Abstract

The ensemble of lower orders produced in high order harmonic generation can be efficiently temporally separated by propagation in a fluoride window while still preserving their femtosecond pulse duration. We present calculations for MgF2, CaF2, and LiF windows for the third, fifth, and seventh harmonics of 800 nm. We use this simple and inexpensive technique in a pump/probe experiment to resolve femtosecond dynamics in the ethylene molecule.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics," Science 317, 1374-1378 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Seres and C. Spielmann, "Ultrafast soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy with sub-20-fs resolution," App. Phys. Lett. 91, 121919 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Kosma, S. A. Trushin, W. Fuss, and W. E. Schmid, "Ultrafast dynamics and coherent oscillations in ethylene and ethylene-d4 excited at 162 nm," J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 7514-7529 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. D. Koralek, J. F. Douglas, N. C. Plumb, J. D. Griffith, S. T. Cundiff, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. S. Dessau, "Experimental setup for low-energy laser based angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053905 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Pied Publications, 1967).
  7. P. LaPorte, J. L. Subtil, M. Courbon, M. Bon, and L. Vincent, "Vacuum-ultraviolet refractive index of lif and mgf2 in the temperature range 80-300 k," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1062-1069 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Daimon and A. Masumura, "High-accuracy measurements of the refractive index and its temperature coefficient of calcium fluoride in a wide wavelength range from 138 to 2326 nm," Appl. Opt. 41, 5275-5281 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Sekikawa, T. Katsura, S. Miura, and S. Watanabe, "Measurement of the intensity-dependent atomic dipole phase of a high harmonic by frequency-resolved optical gating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 193902 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, "Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 32, 2973-2989 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Takahashi, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "High-throughput, high-damage-threshold broadband beam splitter for high-order harmonics in the extreme-ultraviolet region," Opt. Lett. 29, 507-509 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. G. Wilkinson and R. S. Mulliken, "Far ultraviolet absorption spectra of ethylene and ethylene-d4," J. Chem. Phys. 23, 1895-1907 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Stert, H. Lippert, H.-H. Ritze, and W. Radloff, "Femtosecond time-resolved dynamics of the electronically excited ethylene molecule," Chem. Phys. Lett. 388, 144-149 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Barbatti, G. Granucci, M. Persico, and H. Lischka, "Semiempirical molecular dynamics investigation of the excited state lifetimes of ethylene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 401, 276-281 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. E. Glover, A. H. Chin, and R. W. Shoenlein, "High harmonic pulse broadening in an ionizing medium," Phys. Rev. A 63, 023403 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, R. L’opez-Martens, K. Varj’u, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, "Measurement and control of the frequency chirp rate of high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. A 70, 021801 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Gustafsson, T. Ruchon, M. Swoboda, T. Remetter, E. Pourtal, R. L’opez-Martens, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, "Broadband attosecond pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 32, 1353-1355 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Sekikawa, T. Ohno, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "Pulse compression of a high-order harmonic by compensating the atomic dipole phase," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2564 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, T. Shimizu, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Attosecond molecular coulomb explosion," Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 68-73 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008

K. Kosma, S. A. Trushin, W. Fuss, and W. E. Schmid, "Ultrafast dynamics and coherent oscillations in ethylene and ethylene-d4 excited at 162 nm," J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 7514-7529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. D. Koralek, J. F. Douglas, N. C. Plumb, J. D. Griffith, S. T. Cundiff, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. S. Dessau, "Experimental setup for low-energy laser based angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics," Science 317, 1374-1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, "Ultrafast soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy with sub-20-fs resolution," App. Phys. Lett. 91, 121919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Gustafsson, T. Ruchon, M. Swoboda, T. Remetter, E. Pourtal, R. L’opez-Martens, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, "Broadband attosecond pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 32, 1353-1355 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, T. Shimizu, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Attosecond molecular coulomb explosion," Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 68-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

E. Takahashi, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "High-throughput, high-damage-threshold broadband beam splitter for high-order harmonics in the extreme-ultraviolet region," Opt. Lett. 29, 507-509 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Stert, H. Lippert, H.-H. Ritze, and W. Radloff, "Femtosecond time-resolved dynamics of the electronically excited ethylene molecule," Chem. Phys. Lett. 388, 144-149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Barbatti, G. Granucci, M. Persico, and H. Lischka, "Semiempirical molecular dynamics investigation of the excited state lifetimes of ethylene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 401, 276-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, R. L’opez-Martens, K. Varj’u, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, "Measurement and control of the frequency chirp rate of high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. A 70, 021801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Daimon and A. Masumura, "High-accuracy measurements of the refractive index and its temperature coefficient of calcium fluoride in a wide wavelength range from 138 to 2326 nm," Appl. Opt. 41, 5275-5281 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sekikawa, T. Katsura, S. Miura, and S. Watanabe, "Measurement of the intensity-dependent atomic dipole phase of a high harmonic by frequency-resolved optical gating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 193902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

T. E. Glover, A. H. Chin, and R. W. Shoenlein, "High harmonic pulse broadening in an ionizing medium," Phys. Rev. A 63, 023403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, "Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 32, 2973-2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekikawa, T. Ohno, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "Pulse compression of a high-order harmonic by compensating the atomic dipole phase," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1983

1955

P. G. Wilkinson and R. S. Mulliken, "Far ultraviolet absorption spectra of ethylene and ethylene-d4," J. Chem. Phys. 23, 1895-1907 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, P.

P. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, "Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 32, 2973-2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbatti, M.

M. Barbatti, G. Granucci, M. Persico, and H. Lischka, "Semiempirical molecular dynamics investigation of the excited state lifetimes of ethylene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 401, 276-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bon, M.

Charalambidis, D.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, A. H.

T. E. Glover, A. H. Chin, and R. W. Shoenlein, "High harmonic pulse broadening in an ionizing medium," Phys. Rev. A 63, 023403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cocke, C. L.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics," Science 317, 1374-1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courbon, M.

Cundiff, S. T.

J. D. Koralek, J. F. Douglas, N. C. Plumb, J. D. Griffith, S. T. Cundiff, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. S. Dessau, "Experimental setup for low-energy laser based angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daimon, M.

Dederichs, A. S.

P. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, "Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 32, 2973-2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dessau, D. S.

J. D. Koralek, J. F. Douglas, N. C. Plumb, J. D. Griffith, S. T. Cundiff, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. S. Dessau, "Experimental setup for low-energy laser based angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douglas, J. F.

J. D. Koralek, J. F. Douglas, N. C. Plumb, J. D. Griffith, S. T. Cundiff, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. S. Dessau, "Experimental setup for low-energy laser based angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furusawa, K.

T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, T. Shimizu, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Attosecond molecular coulomb explosion," Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 68-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuss, W.

K. Kosma, S. A. Trushin, W. Fuss, and W. E. Schmid, "Ultrafast dynamics and coherent oscillations in ethylene and ethylene-d4 excited at 162 nm," J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 7514-7529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

P. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, "Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 32, 2973-2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, E.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics," Science 317, 1374-1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glover, T. E.

T. E. Glover, A. H. Chin, and R. W. Shoenlein, "High harmonic pulse broadening in an ionizing medium," Phys. Rev. A 63, 023403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Granucci, G.

M. Barbatti, G. Granucci, M. Persico, and H. Lischka, "Semiempirical molecular dynamics investigation of the excited state lifetimes of ethylene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 401, 276-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Griffith, J. D.

J. D. Koralek, J. F. Douglas, N. C. Plumb, J. D. Griffith, S. T. Cundiff, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. S. Dessau, "Experimental setup for low-energy laser based angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafsson, E.

Hasegawa, H.

T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, T. Shimizu, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Attosecond molecular coulomb explosion," Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 68-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Takahashi, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "High-throughput, high-damage-threshold broadband beam splitter for high-order harmonics in the extreme-ultraviolet region," Opt. Lett. 29, 507-509 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnsson, P.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, R. L’opez-Martens, K. Varj’u, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, "Measurement and control of the frequency chirp rate of high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. A 70, 021801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics," Science 317, 1374-1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Koralek, J. F. Douglas, N. C. Plumb, J. D. Griffith, S. T. Cundiff, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. S. Dessau, "Experimental setup for low-energy laser based angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katsura, T.

T. Sekikawa, T. Katsura, S. Miura, and S. Watanabe, "Measurement of the intensity-dependent atomic dipole phase of a high harmonic by frequency-resolved optical gating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 193902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koralek, J. D.

J. D. Koralek, J. F. Douglas, N. C. Plumb, J. D. Griffith, S. T. Cundiff, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. S. Dessau, "Experimental setup for low-energy laser based angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosma, K.

K. Kosma, S. A. Trushin, W. Fuss, and W. E. Schmid, "Ultrafast dynamics and coherent oscillations in ethylene and ethylene-d4 excited at 162 nm," J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 7514-7529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

P. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, "Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 32, 2973-2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

LaPorte, P.

Lippert, H.

V. Stert, H. Lippert, H.-H. Ritze, and W. Radloff, "Femtosecond time-resolved dynamics of the electronically excited ethylene molecule," Chem. Phys. Lett. 388, 144-149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lischka, H.

M. Barbatti, G. Granucci, M. Persico, and H. Lischka, "Semiempirical molecular dynamics investigation of the excited state lifetimes of ethylene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 401, 276-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Masumura, A.

Mauritsson, J.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, R. L’opez-Martens, K. Varj’u, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, "Measurement and control of the frequency chirp rate of high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. A 70, 021801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, T. Shimizu, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Attosecond molecular coulomb explosion," Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 68-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Takahashi, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "High-throughput, high-damage-threshold broadband beam splitter for high-order harmonics in the extreme-ultraviolet region," Opt. Lett. 29, 507-509 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, S.

T. Sekikawa, T. Katsura, S. Miura, and S. Watanabe, "Measurement of the intensity-dependent atomic dipole phase of a high harmonic by frequency-resolved optical gating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 193902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulliken, R. S.

P. G. Wilkinson and R. S. Mulliken, "Far ultraviolet absorption spectra of ethylene and ethylene-d4," J. Chem. Phys. 23, 1895-1907 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

J. D. Koralek, J. F. Douglas, N. C. Plumb, J. D. Griffith, S. T. Cundiff, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. S. Dessau, "Experimental setup for low-energy laser based angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics," Science 317, 1374-1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, T. Shimizu, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Attosecond molecular coulomb explosion," Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 68-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Takahashi, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "High-throughput, high-damage-threshold broadband beam splitter for high-order harmonics in the extreme-ultraviolet region," Opt. Lett. 29, 507-509 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sekikawa, T. Ohno, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "Pulse compression of a high-order harmonic by compensating the atomic dipole phase," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, T.

T. Sekikawa, T. Ohno, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "Pulse compression of a high-order harmonic by compensating the atomic dipole phase," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okino, T.

T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, T. Shimizu, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Attosecond molecular coulomb explosion," Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 68-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Papadogiannis, N. A.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persico, M.

M. Barbatti, G. Granucci, M. Persico, and H. Lischka, "Semiempirical molecular dynamics investigation of the excited state lifetimes of ethylene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 401, 276-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Plumb, N. C.

J. D. Koralek, J. F. Douglas, N. C. Plumb, J. D. Griffith, S. T. Cundiff, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. S. Dessau, "Experimental setup for low-energy laser based angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pourtal, E.

Radloff, W.

V. Stert, H. Lippert, H.-H. Ritze, and W. Radloff, "Femtosecond time-resolved dynamics of the electronically excited ethylene molecule," Chem. Phys. Lett. 388, 144-149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ranitovic, P.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics," Science 317, 1374-1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remetter, T.

Ritze, H.-H.

V. Stert, H. Lippert, H.-H. Ritze, and W. Radloff, "Femtosecond time-resolved dynamics of the electronically excited ethylene molecule," Chem. Phys. Lett. 388, 144-149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruchon, T.

Sandhu, A. S.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics," Science 317, 1374-1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, W. E.

K. Kosma, S. A. Trushin, W. Fuss, and W. E. Schmid, "Ultrafast dynamics and coherent oscillations in ethylene and ethylene-d4 excited at 162 nm," J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 7514-7529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekikawa, T.

T. Sekikawa, T. Katsura, S. Miura, and S. Watanabe, "Measurement of the intensity-dependent atomic dipole phase of a high harmonic by frequency-resolved optical gating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 193902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sekikawa, T. Ohno, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "Pulse compression of a high-order harmonic by compensating the atomic dipole phase," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seres, E.

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, "Ultrafast soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy with sub-20-fs resolution," App. Phys. Lett. 91, 121919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, T. Shimizu, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Attosecond molecular coulomb explosion," Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 68-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shoenlein, R. W.

T. E. Glover, A. H. Chin, and R. W. Shoenlein, "High harmonic pulse broadening in an ionizing medium," Phys. Rev. A 63, 023403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, "Ultrafast soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy with sub-20-fs resolution," App. Phys. Lett. 91, 121919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stert, V.

V. Stert, H. Lippert, H.-H. Ritze, and W. Radloff, "Femtosecond time-resolved dynamics of the electronically excited ethylene molecule," Chem. Phys. Lett. 388, 144-149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Subtil, J. L.

Swoboda, M.

Takahashi, E.

Tong, X.-M.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics," Science 317, 1374-1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trushin, S. A.

K. Kosma, S. A. Trushin, W. Fuss, and W. E. Schmid, "Ultrafast dynamics and coherent oscillations in ethylene and ethylene-d4 excited at 162 nm," J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 7514-7529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsakiris, G. D.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzallas, P.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincent, L.

Watanabe, S.

T. Sekikawa, T. Katsura, S. Miura, and S. Watanabe, "Measurement of the intensity-dependent atomic dipole phase of a high harmonic by frequency-resolved optical gating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 193902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sekikawa, T. Ohno, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "Pulse compression of a high-order harmonic by compensating the atomic dipole phase," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Westerwalbesloh, T.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, P. G.

P. G. Wilkinson and R. S. Mulliken, "Far ultraviolet absorption spectra of ethylene and ethylene-d4," J. Chem. Phys. 23, 1895-1907 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Witte, K.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanouchi, K.

T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, T. Shimizu, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Attosecond molecular coulomb explosion," Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 68-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, T.

T. Sekikawa, T. Ohno, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "Pulse compression of a high-order harmonic by compensating the atomic dipole phase," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett.

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, "Ultrafast soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy with sub-20-fs resolution," App. Phys. Lett. 91, 121919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Phys. Lett.

V. Stert, H. Lippert, H.-H. Ritze, and W. Radloff, "Femtosecond time-resolved dynamics of the electronically excited ethylene molecule," Chem. Phys. Lett. 388, 144-149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Barbatti, G. Granucci, M. Persico, and H. Lischka, "Semiempirical molecular dynamics investigation of the excited state lifetimes of ethylene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 401, 276-281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, T. Shimizu, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Attosecond molecular coulomb explosion," Chem. Phys. Lett. 432, 68-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

P. G. Wilkinson and R. S. Mulliken, "Far ultraviolet absorption spectra of ethylene and ethylene-d4," J. Chem. Phys. 23, 1895-1907 (1955).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. B

P. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L’Huillier, "Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 32, 2973-2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

K. Kosma, S. A. Trushin, W. Fuss, and W. E. Schmid, "Ultrafast dynamics and coherent oscillations in ethylene and ethylene-d4 excited at 162 nm," J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 7514-7529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

T. E. Glover, A. H. Chin, and R. W. Shoenlein, "High harmonic pulse broadening in an ionizing medium," Phys. Rev. A 63, 023403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, R. L’opez-Martens, K. Varj’u, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, "Measurement and control of the frequency chirp rate of high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. A 70, 021801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Sekikawa, T. Katsura, S. Miura, and S. Watanabe, "Measurement of the intensity-dependent atomic dipole phase of a high harmonic by frequency-resolved optical gating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 193902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sekikawa, T. Ohno, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "Pulse compression of a high-order harmonic by compensating the atomic dipole phase," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. D. Koralek, J. F. Douglas, N. C. Plumb, J. D. Griffith, S. T. Cundiff, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. S. Dessau, "Experimental setup for low-energy laser based angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, "Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics," Science 317, 1374-1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Pied Publications, 1967).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Red, blue, and green curves (left vertical scale): Fifth harmonic pulselength vs. propagation distance in MgF2 (ordinary index of refraction). Solid curves are for chirped input pulses with β = -3 × 1027 rad/s2. Dashed curves are for transform limited input pulses with β = 0. The dot-dashed black line (right vertical scale) shows the separation between the fifth and third harmonics.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Ion yields for C2H4 + and C2H2 + vs. delay between 810 nm probe pulse and 162 nm pump. Negative delay means IR probe is early. Shift between C2H4 + and C2H2 + peaks is due to molecular rearrangement and internal conversion in the ethylene V state.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transient multiphoton ionization signals produced by the cross correlation of the harmonic beam after propagating through a 2.1 mm thick MgF2 window and an 810 nm probe beam. Pulses in theory curve are scaled as they broaden to conserve area.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Index of refraction, group delay, and group delay dispersion, for the harmonics of 800 nm in fluoride windows. MgF2 results are for the ordinary index of refraction.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E(t)=E0exp[2ln2(tτ0)2+t2]exp(iωt),
τ(L)=τ0[(1+2k″)2+(4ln(2)kLτ02)2]1/2.

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