Abstract

Far-field distributions of GaN-based photonic crystal (PhC) film-transferred light-emitting diodes (FT-LEDs) were investigated. The thickness of the device is about 840 nm. The emission wavelength is around 520 nm. The PhC region is a square lattice with a/λ around 0.5. Angular-resolved measurements in the Γ-X and Γ-M directions were made in the polarized-resolved manner. Guided mode extraction behavior in agreement with the two-dimensional free-photon band calculation was observed. In addition, the pseudo-TM behavior for the non-collinearly coupled modes was observed. The azimuthal-mapping of the angular-resolved spectra revealed the evolution of the collinearly and the non-collinearly coupled modes. Furthermore, the light enhancement of ~2.7x and the collimation angle about 102.3° were achieved.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

C. E. Lee, C. F. Lai, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, "Nitride-Based Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes With Photonic Quasi-Crystal Surface," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 331-333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, Nature Photonics,  3, 163-169 (2009).

2008 (2)

H. K. Cho, S. K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B. C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Laser Liftoff GaN Thin-Film Photonic Crystal GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  20, 2096-2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, H. T. Hsueh, J. -F. T. Wang, and W. Y. Yeh, "Anisotropy of light extraction from GaN two-dimensional photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Opt. Express 16, 7285-7294 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting" J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, "Spontaneous emission in GaN/InGaN photonic crystal nanopillars," Opt. Express 15, 17991-18004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, "Photonic Crystal-Assisted Light Extraction from a Colloidal Quantum Dot/GaN Hybrid Structure," Nano Lett. 6, 1116-1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, and M. G. Craford, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Schad, B. Neubert, C. Eicher, M. Scherer, F. Habel, M, Seyboth, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, P. Unger, W. Schmid, S. Karnutsch, and K. Streubel, "Absorption and light scattering in InGaN-on-sapphire- and AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2323-2332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bae, D. K.

H. K. Cho, S. K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B. C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Laser Liftoff GaN Thin-Film Photonic Crystal GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  20, 2096-2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

Chao, C. H.

Chi, J. Y.

Cho, H. K.

H. K. Cho, S. K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B. C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Laser Liftoff GaN Thin-Film Photonic Crystal GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  20, 2096-2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting" J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, and M. G. Craford, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, Nature Photonics,  3, 163-169 (2009).

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, "Spontaneous emission in GaN/InGaN photonic crystal nanopillars," Opt. Express 15, 17991-18004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, "Photonic Crystal-Assisted Light Extraction from a Colloidal Quantum Dot/GaN Hybrid Structure," Nano Lett. 6, 1116-1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diana, F. S.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, "Photonic Crystal-Assisted Light Extraction from a Colloidal Quantum Dot/GaN Hybrid Structure," Nano Lett. 6, 1116-1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eicher, C.

S. Schad, B. Neubert, C. Eicher, M. Scherer, F. Habel, M, Seyboth, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, P. Unger, W. Schmid, S. Karnutsch, and K. Streubel, "Absorption and light scattering in InGaN-on-sapphire- and AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2323-2332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, and M. G. Craford, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, and M. G. Craford, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Habel, F.

S. Schad, B. Neubert, C. Eicher, M. Scherer, F. Habel, M, Seyboth, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, P. Unger, W. Schmid, S. Karnutsch, and K. Streubel, "Absorption and light scattering in InGaN-on-sapphire- and AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2323-2332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting" J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, H. T.

Kang, B. C.

H. K. Cho, S. K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B. C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Laser Liftoff GaN Thin-Film Photonic Crystal GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  20, 2096-2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

H. K. Cho, S. K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B. C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Laser Liftoff GaN Thin-Film Photonic Crystal GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  20, 2096-2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting" J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, and M. G. Craford, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. E. Lee, C. F. Lai, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, "Nitride-Based Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes With Photonic Quasi-Crystal Surface," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 331-333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, H. T. Hsueh, J. -F. T. Wang, and W. Y. Yeh, "Anisotropy of light extraction from GaN two-dimensional photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Opt. Express 16, 7285-7294 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, C. F.

C. E. Lee, C. F. Lai, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, "Nitride-Based Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes With Photonic Quasi-Crystal Surface," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 331-333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, H. T. Hsueh, J. -F. T. Wang, and W. Y. Yeh, "Anisotropy of light extraction from GaN two-dimensional photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Opt. Express 16, 7285-7294 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. E.

C. E. Lee, C. F. Lai, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, "Nitride-Based Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes With Photonic Quasi-Crystal Surface," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 331-333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

H. K. Cho, S. K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B. C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Laser Liftoff GaN Thin-Film Photonic Crystal GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  20, 2096-2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. C.

C. E. Lee, C. F. Lai, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, "Nitride-Based Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes With Photonic Quasi-Crystal Surface," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 331-333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

H. K. Cho, S. K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B. C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Laser Liftoff GaN Thin-Film Photonic Crystal GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  20, 2096-2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

C. E. Lee, C. F. Lai, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, "Nitride-Based Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes With Photonic Quasi-Crystal Surface," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 331-333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, Nature Photonics,  3, 163-169 (2009).

Meinel, I.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, "Photonic Crystal-Assisted Light Extraction from a Colloidal Quantum Dot/GaN Hybrid Structure," Nano Lett. 6, 1116-1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting" J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting" J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, "Photonic Crystal-Assisted Light Extraction from a Colloidal Quantum Dot/GaN Hybrid Structure," Nano Lett. 6, 1116-1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neubert, B.

S. Schad, B. Neubert, C. Eicher, M. Scherer, F. Habel, M, Seyboth, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, P. Unger, W. Schmid, S. Karnutsch, and K. Streubel, "Absorption and light scattering in InGaN-on-sapphire- and AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2323-2332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, "Photonic Crystal-Assisted Light Extraction from a Colloidal Quantum Dot/GaN Hybrid Structure," Nano Lett. 6, 1116-1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schad, S.

S. Schad, B. Neubert, C. Eicher, M. Scherer, F. Habel, M, Seyboth, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, P. Unger, W. Schmid, S. Karnutsch, and K. Streubel, "Absorption and light scattering in InGaN-on-sapphire- and AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2323-2332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, M.

S. Schad, B. Neubert, C. Eicher, M. Scherer, F. Habel, M, Seyboth, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, P. Unger, W. Schmid, S. Karnutsch, and K. Streubel, "Absorption and light scattering in InGaN-on-sapphire- and AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2323-2332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, "Photonic Crystal-Assisted Light Extraction from a Colloidal Quantum Dot/GaN Hybrid Structure," Nano Lett. 6, 1116-1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting" J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. -F. T.

Wang, S. C.

C. E. Lee, C. F. Lai, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, "Nitride-Based Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes With Photonic Quasi-Crystal Surface," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 331-333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, "Spontaneous emission in GaN/InGaN photonic crystal nanopillars," Opt. Express 15, 17991-18004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, "Photonic Crystal-Assisted Light Extraction from a Colloidal Quantum Dot/GaN Hybrid Structure," Nano Lett. 6, 1116-1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, Nature Photonics,  3, 163-169 (2009).

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, and M. G. Craford, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, W. Y.

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting" J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, and M. G. Craford, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

S. Schad, B. Neubert, C. Eicher, M. Scherer, F. Habel, M, Seyboth, F. Scholz, D. Hofstetter, P. Unger, W. Schmid, S. Karnutsch, and K. Streubel, "Absorption and light scattering in InGaN-on-sapphire- and AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2323-2332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. K. Cho, S. K. Kim, D. K. Bae, B. C. Kang, J. S. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Laser Liftoff GaN Thin-Film Photonic Crystal GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  20, 2096-2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Lee, C. F. Lai, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, "Nitride-Based Thin-Film Light-Emitting Diodes With Photonic Quasi-Crystal Surface," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 331-333 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, "Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting" J. Disp. Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, "Photonic Crystal-Assisted Light Extraction from a Colloidal Quantum Dot/GaN Hybrid Structure," Nano Lett. 6, 1116-1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photonics (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, Nature Photonics,  3, 163-169 (2009).

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T. Ochiai, and K. Sakoda, "Nearly free-photon approximation for two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 64,045108-1-045108-11, (2001).
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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (1991 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (3069 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) TEM micrograph of a GaN PhC FT-LED structure with the etch depth t = 50 nm and GaN cavity thickness T = 840 nm; the inset shown the SEM micrograph of the square lattice PhC with average value of the lattice constant a = 280 nm and the diameter of air holes d = 180 nm patterned with the holographic lithography; (b) the optical micrograph showing the green light distribution across the die operated at low injection current 5 mA ; (c) vertical effective refractive index profile of the characterized the GaN PhC FT-LED.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Light output power-current-voltage (L-I-V) curve and (b) external quantum efficiency characteristics of GaN–based FT-LED with PhC and without PhC.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Angular-resolved spectra taken along (a) Γ-X and (b) Γ-M direction without the polarizer. (c) Shows the multimode dispersion curves determined from the data shown in (a) and (b) and compared with the 2D band diagram calculated in the free photon limit with the average index n GaN = 2.52 shown as dashed lines. The “o” and “x” marks correspond to the calculated A-type and B-type modes from the neff ’s of the multimode propagating in the slab waveguide with the refractive index profile shown in Fig.1(c). Only five of the eight modes are shown. The inset in (c) is the complete free photon band structure with the region (a/λ = 0.5~0.56) studied in the present work surrounded by the box shown.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The polarization angular resolved spectra taken in the (a) Γ-X and (b) Γ-M directions with the polarizer kept at the TE (left) and TM (right) orientations. Electric field distribution for (c) singly and (d) double degenerate modes at G point. Arrows indicate the electric field vectors in the plane.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Media 1) Angular-resolved EL spectrum of the GaN PhC FT-LEDs measures along the (a) Γ-X direction (θ = 0 degree), (b) θ = 10 degree, (c) θ = 20 degree, (d) θ = 30 degree, (e) θ = 40 degree and (f) Γ-M direction (θ = 45 degree).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Azimuthal scan of the light extracted distribution. Part (a) and (b) illustrate the formation of the contours corresponding to the coupling of different neff of the multimodes to the reciprocal wavevectors (a) GΓX and (b) GΓM. The blue dash and blue solid circles indicate the waveguide circle with radius neff ko and the light cone, respectively. The gray square is the reduced Brillouin zone boundary.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(Media 2) The maps are the intensity of the extracted light at the different wavelength around the azimuthal direction with 1 degree resolution. The data are taken from 0 to 45 degree then unfolded to fill the full circle. The wavelength was kept at a constant corresponding to (a) a/λ = 0.509, (b) a/λ = 0.518, (c) a/λ = 0.528, and (d) a/λ = 0.538, respectively. The radius of the plot is the magnitude of the in-plane component.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Top-view 3D far-field pattern of the GaN PhC FT-LED with the square lattice. (b) Angular distribution radiation pattern of the GaN PhC FT-LED with Γ-X and Γ-M direction.

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