Abstract

We propose a Doppler optical micro-angiography (DOMAG) method to image flow velocities of the blood flowing in functional vessels within microcirculatory tissue beds in vivo. The method takes the advantages of recently developed optical micro-angiography (OMAG) technology, in which the endogenous optical signals backscattered from the moving blood cells are isolated from those originated from the tissue background, i.e., the tissue microstructures. The phase difference between adjacent A scans of OMAG flow signals is used to evaluate the flow velocity, similar to phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography (PRDOCT). To meet the requirement of correlation between adjacent A scans in using the phase resolved technique to evaluate flow velocity, an ideal tissue-sample background (i.e., optically homogeneous tissue sample) is digitally reconstructed to replace the signals that represent the heterogeneous features of the static sample that are rejected in the OMAG flow images. Because of the ideal optical-homogeneous sample, DOMAG is free from the characteristic texture pattern noise due to the heterogeneous property of sample, leading to dramatic improvement of the imaging performance. A series of phantom flow experiments are performed to evaluate quantitatively the improved imaging performance. We then conduct in vivo experiments on a mouse brain to demonstrate that DOMAG is capable of quantifying the flow velocities within cerebrovascular network, down to capillary level resolution. Finally, we compare the in vivo imaging performance of DOMAG with that of PRDOCT, and show that DOMAG delivers at least 15-fold increase over the PRDOCT method in terms of the lower limit of flow velocity that can be detected.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. R. K. Wang, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography achieves full range complex imaging in vivo by introducing a carrier frequency during scanning,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(19), 5897–5907 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3423–3425 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three Dimensional Optical Angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  25. R. K. Wang, “Three dimensional optical angiography maps directional blood perfusion deep within microcirculation tissue beds in vivo,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(531–N), 537 (2007).
  26. L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9480–9491 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis. ISBN number: 0819464333. SPIE (2007)
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (7)

2006 (4)

2005 (4)

2004 (2)

2003 (5)

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence radar and Spectral radar- new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Akkin, T.

An, L.

Bachmann, A. H.

Bajraszewski, T.

Berisha, F.

Blatter, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chan, R. C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z. P.

Choma, M. A.

Cobb, M. J.

de Boer, J. F.

Ding, Z. H.

Drexler, W.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, A.

Hanson, S. R.

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence radar and Spectral radar- new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hong, Y.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hurst, S.

Izatt, J. A.

Jacques, S. L.

Joo, C.

Kowalczyk, A.

Lasser, T.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15, 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography – principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, X.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence radar and Spectral radar- new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

Ma, Z. H.

MacDonald, D. J.

Makita, S.

Malekafzali, A.

Milner, T. E.

Mujat, M.

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Ren, H. W.

Sarunic, M. V.

Schmetterer, L.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Srinivas, S.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Tearney, G. J.

Tomlins, P. H.

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, development and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Villiger, M. L.

Wang, R. K.

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, “Three dimensional optical angiography maps directional blood perfusion deep within microcirculation tissue beds in vivo,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(531–N), 537 (2007).

R. K. Wang and S. Hurst, “Mapping of cerebro-vascular blood perfusion in mice with skin and skull intact by Optical Micro-AngioGraphy at 1.3 ?m wavelength,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11402–11412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3423–3425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three Dimensional Optical Angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, “In vivo full rang complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 054103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography achieves full range complex imaging in vivo by introducing a carrier frequency during scanning,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(19), 5897–5907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang and Z. H. Ma, “Real-time flow imaging by removing texture pattern artifacts in spectral-domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 3001–3003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, development and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

White, B. R.

Wojtkowski, M.

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C. H.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, J.

Zhao, Y. H.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. K. Wang, “In vivo full rang complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 054103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence radar and Spectral radar- new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, “Theory, development and applications of optical coherence tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2519–2535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (15)

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 889–894 (2003).

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 3116–3121 (2003).

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, and N. Nassif, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 3490–3497 (2003).

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5483–5492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and Z. P. Chen, “In vivo blood flow imaging by a swept laser source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7449–7459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9480–9491 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and X. Li, “Clutter rejection filters for optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6103–6112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15, 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three Dimensional Optical Angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang and S. Hurst, “Mapping of cerebro-vascular blood perfusion in mice with skin and skull intact by Optical Micro-AngioGraphy at 1.3 ?m wavelength,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11402–11412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

R. K. Wang, “Fourier domain optical coherence tomography achieves full range complex imaging in vivo by introducing a carrier frequency during scanning,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(19), 5897–5907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, “Three dimensional optical angiography maps directional blood perfusion deep within microcirculation tissue beds in vivo,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(531–N), 537 (2007).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography – principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(2), 239–303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis. ISBN number: 0819464333. SPIE (2007)

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