Abstract

A high speed physical random bit generator is applied for the first time to a gigahertz clocked quantum key distribution system. Random phase-modulation in a differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution (DPS-QKD) system is performed using a 1-Gbps random bit signal which is generated by a physical random bit generator with chaotic semiconductor lasers. Stable operation is demonstrated for over one hour, and sifted keys are successfully generated at a rate of 9.0 kbps with a quantum bit error rate of 3.2% after 25-km fiber transmission.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (5)

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Tokunaga, D. Blaauw, and T. Mudge, "True random number generator with a metastability-based quality control," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 78-85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "A high speed, post-processing free, quantum random number generator," Appl. Phys. Letts. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Tanaka, M. Fujiwara, S. W. Nam, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, W. Maeda, K. Yoshino, S. Miki, B. Baek, Z. Wang, A. Tajima, M. Sasaki, and A. Tomita, "Ultra fast quantum key distribution over a 97 km installed telecom fiber with wavelength division multiplexing clock synchronization," Opt. Express 16, 11354-11360 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

T. Honjo, S. Yamamoto, T. Yamamoto, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, "Field trial of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using polarization independent frequency up-conversion detectors," Opt. Express 15, 15920-15927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Curty, L. L. X. Zhang, H. K. Lo, and N. Lutkenhaus, "Sequential attacks against differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with weak coherent states," Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 665-688 (2007).

T. Tsurumaru, "Sequential attack with intensity modulation on the differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution protocol," Phys. Rev. A 75, 062319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks," Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment with low jitter up-conversion detectors," Opt. Express 14, 13073-13082 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanouvo, "A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a Smart Card IC," IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403-409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, and A. B. Dowlatabadi, "An integrated analog/digital random noise source," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 44, 521-528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amano, K.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

Baek, B.

Blaauw, D.

C. Tokunaga, D. Blaauw, and T. Mudge, "True random number generator with a metastability-based quality control," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 78-85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bucci, M.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanouvo, "A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a Smart Card IC," IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403-409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Connelly, J. A.

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, and A. B. Dowlatabadi, "An integrated analog/digital random noise source," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 44, 521-528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curty, M.

M. Curty, L. L. X. Zhang, H. K. Lo, and N. Lutkenhaus, "Sequential attacks against differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with weak coherent states," Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 665-688 (2007).

Davis, P.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

Dixon, A. R.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dowlatabadi, A. B.

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, and A. B. Dowlatabadi, "An integrated analog/digital random noise source," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 44, 521-528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "A high speed, post-processing free, quantum random number generator," Appl. Phys. Letts. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fujiwara, M.

Germani, L.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanouvo, "A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a Smart Card IC," IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403-409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, K.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holman, W. T.

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, and A. B. Dowlatabadi, "An integrated analog/digital random noise source," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., I: Fundam. Theory Appl. 44, 521-528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

Inoue, K.

Inoue, M.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kamada, H.

Krainer, L.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurashige, T.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

Lo, H. K.

M. Curty, L. L. X. Zhang, H. K. Lo, and N. Lutkenhaus, "Sequential attacks against differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with weak coherent states," Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 665-688 (2007).

Lutkenhaus, N.

M. Curty, L. L. X. Zhang, H. K. Lo, and N. Lutkenhaus, "Sequential attacks against differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with weak coherent states," Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 665-688 (2007).

Luzzi, R.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanouvo, "A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a Smart Card IC," IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403-409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, W.

Miki, S.

Mudge, T.

C. Tokunaga, D. Blaauw, and T. Mudge, "True random number generator with a metastability-based quality control," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 78-85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Naito, S.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

Nambu, Y.

Nishida, Y.

Oowada, I.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rech, I.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Sharpe, A. W.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "A high speed, post-processing free, quantum random number generator," Appl. Phys. Letts. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "A high speed, post-processing free, quantum random number generator," Appl. Phys. Letts. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shiki, M.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Someya, H.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

Tajima, A.

Takahashi, H.

Takahashi, S.

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment with low jitter up-conversion detectors," Opt. Express 14, 13073-13082 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks," Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, A.

Tanzilli, S.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thew, R. T.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74,145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tokunaga, C.

C. Tokunaga, D. Blaauw, and T. Mudge, "True random number generator with a metastability-based quality control," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 78-85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

Trifiletti, A.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanouvo, "A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a Smart Card IC," IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403-409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsurumaru, T.

T. Tsurumaru, "Sequential attack with intensity modulation on the differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution protocol," Phys. Rev. A 75, 062319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, A.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Varanouvo, M.

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, and M. Varanouvo, "A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a Smart Card IC," IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403-409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Waks, E.

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks," Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Yamamoto, S.

Yamamoto, T.

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment with low jitter up-conversion detectors," Opt. Express 14, 13073-13082 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks," Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimori, S.

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A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Yuan, Z. L.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "A high speed, post-processing free, quantum random number generator," Appl. Phys. Letts. 93, 031109 (2008).
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R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
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M. Curty, L. L. X. Zhang, H. K. Lo, and N. Lutkenhaus, "Sequential attacks against differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with weak coherent states," Quantum Inf. Comput. 7, 665-688 (2007).

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H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
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Appl. Phys. Letts. (1)

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "A high speed, post-processing free, quantum random number generator," Appl. Phys. Letts. 93, 031109 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of differential-phase-shift QKD. LD, laser diode; IM, intensity modulator; PM, phase modulator; ATT, attenuator; MZI, Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of physical random bit generator with two chaotic lasers: LD, laser diode; FC, fiber coupler; VR, variable reflector; VA, variable attenuator; PD, photo diode; Amp, Amplifier; Synth, Synthesizer; ADC, analog-digital converter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup: LD, laser diode; IM, intensity modulator; PG, pulse generator; PM, phase modulator; ATT, attenuator; PLC-MZI, planar lightwave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer; Synth, synthesizer; CD, clock divider; RBG, random bit generator; PD, photo diode; TIA, time interval analyzer; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental results of quantum bit error rate (QBER) and sifted key generation rate.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental result of occurrences of “1” bits for the fast physical random bit generator used in the QKD experiment.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Results of NIST Special Publication 800-22 statistical tests. For “Success” using 1000 samples of 1 Mbit data and significance level α = 0.01, the P-value (uniformity of p-values) should be larger than 0.0001 and the proportion should be in the range of 0.99 ± 0.0094392. For the tests which produce multiple P-values and proportions, the worst case is shown.

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