Abstract

The characteristics of THz pulse radiation from argon clusters irradiated with intense femtosecond laser pulses have been investigated. The average power of the THz pulses radiated from argon clusters is ~40 times greater than that from argon gas. The enhancement of the THz radiation originates from large laser absorption by the clusters. The polarization state and the angular distribution of the power of the THz pulses show no dependence on laser polarization, which suggests that the radiation originates from laser-induced charge separation along the laser propagation direction.

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References

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  1. M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 349–368 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, and R. W. Falcone, “Short-pulse terahertz radiation from high-intensity-laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(1), 671–677 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Löffler, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, “Generation of terahertz pulses by photoionization of electrically biased air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(3), 453–455 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1210–1212 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251116 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond time-resolved studies of the dynamics of noble-gas cluster explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59(5), R3166–R3169 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Sakabe, K. Shirai, M. Hashida, S. Shimizu, and S. Masuno, “Skinning of argon clusters by Coulomb explosion induced with an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 043205 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Hirokane, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, S. Okada, S. Okihara, F. Sato, T. Iida, and S. Sakabe, “Energy distributions of ions emitted from argon clusters Coulomb-exploded by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063201 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Tokita, M. Hashida, S. Masuno, S. Namba, and S. Sakabe, “0.3% energy stability, 100-millijoule-class, Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse eight-pass amplification system,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14875–14881 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. http://www.bblaser.com/bbl_item/bbli003_thz_lens.html
  13. H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. F. Hagena, “Nucleation and growth of clusters in expanding nozzle flows,” Surf. Sci. 106(1-3), 101–116 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, 1999) 7th ed., Chap. 1.

2008

2007

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Sakabe, K. Shirai, M. Hashida, S. Shimizu, and S. Masuno, “Skinning of argon clusters by Coulomb explosion induced with an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 043205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. Hirokane, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, S. Okada, S. Okihara, F. Sato, T. Iida, and S. Sakabe, “Energy distributions of ions emitted from argon clusters Coulomb-exploded by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Löffler, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, “Generation of terahertz pulses by photoionization of electrically biased air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(3), 453–455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1210–1212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond time-resolved studies of the dynamics of noble-gas cluster explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59(5), R3166–R3169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, and R. W. Falcone, “Short-pulse terahertz radiation from high-intensity-laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(1), 671–677 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

O. F. Hagena, “Nucleation and growth of clusters in expanding nozzle flows,” Surf. Sci. 106(1-3), 101–116 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cook, D. J.

Couairon, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Amico, C.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, J.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditmire, T.

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond time-resolved studies of the dynamics of noble-gas cluster explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59(5), R3166–R3169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, T.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falcone, R. W.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, and R. W. Falcone, “Short-pulse terahertz radiation from high-intensity-laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(1), 671–677 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franco, M.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, S.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, and R. W. Falcone, “Short-pulse terahertz radiation from high-intensity-laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(1), 671–677 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagena, O. F.

O. F. Hagena, “Nucleation and growth of clusters in expanding nozzle flows,” Surf. Sci. 106(1-3), 101–116 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hamster, H.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, and R. W. Falcone, “Short-pulse terahertz radiation from high-intensity-laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(1), 671–677 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashida, M.

S. Tokita, M. Hashida, S. Masuno, S. Namba, and S. Sakabe, “0.3% energy stability, 100-millijoule-class, Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse eight-pass amplification system,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14875–14881 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sakabe, K. Shirai, M. Hashida, S. Shimizu, and S. Masuno, “Skinning of argon clusters by Coulomb explosion induced with an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 043205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hirokane, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, S. Okada, S. Okihara, F. Sato, T. Iida, and S. Sakabe, “Energy distributions of ions emitted from argon clusters Coulomb-exploded by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirokane, M.

M. Hirokane, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, S. Okada, S. Okihara, F. Sato, T. Iida, and S. Sakabe, “Energy distributions of ions emitted from argon clusters Coulomb-exploded by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Houard, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iida, T.

M. Hirokane, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, S. Okada, S. Okihara, F. Sato, T. Iida, and S. Sakabe, “Energy distributions of ions emitted from argon clusters Coulomb-exploded by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, F.

T. Löffler, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, “Generation of terahertz pulses by photoionization of electrically biased air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(3), 453–455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kreß, M.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, “Generation of terahertz pulses by photoionization of electrically biased air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(3), 453–455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Masuno, S.

S. Tokita, M. Hashida, S. Masuno, S. Namba, and S. Sakabe, “0.3% energy stability, 100-millijoule-class, Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse eight-pass amplification system,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14875–14881 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sakabe, K. Shirai, M. Hashida, S. Shimizu, and S. Masuno, “Skinning of argon clusters by Coulomb explosion induced with an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 043205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Namba, S.

Okada, S.

M. Hirokane, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, S. Okada, S. Okihara, F. Sato, T. Iida, and S. Sakabe, “Energy distributions of ions emitted from argon clusters Coulomb-exploded by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okihara, S.

M. Hirokane, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, S. Okada, S. Okihara, F. Sato, T. Iida, and S. Sakabe, “Energy distributions of ions emitted from argon clusters Coulomb-exploded by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond time-resolved studies of the dynamics of noble-gas cluster explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59(5), R3166–R3169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prade, B.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roskos, H. G.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, “Generation of terahertz pulses by photoionization of electrically biased air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(3), 453–455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakabe, S.

S. Tokita, M. Hashida, S. Masuno, S. Namba, and S. Sakabe, “0.3% energy stability, 100-millijoule-class, Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse eight-pass amplification system,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14875–14881 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sakabe, K. Shirai, M. Hashida, S. Shimizu, and S. Masuno, “Skinning of argon clusters by Coulomb explosion induced with an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 043205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hirokane, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, S. Okada, S. Okihara, F. Sato, T. Iida, and S. Sakabe, “Energy distributions of ions emitted from argon clusters Coulomb-exploded by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sato, F.

M. Hirokane, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, S. Okada, S. Okihara, F. Sato, T. Iida, and S. Sakabe, “Energy distributions of ions emitted from argon clusters Coulomb-exploded by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, S.

S. Sakabe, K. Shirai, M. Hashida, S. Shimizu, and S. Masuno, “Skinning of argon clusters by Coulomb explosion induced with an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 043205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hirokane, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, S. Okada, S. Okihara, F. Sato, T. Iida, and S. Sakabe, “Energy distributions of ions emitted from argon clusters Coulomb-exploded by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shirai, K.

S. Sakabe, K. Shirai, M. Hashida, S. Shimizu, and S. Masuno, “Skinning of argon clusters by Coulomb explosion induced with an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 043205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, and R. W. Falcone, “Short-pulse terahertz radiation from high-intensity-laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(1), 671–677 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomson, M. D.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokita, S.

Wang, M.

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, M.

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zweiback, J.

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond time-resolved studies of the dynamics of noble-gas cluster explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59(5), R3166–R3169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Löffler, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, “Generation of terahertz pulses by photoionization of electrically biased air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(3), 453–455 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond time-resolved studies of the dynamics of noble-gas cluster explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59(5), R3166–R3169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakabe, K. Shirai, M. Hashida, S. Shimizu, and S. Masuno, “Skinning of argon clusters by Coulomb explosion induced with an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 043205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hirokane, S. Shimizu, M. Hashida, S. Okada, S. Okihara, F. Sato, T. Iida, and S. Sakabe, “Energy distributions of ions emitted from argon clusters Coulomb-exploded by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(6), 063201 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, and R. W. Falcone, “Short-pulse terahertz radiation from high-intensity-laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(1), 671–677 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Sci.

O. F. Hagena, “Nucleation and growth of clusters in expanding nozzle flows,” Surf. Sci. 106(1-3), 101–116 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, 1999) 7th ed., Chap. 1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of setup with detection systems using (a) EO sampling and (b) a bolometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Waveform of THz pulses radiated in the direction of 45 degrees and (b) their spectra at various backing pressures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular distribution of the average power of the polarized THz pulses radiated from argon cluster targets at a backing pressure of 7 MPa and a laser intensity of 3.2 × 1016 W/cm2. Solid and open circles correspond to the horizontally and vertically polarized THz pulses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Backing pressure dependences of (a) the average THz power radiated in the direction of 45 degrees and (b) the laser absorption fraction at laser intensities of 5.0 × 1016 (solid circles) and 9.9 × 1016 (open circles) W/cm2.

Equations (1)

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N(ω)niκ=1e2neε0mω(ωiγ) ,

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