3+ in Y2SiO5 nanocrystals: Role of crystal structure and crystal size,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(7), 2699–2702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, “Thermal lens study of the OH? in?uence on the ?uorescence ef?ciency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(2), 198–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. O. Gordon, J. A. Carter, and B. M. Tissue, “Long-lifetime luminescence of lanthanide-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles for immunoassays,” J. Lumin. 108(1-4), 339–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Ge, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Application of Size-Controlled Nanocrystalline NaYF4:Yb,Er Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tenne, A. Soukiassian, X. X. Xi, H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Lattice dynamics in BaxSr1? xTiO3 single crystals: A Raman study,” Phys. Rev. B 70(17), 174302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Patra, C. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Fluorescence Upconversion Properties of Er3+-Doped TiO2 and BaTiO3 Nanocrystallites,” Chem. Mater. 15(19), 3650–3655 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. A. Tanner, C. S. K. Mak, W. M. Kwok, K. L. Phillips, and M. F. Joubert, “Luminesence from the 3P2 State of Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3606–3611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Durán, F. Capel, J. Tartaj, D. Gutierrez, and C. Moure, “Heating-rate effect on the BaTiO3 formation by thermal decomposition of metal citrate polymeric precursors,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 529–539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tsur, T. D. Dunbar, and C. A. Randall, “Crystal and Defect Chemistry of Rare Earth Cations in BaTiO3,” J. Electroceram. 7(1), 25–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. A. Deniz, T. A. Laurence, G. S. Beligere, M. Dahan, A. B. Martin, D. S. Chemla, P. E. Dawson, P. G. Schultz, and S. Weiss, “Single-molecule protein folding: diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies of the denaturation of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5179–5184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

I. R. Martin, V. D. Rodriguez, V. Lavin, and U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, “Infrared, blue and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+–Tm3+-doped fluoroindate glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 55(5), 941–945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. C. Joshi and S. B. Desu, “Structural, electrical, and optical studies on rapid thermally processed ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films prepared by metallo-organic solution deposition technique,” Thin Solid Films 300(1-2), 289–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1973

F. Auzel, “Materials and devices using double-pumped-phosphors with energy transfer,” Proc. IEEE 61(6), 758–786 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1964

W. F. Krupke and J. M. Poindexter, “Energy Levels of Er 3+ in LaF3 and Coherent Emission at 1.61 mu,” J. Chem. Phys. 41(5), 1225 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1953

D. J. Dexter, “Theory of Concentration Quenching in Inorganic Phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Arndt-Jovin, D. J.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(2), 198–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astrath, N. G. C.

C. Jacinto, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araujo, P. T. Udo, N. G. C. Astrath, and M. L. Baesso, “Pump-power-controlled luminescence switching in Yb3+/Tm3+ codoped water-free low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “Materials and devices using double-pumped-phosphors with energy transfer,” Proc. IEEE 61(6), 758–786 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Baesso, M. L.

C. Jacinto, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araujo, P. T. Udo, N. G. C. Astrath, and M. L. Baesso, “Pump-power-controlled luminescence switching in Yb3+/Tm3+ codoped water-free low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beligere, G. S.

A. A. Deniz, T. A. Laurence, G. S. Beligere, M. Dahan, A. B. Martin, D. S. Chemla, P. E. Dawson, P. G. Schultz, and S. Weiss, “Single-molecule protein folding: diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies of the denaturation of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5179–5184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, M. J. V.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, “Thermal lens study of the OH? in?uence on the ?uorescence ef?ciency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bhalla, A. S.

D. A. Tenne, A. Soukiassian, X. X. Xi, H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Lattice dynamics in BaxSr1? xTiO3 single crystals: A Raman study,” Phys. Rev. B 70(17), 174302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, J. C.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bryan-Walker, K.

D. B. Keeney, C. Lagrue, K. Bryan-Walker, N. Khan, T. L. F. Leung, and R. Poulin, “The use of fluorescent fatty acid analogs as labels in trematode experimental infections,” Exp. Parasitol. 120, 15–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capel, F.

P. Durán, F. Capel, J. Tartaj, D. Gutierrez, and C. Moure, “Heating-rate effect on the BaTiO3 formation by thermal decomposition of metal citrate polymeric precursors,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 529–539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Capobianco, J. A.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carter, J. A.

W. O. Gordon, J. A. Carter, and B. M. Tissue, “Long-lifetime luminescence of lanthanide-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles for immunoassays,” J. Lumin. 108(1-4), 339–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Catunda, T.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum ef?ciency and thermo-optical coef?cients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, “Thermal lens study of the OH? in?uence on the ?uorescence ef?ciency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

A. A. Deniz, T. A. Laurence, G. S. Beligere, M. Dahan, A. B. Martin, D. S. Chemla, P. E. Dawson, P. G. Schultz, and S. Weiss, “Single-molecule protein folding: diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies of the denaturation of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5179–5184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D. P.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Ge, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Application of Size-Controlled Nanocrystalline NaYF4:Yb,Er Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. Y.

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Bright white upconversion luminescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choosuwan, H.

D. A. Tenne, A. Soukiassian, X. X. Xi, H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Lattice dynamics in BaxSr1? xTiO3 single crystals: A Raman study,” Phys. Rev. B 70(17), 174302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, P. S.

S. Saha, P. S. Chowdhury, and A. Patra, “Luminescence of Ce3+ in Y2SiO5 nanocrystals: Role of crystal structure and crystal size,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(7), 2699–2702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cuccia, L. A.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahan, M.

A. A. Deniz, T. A. Laurence, G. S. Beligere, M. Dahan, A. B. Martin, D. S. Chemla, P. E. Dawson, P. G. Schultz, and S. Weiss, “Single-molecule protein folding: diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies of the denaturation of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5179–5184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, M.

J. Suh, M. Dawson, and J. Hanes, “Real-time multiple-particle tracking: applications to drug and gene delivery,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 63–78 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P. E.

A. A. Deniz, T. A. Laurence, G. S. Beligere, M. Dahan, A. B. Martin, D. S. Chemla, P. E. Dawson, P. G. Schultz, and S. Weiss, “Single-molecule protein folding: diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies of the denaturation of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5179–5184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Araujo, M. T.

C. Jacinto, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araujo, P. T. Udo, N. G. C. Astrath, and M. L. Baesso, “Pump-power-controlled luminescence switching in Yb3+/Tm3+ codoped water-free low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deniz, A. A.

A. A. Deniz, T. A. Laurence, G. S. Beligere, M. Dahan, A. B. Martin, D. S. Chemla, P. E. Dawson, P. G. Schultz, and S. Weiss, “Single-molecule protein folding: diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies of the denaturation of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5179–5184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desu, S. B.

P. C. Joshi and S. B. Desu, “Structural, electrical, and optical studies on rapid thermally processed ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films prepared by metallo-organic solution deposition technique,” Thin Solid Films 300(1-2), 289–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. J.

D. J. Dexter, “Theory of Concentration Quenching in Inorganic Phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Z.

H. Sun, Z. Duan, G. Zhou, C. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Ch. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Structural and up-conversion luminescence properties in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped heavy metal oxide–halide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 63(1), 149–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunbar, T. D.

Y. Tsur, T. D. Dunbar, and C. A. Randall, “Crystal and Defect Chemistry of Rare Earth Cations in BaTiO3,” J. Electroceram. 7(1), 25–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Durán, P.

P. Durán, F. Capel, J. Tartaj, D. Gutierrez, and C. Moure, “Heating-rate effect on the BaTiO3 formation by thermal decomposition of metal citrate polymeric precursors,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 529–539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fang, D.

S. Xu, H. Ma, D. Fang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion luminescence and mechanisms in Yb3+-sensitized Tm3+-doped oxyhalide tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 117(2), 135–140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friend, C.

A. Patra, C. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Fluorescence Upconversion Properties of Er3+-Doped TiO2 and BaTiO3 Nanocrystallites,” Chem. Mater. 15(19), 3650–3655 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Ge, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Application of Size-Controlled Nanocrystalline NaYF4:Yb,Er Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, P.

P. Ghosh, S. Sadhu, T. Sen, and A. Patra, “Upconversion emission of BaTiO3:Er nanocrystals,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 31(3), 461–465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, W. O.

W. O. Gordon, J. A. Carter, and B. M. Tissue, “Long-lifetime luminescence of lanthanide-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles for immunoassays,” J. Lumin. 108(1-4), 339–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goryczka, T.

W. A. Pisarski, T. Goryczka, J. Pisarska, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Er-doped lead borate glasses and transparent glass ceramics for near-infrared luminescence and up-conversion applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111(10), 2427–2430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gouveia, E. A.

C. Jacinto, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araujo, P. T. Udo, N. G. C. Astrath, and M. L. Baesso, “Pump-power-controlled luminescence switching in Yb3+/Tm3+ codoped water-free low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grecco, H. E.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(2), 198–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L. H.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Ge, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Application of Size-Controlled Nanocrystalline NaYF4:Yb,Er Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R.

D. A. Tenne, A. Soukiassian, X. X. Xi, H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Lattice dynamics in BaxSr1? xTiO3 single crystals: A Raman study,” Phys. Rev. B 70(17), 174302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gutierrez, D.

P. Durán, F. Capel, J. Tartaj, D. Gutierrez, and C. Moure, “Heating-rate effect on the BaTiO3 formation by thermal decomposition of metal citrate polymeric precursors,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 529–539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hanes, J.

J. Suh, M. Dawson, and J. Hanes, “Real-time multiple-particle tracking: applications to drug and gene delivery,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 63–78 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heintzmann, R.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(2), 198–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, L.

H. Sun, Z. Duan, G. Zhou, C. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Ch. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Structural and up-conversion luminescence properties in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped heavy metal oxide–halide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 63(1), 149–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Im, W. B.

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacinto, C.

C. Jacinto, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araujo, P. T. Udo, N. G. C. Astrath, and M. L. Baesso, “Pump-power-controlled luminescence switching in Yb3+/Tm3+ codoped water-free low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum ef?ciency and thermo-optical coef?cients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, “Thermal lens study of the OH? in?uence on the ?uorescence ef?ciency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. S.

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jares-Erijman, E. A.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(2), 198–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, D. Y.

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jezowski, A.

A. Jezowski, J. Mucha, R. Pazik, and W. Strek, “Influence of crystallite size on the thermal conductivity in BaTiO3 nanoceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 114104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

S. Xu, H. Ma, D. Fang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion luminescence and mechanisms in Yb3+-sensitized Tm3+-doped oxyhalide tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 117(2), 135–140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, Z. Duan, G. Zhou, C. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Ch. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Structural and up-conversion luminescence properties in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped heavy metal oxide–halide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 63(1), 149–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, P. C.

P. C. Joshi and S. B. Desu, “Structural, electrical, and optical studies on rapid thermally processed ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films prepared by metallo-organic solution deposition technique,” Thin Solid Films 300(1-2), 289–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, M. F.

P. A. Tanner, C. S. K. Mak, W. M. Kwok, K. L. Phillips, and M. F. Joubert, “Luminesence from the 3P2 State of Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3606–3611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jovin, T. M.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(2), 198–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapoor, R.

A. Patra, C. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Fluorescence Upconversion Properties of Er3+-Doped TiO2 and BaTiO3 Nanocrystallites,” Chem. Mater. 15(19), 3650–3655 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keeney, D. B.

D. B. Keeney, C. Lagrue, K. Bryan-Walker, N. Khan, T. L. F. Leung, and R. Poulin, “The use of fluorescent fatty acid analogs as labels in trematode experimental infections,” Exp. Parasitol. 120, 15–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, N.

D. B. Keeney, C. Lagrue, K. Bryan-Walker, N. Khan, T. L. F. Leung, and R. Poulin, “The use of fluorescent fatty acid analogs as labels in trematode experimental infections,” Exp. Parasitol. 120, 15–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke and J. M. Poindexter, “Energy Levels of Er 3+ in LaF3 and Coherent Emission at 1.61 mu,” J. Chem. Phys. 41(5), 1225 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, W. M.

P. A. Tanner, C. S. K. Mak, W. M. Kwok, K. L. Phillips, and M. F. Joubert, “Luminesence from the 3P2 State of Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3606–3611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lagrue, C.

D. B. Keeney, C. Lagrue, K. Bryan-Walker, N. Khan, T. L. F. Leung, and R. Poulin, “The use of fluorescent fatty acid analogs as labels in trematode experimental infections,” Exp. Parasitol. 120, 15–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurence, T. A.

A. A. Deniz, T. A. Laurence, G. S. Beligere, M. Dahan, A. B. Martin, D. S. Chemla, P. E. Dawson, P. G. Schultz, and S. Weiss, “Single-molecule protein folding: diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies of the denaturation of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5179–5184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavin, V.

I. R. Martin, V. D. Rodriguez, V. Lavin, and U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, “Infrared, blue and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+–Tm3+-doped fluoroindate glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 55(5), 941–945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leung, T. L. F.

D. B. Keeney, C. Lagrue, K. Bryan-Walker, N. Khan, T. L. F. Leung, and R. Poulin, “The use of fluorescent fatty acid analogs as labels in trematode experimental infections,” Exp. Parasitol. 120, 15–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, M.

H. Sun, Z. Duan, G. Zhou, C. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Ch. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Structural and up-conversion luminescence properties in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped heavy metal oxide–halide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 63(1), 149–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lidke, D. S.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(2), 198–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Bright white upconversion luminescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. C.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Ge, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Application of Size-Controlled Nanocrystalline NaYF4:Yb,Er Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

S. Xu, H. Ma, D. Fang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion luminescence and mechanisms in Yb3+-sensitized Tm3+-doped oxyhalide tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 117(2), 135–140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mak, C. S. K.

P. A. Tanner, C. S. K. Mak, W. M. Kwok, K. L. Phillips, and M. F. Joubert, “Luminesence from the 3P2 State of Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3606–3611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martin, A. B.

A. A. Deniz, T. A. Laurence, G. S. Beligere, M. Dahan, A. B. Martin, D. S. Chemla, P. E. Dawson, P. G. Schultz, and S. Weiss, “Single-molecule protein folding: diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies of the denaturation of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5179–5184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, I. R.

I. R. Martin, V. D. Rodriguez, V. Lavin, and U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, “Infrared, blue and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+–Tm3+-doped fluoroindate glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 55(5), 941–945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moure, C.

P. Durán, F. Capel, J. Tartaj, D. Gutierrez, and C. Moure, “Heating-rate effect on the BaTiO3 formation by thermal decomposition of metal citrate polymeric precursors,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 529–539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mucha, J.

A. Jezowski, J. Mucha, R. Pazik, and W. Strek, “Influence of crystallite size on the thermal conductivity in BaTiO3 nanoceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 114104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Myers, J. D.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum ef?ciency and thermo-optical coef?cients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Myers, M. J.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum ef?ciency and thermo-optical coef?cients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Naccache, R.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagy, P.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(2), 198–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nunes, L. A. O.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum ef?ciency and thermo-optical coef?cients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, “Thermal lens study of the OH? in?uence on the ?uorescence ef?ciency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, S. L.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum ef?ciency and thermo-optical coef?cients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, “Thermal lens study of the OH? in?uence on the ?uorescence ef?ciency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pandozzi, F.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patra, A.

P. Ghosh, S. Sadhu, T. Sen, and A. Patra, “Upconversion emission of BaTiO3:Er nanocrystals,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 31(3), 461–465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Saha, P. S. Chowdhury, and A. Patra, “Luminescence of Ce3+ in Y2SiO5 nanocrystals: Role of crystal structure and crystal size,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(7), 2699–2702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Patra, C. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Fluorescence Upconversion Properties of Er3+-Doped TiO2 and BaTiO3 Nanocrystallites,” Chem. Mater. 15(19), 3650–3655 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pazik, R.

A. Jezowski, J. Mucha, R. Pazik, and W. Strek, “Influence of crystallite size on the thermal conductivity in BaTiO3 nanoceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 114104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, K. L.

P. A. Tanner, C. S. K. Mak, W. M. Kwok, K. L. Phillips, and M. F. Joubert, “Luminesence from the 3P2 State of Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3606–3611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pisarska, J.

W. A. Pisarski, T. Goryczka, J. Pisarska, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Er-doped lead borate glasses and transparent glass ceramics for near-infrared luminescence and up-conversion applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111(10), 2427–2430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pisarski, W. A.

W. A. Pisarski, T. Goryczka, J. Pisarska, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Er-doped lead borate glasses and transparent glass ceramics for near-infrared luminescence and up-conversion applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111(10), 2427–2430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poindexter, J. M.

W. F. Krupke and J. M. Poindexter, “Energy Levels of Er 3+ in LaF3 and Coherent Emission at 1.61 mu,” J. Chem. Phys. 41(5), 1225 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Post, J. N.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(2), 198–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulin, R.

D. B. Keeney, C. Lagrue, K. Bryan-Walker, N. Khan, T. L. F. Leung, and R. Poulin, “The use of fluorescent fatty acid analogs as labels in trematode experimental infections,” Exp. Parasitol. 120, 15–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

A. Patra, C. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Fluorescence Upconversion Properties of Er3+-Doped TiO2 and BaTiO3 Nanocrystallites,” Chem. Mater. 15(19), 3650–3655 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Randall, C. A.

Y. Tsur, T. D. Dunbar, and C. A. Randall, “Crystal and Defect Chemistry of Rare Earth Cations in BaTiO3,” J. Electroceram. 7(1), 25–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, V. D.

I. R. Martin, V. D. Rodriguez, V. Lavin, and U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, “Infrared, blue and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+–Tm3+-doped fluoroindate glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 55(5), 941–945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Mendoza, U. R.

I. R. Martin, V. D. Rodriguez, V. Lavin, and U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, “Infrared, blue and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+–Tm3+-doped fluoroindate glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 55(5), 941–945 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

W. A. Pisarski, T. Goryczka, J. Pisarska, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Er-doped lead borate glasses and transparent glass ceramics for near-infrared luminescence and up-conversion applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111(10), 2427–2430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadhu, S.

P. Ghosh, S. Sadhu, T. Sen, and A. Patra, “Upconversion emission of BaTiO3:Er nanocrystals,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 31(3), 461–465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saha, S.

S. Saha, P. S. Chowdhury, and A. Patra, “Luminescence of Ce3+ in Y2SiO5 nanocrystals: Role of crystal structure and crystal size,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(7), 2699–2702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, P. G.

A. A. Deniz, T. A. Laurence, G. S. Beligere, M. Dahan, A. B. Martin, D. S. Chemla, P. E. Dawson, P. G. Schultz, and S. Weiss, “Single-molecule protein folding: diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies of the denaturation of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5179–5184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sen, T.

P. Ghosh, S. Sadhu, T. Sen, and A. Patra, “Upconversion emission of BaTiO3:Er nanocrystals,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 31(3), 461–465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sivakumar, V.

V. Sivakumar and U. V. Varadaraju, “Intense Red-Emitting Phosphors for White Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(10), H168–H171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Somesfalean, G.

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Bright white upconversion luminescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soukiassian, A.

D. A. Tenne, A. Soukiassian, X. X. Xi, H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Lattice dynamics in BaxSr1? xTiO3 single crystals: A Raman study,” Phys. Rev. B 70(17), 174302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Speghini, A.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strek, W.

A. Jezowski, J. Mucha, R. Pazik, and W. Strek, “Influence of crystallite size on the thermal conductivity in BaTiO3 nanoceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 114104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suh, J.

J. Suh, M. Dawson, and J. Hanes, “Real-time multiple-particle tracking: applications to drug and gene delivery,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 63–78 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

H. Sun, Z. Duan, G. Zhou, C. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Ch. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Structural and up-conversion luminescence properties in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped heavy metal oxide–halide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 63(1), 149–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Bright white upconversion luminescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, P. A.

P. A. Tanner, C. S. K. Mak, W. M. Kwok, K. L. Phillips, and M. F. Joubert, “Luminesence from the 3P2 State of Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3606–3611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tartaj, J.

P. Durán, F. Capel, J. Tartaj, D. Gutierrez, and C. Moure, “Heating-rate effect on the BaTiO3 formation by thermal decomposition of metal citrate polymeric precursors,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 529–539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tenne, D. A.

D. A. Tenne, A. Soukiassian, X. X. Xi, H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Lattice dynamics in BaxSr1? xTiO3 single crystals: A Raman study,” Phys. Rev. B 70(17), 174302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tissue, B. M.

W. O. Gordon, J. A. Carter, and B. M. Tissue, “Long-lifetime luminescence of lanthanide-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles for immunoassays,” J. Lumin. 108(1-4), 339–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsur, Y.

Y. Tsur, T. D. Dunbar, and C. A. Randall, “Crystal and Defect Chemistry of Rare Earth Cations in BaTiO3,” J. Electroceram. 7(1), 25–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Udo, P. T.

C. Jacinto, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araujo, P. T. Udo, N. G. C. Astrath, and M. L. Baesso, “Pump-power-controlled luminescence switching in Yb3+/Tm3+ codoped water-free low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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V. Sivakumar and U. V. Varadaraju, “Intense Red-Emitting Phosphors for White Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(10), H168–H171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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C. Jacinto, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araujo, P. T. Udo, N. G. C. Astrath, and M. L. Baesso, “Pump-power-controlled luminescence switching in Yb3+/Tm3+ codoped water-free low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vetrone, F.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. P.

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Bright white upconversion luminescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, S.

A. A. Deniz, T. A. Laurence, G. S. Beligere, M. Dahan, A. B. Martin, D. S. Chemla, P. E. Dawson, P. G. Schultz, and S. Weiss, “Single-molecule protein folding: diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies of the denaturation of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(10), 5179–5184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Won, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xi, X. X.

D. A. Tenne, A. Soukiassian, X. X. Xi, H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Lattice dynamics in BaxSr1? xTiO3 single crystals: A Raman study,” Phys. Rev. B 70(17), 174302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

S. Xu, H. Ma, D. Fang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion luminescence and mechanisms in Yb3+-sensitized Tm3+-doped oxyhalide tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 117(2), 135–140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. J.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Ge, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Application of Size-Controlled Nanocrystalline NaYF4:Yb,Er Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G. S.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Ge, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Application of Size-Controlled Nanocrystalline NaYF4:Yb,Er Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

H. Sun, Z. Duan, G. Zhou, C. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Ch. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Structural and up-conversion luminescence properties in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped heavy metal oxide–halide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 63(1), 149–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Sun, Z. Duan, G. Zhou, C. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Ch. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Structural and up-conversion luminescence properties in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped heavy metal oxide–halide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 63(1), 149–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. G.

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Bright white upconversion luminescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

S. Xu, H. Ma, D. Fang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion luminescence and mechanisms in Yb3+-sensitized Tm3+-doped oxyhalide tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 117(2), 135–140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. G.

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Bright white upconversion luminescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S. Y.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Ge, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Application of Size-Controlled Nanocrystalline NaYF4:Yb,Er Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

H. Sun, Z. Duan, G. Zhou, C. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Ch. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Structural and up-conversion luminescence properties in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped heavy metal oxide–halide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 63(1), 149–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.

J. Suh, M. Dawson, and J. Hanes, “Real-time multiple-particle tracking: applications to drug and gene delivery,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 63–78 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Bright white upconversion luminescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Jezowski, J. Mucha, R. Pazik, and W. Strek, “Influence of crystallite size on the thermal conductivity in BaTiO3 nanoceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 114104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. Y. Jeon, and J. S. Lee, “Tunable full-color-emitting La0.827Al11.9O19.09:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor for application to warm white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araujo, P. T. Udo, N. G. C. Astrath, and M. L. Baesso, “Pump-power-controlled luminescence switching in Yb3+/Tm3+ codoped water-free low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and M. J. V. Bell, “Thermal lens study of the OH? in?uence on the ?uorescence ef?ciency of Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Mater. Sci.

P. Ghosh, S. Sadhu, T. Sen, and A. Patra, “Upconversion emission of BaTiO3:Er nanocrystals,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 31(3), 461–465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

A. Patra, C. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Fluorescence Upconversion Properties of Er3+-Doped TiO2 and BaTiO3 Nanocrystallites,” Chem. Mater. 15(19), 3650–3655 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Parasitol.

D. B. Keeney, C. Lagrue, K. Bryan-Walker, N. Khan, T. L. F. Leung, and R. Poulin, “The use of fluorescent fatty acid analogs as labels in trematode experimental infections,” Exp. Parasitol. 120, 15–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys.

W. F. Krupke and J. M. Poindexter, “Energy Levels of Er 3+ in LaF3 and Coherent Emission at 1.61 mu,” J. Chem. Phys. 41(5), 1225 (1964).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Dexter, “Theory of Concentration Quenching in Inorganic Phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Electroceram.

Y. Tsur, T. D. Dunbar, and C. A. Randall, “Crystal and Defect Chemistry of Rare Earth Cations in BaTiO3,” J. Electroceram. 7(1), 25–34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

V. Sivakumar and U. V. Varadaraju, “Intense Red-Emitting Phosphors for White Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(10), H168–H171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

S. Xu, H. Ma, D. Fang, Z. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Upconversion luminescence and mechanisms in Yb3+-sensitized Tm3+-doped oxyhalide tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 117(2), 135–140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. O. Gordon, J. A. Carter, and B. M. Tissue, “Long-lifetime luminescence of lanthanide-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles for immunoassays,” J. Lumin. 108(1-4), 339–342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17400–17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Saha, P. S. Chowdhury, and A. Patra, “Luminescence of Ce3+ in Y2SiO5 nanocrystals: Role of crystal structure and crystal size,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(7), 2699–2702 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Tanner, C. S. K. Mak, W. M. Kwok, K. L. Phillips, and M. F. Joubert, “Luminesence from the 3P2 State of Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3606–3611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Pisarski, T. Goryczka, J. Pisarska, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Er-doped lead borate glasses and transparent glass ceramics for near-infrared luminescence and up-conversion applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 111(10), 2427–2430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Ge, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Application of Size-Controlled Nanocrystalline NaYF4:Yb,Er Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, “Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(2), 198–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

D. A. Tenne, A. Soukiassian, X. X. Xi, H. Choosuwan, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhalla, “Lattice dynamics in BaxSr1? xTiO3 single crystals: A Raman study,” Phys. Rev. B 70(17), 174302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum ef?ciency and thermo-optical coef?cients: Application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125107 (2006).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Ion.

P. Durán, F. Capel, J. Tartaj, D. Gutierrez, and C. Moure, “Heating-rate effect on the BaTiO3 formation by thermal decomposition of metal citrate polymeric precursors,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 529–539 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta [A]

H. Sun, Z. Duan, G. Zhou, C. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Ch. Yu, M. Liao, L. Hu, J. Zhang, and Z. Jiang, “Structural and up-conversion luminescence properties in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped heavy metal oxide–halide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 63(1), 149–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Martin, V. D. Rodriguez, V. Lavin, and U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, “Infrared, blue and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+–Tm3+-doped fluoroindate glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 55(5), 941–945 (1999).
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Y. S. Li, X. Y. Zhou, and D. Y. Ye, “Molecular beacons: An optimal multifunctional biological probe”, Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. (posted 1 may 2008, in press).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) TEM images of S-YET (Insert: high resolution image), and (b) XRD patterns of S-YET.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The room temperature UC fluorescence spectra of BaTiO3 nanoparticles under excitation of a 980 nm LD (a) S-YE, (b) S-YT, (c) S-YET. The inset is digital image of white light luminescence of S-YET at the excitation power of 115 mW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The simplified energy level diagram of Er3+, Tm3+ and Yb3+ ions and the possible excitation and emission UC mechanisms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence decays of 795 nm emission of (a) 3H4 level of Tm3+, and (b) 4I9/2 (Er) or 3H4 (Tm) level, (c) 4I9/2 level of Er3+.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The shape variation of blue emission band with increasing the excitation power, and (b) the excitation power dependence of the blue radiation of S-YET and S-YT.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The excitation power dependence of green and red emissions of (a) S-YE and (b) S-YET, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The fD(E) of transition 4I9/24I15/2 and FA(E) of transition 4I11/24F5/2, and (b) The fD(E) of transition 4I9/24I15/2 and FA(E) of transition 4I11/24F5/2 with compensation of 515 cm−1 phonon of BaTiO3 lattice.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The average lifetimes (τ) obtained from fitting procedure.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(t)=A1exp(tτ1)+A2exp(tτ2)
τeff=[0I(t)dt]/I(0)
H34I49/2F45/2ETETH36I415/2I411/2(Tm)(Er)(Er)
P(R,τD)QARbτDfD(E)FA(E)EcdE

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